<ul><li>REVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>MARKETING MGMT I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights <...
<ul><li>REGULATING PARTICIPATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private clubs: “Truly private” test  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sch...
<ul><li>MARKETING MGMT: GENERAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication b/w org. & consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intell...
<ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul>
<ul><li>WHY TRADEMARK LAW? (POLICY) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect consumers from confusion & deception </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>HOW TO CREATE TRADEMARK RIGHT  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right from use: Under common law  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>DISTINCTIVENESS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be protected by law, a mark must be “distinctive” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>INHERENTLY DISTINCTIVE MARK (OK) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fanciful mark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No meaning at ...
<ul><li>INHERENTLY DISTINCTIVE MARK (OK) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestive mark  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Indirectl...
<ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE MARK (ONLY IF IT HAS 2 nd  MEANING) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes product or service, geographical l...
<ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE MARK (ONLY IF…) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement of secondary meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE MARK (ONLY IF…) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to determine suggestive or descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>GENERIC MARK (NO WAY!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never become TM even if investing $$$ & time  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>LIKELIHOOD OF CONFUSION CLAIM UNDER LANHAM ACT 43(a) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>False designation of origin in connecti...
<ul><li>LIKELIHOOD OF CONFUSION: FACTORS CONSIDERED BY COURT  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of plaintiff’s mark </li></ul...
<ul><li>LIKELIHOOD OF CONFUSION: FACTORS CONSIDERED BY COURT  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity of marketing channels </li>...
<ul><li>Univ. OF Georgia V. LAITE  </li></ul>
<ul><li>REMEDY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injunction: May not use the mark anymore  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary recover...
<ul><li>SUBJECT MATTER: EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literary works (e.g., SI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical works ...
<ul><li>PURPOSE OF COPYRIGHTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two competing interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giving limited ...
<ul><li>REQUIREMENTS (ORIGINALITY + FIXATION) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originality: Must have minimal originality  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>NBA V. MOTOROLA  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fact: Pager displays NBA games in progress (recorded game facts & transmit ...
<ul><li>TRADEMARKS: CREATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherently distinctive marks (OK) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fancif...
<ul><li>TRADEMARKS: INFRINGEMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lanham Act 43(a): No false designation of origin </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>COPYRIGHTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of copyright (2 requirements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originality...
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Wk5 2 mktg1

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Wk5 2 mktg1

  1. 1. <ul><li>REVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>MARKETING MGMT I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WRAP-UP </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>REGULATING PARTICIPATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private clubs: “Truly private” test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools: Must comply Title IX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug testing: 4 th AM search & seizure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only state actors are subject to 4 th Amendment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NCAA may be conduct drug testing without considering 4 th AM challenge </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>MARKETING MGMT: GENERAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication b/w org. & consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property law: For intangible values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade secret </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right of publicity* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfair trade practice law (FTC & states)* </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>WHY TRADEMARK LAW? (POLICY) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect consumers from confusion & deception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To encourage consistent product & service quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect owners’ property rights </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>HOW TO CREATE TRADEMARK RIGHT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right from use: Under common law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in commerce to identify a product or service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only within a limited geographical area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different from right under Lanham Act (below) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right from registration: Under Lanham Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File TM registration with USPTO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can maintain enhanced TM rights (e.g., nationwide TM right) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>DISTINCTIVENESS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be protected by law, a mark must be “distinctive” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 levels of marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inherently distinctive marks (OK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive marks (OK only if it has 2 nd meaning) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generic marks (Never become TM) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>INHERENTLY DISTINCTIVE MARK (OK) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fanciful mark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No meaning at all by itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: “Xerox,” “Google,” “Pro V1” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary mark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a meaning but not describing the product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: “BGSU Falcons,” “New York Yankees,” “Blue Diamonds (nuts)” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>INHERENTLY DISTINCTIVE MARK (OK) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestive mark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Indirectly” describes product at issue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer must engage in mental process in order to associate the mark with the description of the product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: “Nike,” “Under Armour,” “Titleist,” “Greyhound” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE MARK (ONLY IF IT HAS 2 nd MEANING) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes product or service, geographical location, or a person’s surname </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No TM right granted w/o secondary meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No secondary meaning: “Aerobics (fitness club),” “Lone Star State (salsa),” “Dixie (BBQ),” “Chang (Chinese)” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has secondary meaning: “McDonalds,” “Zamboni” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE MARK (ONLY IF…) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement of secondary meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer must recognize the mark as an indication of its source in addition to the primary meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lanham Act § 1052: Exclusive & continuous use for 5 years  presumed to have secondary meaning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE MARK (ONLY IF…) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to determine suggestive or descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of imagination consumer must exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether competitors must use the term to describe the product (e.g., “Undershield”) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>GENERIC MARK (NO WAY!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never become TM even if investing $$$ & time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Biggest Game Pizza” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Arena” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ King Size Bed” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>LIKELIHOOD OF CONFUSION CLAIM UNDER LANHAM ACT 43(a) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>False designation of origin in connection with goods, services, or their containers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That are likely to cause confusion in the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As to the affiliation, connection, or association of [the producer or seller] with another person OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As to the origin, sponsorship, or approval of his or her goods, services, or commercial activities </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>LIKELIHOOD OF CONFUSION: FACTORS CONSIDERED BY COURT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of plaintiff’s mark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity of the marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity of products or services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity of target markets </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>LIKELIHOOD OF CONFUSION: FACTORS CONSIDERED BY COURT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity of marketing channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophistication of purchasers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of actual confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant’s intent (i.e., good faith use?) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Univ. OF Georgia V. LAITE </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>REMEDY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injunction: May not use the mark anymore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In case of counterfeit (≠ likelihood of confusion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentionally use others’ mark </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same as larceny </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All civil damages + criminal prosecution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>SUBJECT MATTER: EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literary works (e.g., SI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical works (e.g., team logo song) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic works (e.g., movie) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choreographic works (e.g., cheerleading) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic works (e.g., player illustrations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound recordings (e.g., radio broadcast) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural works (e.g., Fenway Park) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>PURPOSE OF COPYRIGHTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two competing interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giving limited monopoly to encourage creative works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting the exclusive right for public use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration of copyrights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created before 01/01/1976: 95 yrs from creation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created after 01/01/1976: Life of author + 70 yrs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>REQUIREMENTS (ORIGINALITY + FIXATION) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originality: Must have minimal originality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of data (e.g., phone book)  No </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live sport event (e.g., NBA v. Motorola)  No </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Game rules in public domain (e.g., tic-tac-toe)  No </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation: Must be put into tangible form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Event plan (idea) for U.S. v. worldwide HS BB  No </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When sport games are recorded  OK </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>NBA V. MOTOROLA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fact: Pager displays NBA games in progress (recorded game facts & transmit to customers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: Sport game itself is not copyrightable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Games are not “authored” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights on tactics will stifle sports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But once creative labor is added, copyrightable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here Motorola used only facts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>TRADEMARKS: CREATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherently distinctive marks (OK) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fanciful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive marks: (OK only if 2 nd meaning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic marks (Never) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>TRADEMARKS: INFRINGEMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lanham Act 43(a): No false designation of origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood of confusion claim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Injunction or $$$ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counterfeit  criminal prosecution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>COPYRIGHTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of copyright (2 requirements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originality: Must have some creativity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation: Idea must be put into a tangible form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright infringement (NBA v. Motorola) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sport game itself is not copyrightable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But once creative labor is added, it is copyrightable </li></ul></ul></ul>

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