Wk2 2 operation3


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Wk2 2 operation3

  1. 1. <ul><li>REVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATION OF ORGANIZATION III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TORT LIABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEFENSES TO SPECTATOR LIABILITY CLAIM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WRAP-UP </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>NEGLIGENCE: 4 ELEMENTS (PLAINTIFF MUST PROVE ALL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breach of duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>DEFENSES TO NEGLIGENCE CLAIM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statute of limitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act of God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributory/comparative negligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption of risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>TYPES OF TORT CLAIMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms of nature of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claims for intentional torts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claims for negligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product liability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms of status of tort victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participant liability (Module 3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spectator liability (Module 4) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>TORT LIABILITY: ELEMENTS OF NEGLIGENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breach of duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>TORT LIABILITY: DUTY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Whether Defendant has duty to protect Plaintiff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decided by judge (Q of law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by relationship between people </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>TORT LIABILITY: DUTY & PEOPLE’S STATUS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more Plaintiff relied, higher the duty is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trespasser: No duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensee (party guest): Owner is only liable for injury from “known” danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invitee (spectator): Owner is liable for known danger + danger that would have been found by reasonable inspection (highest level of duty) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>TORT LIABILITY: BREACH OF DUTY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether Defendant was negligent in light of reasonable person’s standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decided by jury (Q of fact) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inaction: Defendant did not do what he had to do </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negligent act: Defendant did but he screwed up </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>TORT LIABILITY: CAUSATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual causation: “BUT FOR” test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ But for” Defendant’s act, Plaintiff did not get injured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether the chain of events would be severed if Defendant was not so stupid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Ran over a dying person who was fatally shot & mugged </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>TORT LIABILITY: CAUSATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximate causation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test of foreseeability (fairness) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether the harm could be of a type that can be expected by the negligent act </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>TORT LIABILITY: DAMAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There must be a damage that can be remedied by court decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation of damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compensatory damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punitive damage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>TORT LIABILITY: DEFENSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statute of limitation (“It’s too late”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act of God (“Not me but Him”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributory/comparative fault of plaintiff (“You also did something stupid”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption of risk (“You knew it!”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity (“We are exempted by law”) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>DEFENSE: ASSUMPTION OF RISK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You came this town while you knew it was dangerous” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Open & obvious risk” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbato v. Hollow Hills Country Club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slip & fall injury around a green </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P had seen a sprinkler was watering the area </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>ASSUMPTION OF RISK DEFENSE: LIMITS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not for entire area (e.g., parking lot) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction doctrine: If risk is not inherently involved with the event  no assumption of risk defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowe v. CA League of Professional Baseball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foul ball case in baseball park </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mascot might have distracted Plaintiff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foul ball is an assumed risk at the ballpark but the mascot’s distraction is not </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>TORT CONTINUUM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No fault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional torts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal behavior </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>4 ELEMENTS OF NEGLIGENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breach of duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>ASSUMPTION OF RISK DEFENSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You knew that it was dangerous when you came here for watching game” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction doctrine: No assumption of risk defense available if danger is not inherent </li></ul></ul>