1.(Something that you have or you know may be stolen, but something that you are can’t be stolen or fraud.) As security level decreases and transactional fraud increases now-a-days, it is very essential to have a highly secure identification and verification system. The main reason behind biometric systems are:
Depending on application it can operate on two modes.
What is Authentication ?
Types of Authentication
What is Biometric?
Characteristics of Biometric
Mode of Biometric system
Working of Biometrics System
Different Biometric techniques
Comparison Between Different Techniques
Applications of Biometric Authentication
Limitations of Biometric System
What is Authentication
Authentication is the act of confirming
something what it claims to be.
It is the process of giving someone identity so
that he or she can access that particular
application or data.
For e.g.: giving identity-card to a student of an
Main types of authentication
By using passwords, PIN
By using smart card or swipe card
By using Biometric
What Is Biometric ?
Biometric is a combination of two Greek words
Bio(Life) and Metric(To Measure).
It actually measures and analyzes the
biological traits of a human being.
Biometric is the automated process of
identifying or verifying an individual based
upon his or her behavioral or physical
Biometric based authentication systems are
able to provide high security against
confidential financial transactions and
personal data privacy.
“something that you are”
Identity theft is not possible
password remembrance problem does not
Cannot be predicted or hacked
Cannot be shared
Perceived as more secure
Characteristics of Biometric
Automated method of recognizing an individual is
on two main characteristics :
Physical characteristics are related to physical
shape of the body. For e.g.: fingerprint ,face
recognition, hand geometry, iris recognition etc.
Behavioral characteristics are related to the
behavior of a person. For e.g.: voice pitch,
speaking style, typing rhythm, signature etc.
Mode of Biometric System
It search for a sample against a database of templates
It identifies an unknown individual.
For e.g.: who is “x”?
It compares a sample against a single stored template
It verifies that the individual is who he claims to be
For e.g.: is this “x”?
Working of biometric system
Enrollment: In this stage, the information
captured from the subject by the sensing
device is stored in a database for later
comparison. When someone uses biometric
for the first time then the stage is called
Authentication: In this stage, the registered
biometric sample during the enrollment
process are matched against newly capturing
Biometric devices consist of
A scanning device
A software which converts scanned
information into digital forms and compares on
some matching points
A database that stores biometric features for
Different biometric technique
It is the oldest and most widely used method.
It needs a fingerprint reader.
Registered points are located and compared.
Optical sensors are used for scanning purpose.
It can be used for many applications like pc
login security, voting system,
attendance system etc.
Uses the ridge endings and bifurcation's on a persons
finger to plot points known as Minutiae
The number and locations of the minutiae vary from
finger to finger in any particular person, and from person
to person for any particular finger
Finger Image + Minutiae
Face recognition technology:
Face Recognition is a biometric technique for automatic
identification or verification of a person from a digital
These include the position/size/shape of the eyes, nose,
cheekbones and jaw line.
Iris Recognition Technology:
It measures the iris pattern of the eye i.e. the
colored part of the eye that surrounds the pupil.
The iris canner analyzes features like rings,
furrows, and freckles existing in the colored tissue
surrounding the pupil.
Iris pattern is not changed over
years or by glasses, contact lens
Hand Geometry Technology
This method uses hand images for person
identification or verification.
Person identification using hand geometry
utilizes hand images to extract a number of
features such as finger length, width,
thickness, finger area etc.
Measures the digits of the hand and compares
to those collected at the time of enrollment.
Places hand on the system, which takes the
three dimensional image of the hand.
Speaker recognition technology:
Voice Recognition or Speaker Recognition is a biometric
process of validating a user's claimed identity using
characteristics extracted from their voices.
It uses the pitch, pattern, tone, frequency, rhythm of speech
for identification purposes.
A telephone or microphone can act as a sensor.
During the enrollment phase, the spoken
words are converted from analog to digital
format, and the distinctive vocal characteristics
such as pitch, frequency, and tone, are
extracted, and a speaker model is established.
A template is then generated and stored for
Speaker recognition is often used where voice
is the only available biometric identifier, such
FAR(False Acceptance Rate) : It is a measure
of the percent of invalid inputs that are
FRR(False Reject Rate) : It is a measure of
the percent of valid inputs that are incorrectly
CER(Crossover Error Rate) : The rate at
which both the accept and reject errors are
- a lower value of the CER is more accurate
for Biometric System.
Applications of Biometric System
Airport, Bank security
PC login security
Prevents unauthorized access to private data
Financial transaction management
Limitations of Biometric System
Presence of noise in the sensed data
Variations in the enrolled data
It is an expensive security solution
The development of e-commerce or egovernment sites can be achieved through the
utilization of this strong authentication
The greatest strength of the biometric system
is that they does not change over time so it is
much more efficient than other traditional
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