Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Battle of Normandy WWII


Published on

This is a presentation I gave in my company which talks about the Normandy Invasion by the Allies in World War II.

  • Be the first to comment

Battle of Normandy WWII

  1. 1. D-Day June 6 th , 1944 Subrajit Basu
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction to World War II </li></ul><ul><li>key events of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to D-Day </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Landings </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. World War II <ul><li>WWII was a global military conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Involved most of the world’s nations including all great powers </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis </li></ul><ul><li>Involved more than 100 million military personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70 million casualties majority of whom were civilians </li></ul>
  4. 4. World War II Contd.. <ul><li>Four main Allied powers were US, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Three main Axis powers were Germany, Italy and Japan </li></ul><ul><li>War began on 1 st September 1939 and ended on 2 nd September 1945 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key Events <ul><li>On 1st Sept. 1939 Germany invades Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France declare war on Germany 2 days later </li></ul><ul><li>By 1940 German “Blitzkrieg” overwhelms Belgium, Holland and France </li></ul><ul><li>However, British are able to defeat Germany in the war on Britain </li></ul><ul><li>In 1941, Hitler begins Operation Barbarossa – the invasion of Russia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key Events Contd.. <ul><li>In 1941, Allies defeat Germany in North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>In the same year Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, US enters war </li></ul><ul><li>By 1942, German suffers setback in the battle of Stalingrad </li></ul><ul><li>Allies attack Italy and takes over south Italy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Battle of Normandy
  8. 8. Hitler’s empire 1942
  9. 9. Planning <ul><li>Preparations for a ‘second front’ against Nazi Germany date back to 1942. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies knew they would have to capture a port to ensure the success of the invasion of France. </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘dress-rehearsal’ took place in 1942 when a British-Canadian raid on the port of Dieppe was carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim was to capture and hold a French port for a short period to test German defences. </li></ul><ul><li>The raid was a total disaster: of the 6,086 men who made it ashore, 4,384 were killed. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Planning: Air Raids <ul><li>The British and Americans began bombing targets in occupied France in preparation for D Day. </li></ul><ul><li>The French railway system came under continuous attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Raids were concentrated in the Calais region to mislead the Germans in to believing that was the intending invasion area. Calais region was the nearest port from England. </li></ul><ul><li>The Normandy region was bombed, but less heavily. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hitler expected the invasion here in the Pas de Calais Normandy
  12. 12. D-day Leaders (Allies) Gen. Omar Bradley US Lt. Miles Dempsey Br. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower US Gen. George S. Patton US Marshall Montgomery Br. General Spaatz US
  13. 13. Operation Fortitude <ul><li>The Allies began a massive deception of operation to conceal the intended landing zone. </li></ul><ul><li>A massive build-up of fake armies and equipment was concentrated in Kent to fool the Germans in to thinking Calais was the intended target. </li></ul><ul><li>Canvas and rubber tanks were assembled to confuse any German aerial reconnaissance aircraft. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Inflatable rubber tank
  15. 15. Fortitude: Canvas Aircraft
  16. 16. Atlantic Wall <ul><li>Despite all Allied efforts, the Germans obviously expected an Allied invasion somewhere in France. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler appointed two of his ablest Generals, Gerd Von Rundstedt and Erwin Rommel to take charge of strengthening the French coast line from attack. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>From Norway to the South of France the Germans built up a defensive line against the expected invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of Russian POWs were put to work to construct elaborate defences. </li></ul><ul><li>The line was by no means complete or evenly spread by the time of D Day. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Normandy Landings <ul><li>Landing operations of the Allies on the beaches of Normandy </li></ul><ul><li>Operation also known as Operation Neptune or Operation Overlord </li></ul><ul><li>Landings commenced on Tuesday, 6 th of June 1945 at 600 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Landing was planned for 5 th of June but had to be delayed because of bad weather </li></ul><ul><li>In planning, D-Day was the term used for the day of actual landing, which was dependent on final approval. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Normandy Landings <ul><li>Assault conducted in two phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air assault landing 24000 American, British and Canadian troops shortly after midnight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibious landing of Allied infantry and armoured divisions on the coast of France commencing at 6:30 AM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Largest amphibious invasion of all time, with over 175,000 troops landing on 6 June 1944. 195,700 Allied naval and merchant navy personnel in over 5,000 ships were involved </li></ul>
  20. 21. Beaches attacked <ul><li>Sword Beach: Attacked by British troops </li></ul><ul><li>Juno Beach: Attacked by Canadian troops </li></ul><ul><li>Gold Beach: Attacked by British troops </li></ul><ul><li>Omaha Bach: Attacked by US troops </li></ul><ul><li>Pointe du Hoc: Attacked by US troops </li></ul><ul><li>Utah Beach: Attacked by US troops </li></ul>
  21. 22. General Overview of Invasion
  22. 23. Air Landings <ul><li>On June 5th 21:00 hours 82nd and 101st airborne division got ready for the big jump Behind Enemy Lines. </li></ul><ul><li>The paratroopers flew over the English Channel and got dropped in Normandy. </li></ul><ul><li>Their main aim was sabotaging enemy equipment lines in-order to take pressure off the advancing beach forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Because there was so much anti-aircraft fire the paratroopers had to jump early and off-target. </li></ul><ul><li>They were inexperienced in facing anti-aircraft fires and missed drops causing a great amount of deaths. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Air Landings Contd.. <ul><li>Most of the deaths happened when the paratroopers tried to squeeze through the narrow doors and as a result lost their sense of balance and composure </li></ul><ul><li>At 0500 hours the bombars started to drop bombs on the Normandy coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the cloud covers were so thick, the bombers released their bombs too late and they failed off target. </li></ul><ul><li>If the bombers had followed their orders and released their bombs on schedule (atleast 2 secs prior), the bombings would have had a greater impact. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Amphibious Landings <ul><li>A little after daybreak, 4,000 transports, 800 warships, and an unknown number of smaller boats arrived at the beaches of Normandy with the US and British armies. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Sword Beach <ul><li>Assault began at about 03:00 with an aerial bombardment of the German coastal defences and artillery sites. </li></ul><ul><li>The naval bombardment began a few hours later. </li></ul><ul><li>The regular British infantry came ashore with light casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>They had advanced about 8 kilometres (5 mi) by the end of the day </li></ul>
  26. 27. Juno Beach <ul><li>The Canadian forces faced 2 heavy batteries of 155 mm guns and 9 medium batteries of 75 mm guns, machine-gun nests, other concrete fortifications, and a seawall twice the height of the one at Omaha Beach. </li></ul><ul><li>The first wave suffered 50% casualties, the second highest of the five D-Day beachheads. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the obstacles, the Canadians were off the beach within hours and beginning their advance inland. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Gold Beach <ul><li>At Gold Beach, the casualties were also quite heavy </li></ul><ul><li>This was partly because the swimming Sherman DD tanks were delayed, and the Germans had strongly fortified a village on the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division (UK) overcame these difficulties and advanced almost to the outskirts of Bayeux by the end of the day. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Omaha Beach <ul><li>Omaha was the most heavily fortified beach. </li></ul><ul><li>The beach was defended by mortars, machine guns, and artillery, and the pre-landing aerial and naval bombardment of the bunkers proved to be ineffective. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in navigation caused the majority of landings to drift eastwards, missing their assigned sectors and the initial assault waves of tanks, infantry and engineers took heavy casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 16 tanks that landed upon the shores of Omaha Beach only 2 survived the landing. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Omaha Contd.. <ul><li>The official record stated that within 10 minutes of the ramps being lowered, the company had become inert, leaderless and almost incapable of action. </li></ul><ul><li>Every officer and sergeant had been killed or wounded. It had become a struggle for survival and rescue. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few gaps were blown in the beach obstacles, resulting in problems for subsequent landings. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Omaha Contd.. <ul><li>Commanders (including General Omar Bradley) considered abandoning the beachhead, but small units of infantry, along with naval artillery and surviving tanks eventually infiltrated the coastal defences. </li></ul><ul><li>Further infantry landings were able to exploit the initial penetrations </li></ul><ul><li>American casualties at Omaha on D-Day numbered around 5,000 out of 50,000 men, most in the first few hours, while the Germans suffered 1,200 killed, wounded or missing. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Pointe Du Hoc <ul><li>At Pointe du Hoc, the task for the 2nd Ranger battalion (James Earl Rudder) was to scale the 30 meter (100 ft) cliffs under enemy fire and grenades with ropes and ladders, and then destroy the guns there. </li></ul><ul><li>The beach fortifications themselves were still vital targets since a single artillery forward observer based there could have called down accurate fire on the U.S. beaches. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rangers were eventually successful, and captured the fortifications. </li></ul><ul><li>They then had to fight for 2 days to hold the location, losing more than 60% of their men. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Utah Beach <ul><li>Casualties on Utah Beach, were the lightest of any beach, with 197 out of the roughly 23,000 troops that landed. </li></ul><ul><li>The 4th Infantry Division troops landing at Utah Beach found themselves in the wrong positions because of a current that pushed their landing craft to the southeast. </li></ul><ul><li>This resulted in their landing in an area which was lightly defended, and as a result, relatively little German opposition was encountered. </li></ul><ul><li>The 4th Infantry Division was able to press inland relatively easily and much faster than expected </li></ul>
  33. 34. D-Day: Turning the Tide of War <ul><li>Invasion of Normandy was the decisive Allied victory that turned the tide of World War 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Success of the invasion was necessary for the Allies to launch an attack to liberate France. </li></ul><ul><li>Allies moved permanently to the offensive as the armies marched through Europe to liberate the other conquered nations. </li></ul><ul><li>However, D-day was such a risk in Eisenhower's mind that he had prepared a letter to be released to press that Operation Overlord was a failure. </li></ul>
  34. 35. What if the Invasion of Normandy had failed? <ul><li>Had the invasion failed, the repercussion would have been both shocking and devastating: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The war in Europe would have lasted at least a year longer than it did. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The longer the war lasted, the more Jews that would have been executed, probably wiping out the last of them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The atomic bomb, created in the summer of 1945, would have been used on Germany first instead of Japan. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. What if the Invasion of Normandy had failed? <ul><li>A destroyed Germany would have allowed an opportunity seeking Russian army to role right through Europe, leaving Communism in their wake. </li></ul>
  36. 37. What if the Invasion of Normandy had failed? <ul><li>A failure at Normandy could have even lead to the Germans prevailing in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>A surrender could have been agreed upon with most of Europe remaining under fascist control. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Photos
  38. 39. Preparation
  39. 40. Eisenhower meeting soldiers before the mission
  40. 41. Soldiers waiting to move in
  41. 42. I remember seeing all the dead bodies littering the beach. Some were killed on the first landing. They were fodder for the Germans gun. Others were washed in by the tide where their boats had been caught. - Sr. Bernard Morgan
  42. 43. Taxis to Hell – and Back – Into the Jaws of Death
  43. 44. Fatalities 10,264 Allied and American troops dead
  44. 45. VE Day: May 8th 1945
  45. 46. Credits <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>