Startup Cities-Smart Cities


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Startup Cities-Smart Cities: how can we merge the concept of lean startup with smart cities ?
Georgia Voudouri, Maria Sfyraki, Angeliki Zervou, Georgia Psychogyiou, Ilira Aliaj, Katerina Papathanasiou
Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences

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Startup Cities-Smart Cities

  1. 1. Startup Cities-Smart Cities:how can we merge the concept of lean startup with smart cities? Georgia Voudouri Maria Sfyraki Angeliki Zervou Georgia Psychogyiou Ilira Aliaj Katerina Papathanasiou
  2. 2. Cyber Cities, Digital Cities, Intelligent Cities... SMART CITIESare:An example of City Design Policies that rely upon: Innovation & BroadbandTheir goal is entirely constructive: to shift the debate in a more meaningful direction oriented towards the raison d’ etre of our cities: citizens, and the way they can create urban culture with technology. (Graham 2003)The outcome of the convergence of the two mainstreams that characterize the urban thought and development of the 21st century:1. The City as an environment of intense knowledge and innovation (Cooke 2001, Florida 2002, Komninos 2002)2. The construction of broadband networks and online services that support communication, representation, function and governance of cities (Graham 2003).As the British architect Cedric Price said in the mid-1960s: “Technology is the answer. But what is the question?”-“Can a City be “smart” and inefficient at the same time? Perhaps this is a fundamental question, un-voiced by smart cities advocates”. (Cedric Price 1967)-“Smart City? The City as public good?” (Cedric Price 1967)
  3. 3. Definitions & Theories | STARTUPwhat is a START UP"A startup is a human institution designed to deliver a new product or serviceunder conditions of extreme uncertainty”, by Eric Ries from the book “The LeanStartup”Eric Ries: a serial entrepreneur co-founded IMVU, an online social network thatmade the Inc. 500 last year. Through trial and error at IMVU, Ries developed amethodical approach to launching companies that goes beyond bootstrapping. Nowhes creating a movement.«The only metrics that entrepreneurs should invest energy in collecting arethose that help them make decisions», Eric Ries blogpost, 2009
  4. 4. Definitions & Theories | LEAN STARTUPwhat is a LEAN START UP"Having an original vision and then refining and testing it along the way throughtightly controlled experiments““Not about asking what customers want but testing the original vision based on whatcustomers do”. Ash Maurya, 2010
  5. 5. Definitions & Theories | LEAN STARTUPthe Lean StartUp 5 PRINCIPLES:Entrepreneurs are everywhere. You dont have to work in a garage to be in astartupEntrepreneurship Is Management. A startup is an institution, not just a product, soit requires management, a new kind of management specifically geared to its context.Validated Learning. Startups exist not to make stuff, make money, or servecustomers. They exist to learn how to build a sustainable business. This learning canbe validated scientifically, by running experiments that allow us to test each elementof our vision.Innovation Accounting. To improve entrepreneurial outcomes, and to holdentrepreneurs accountable, we need to focus on the boring stuff: how to measureprogress, how to setup milestones, how to prioritize work. This requires a new kind ofaccounting, specific to startups.Build-Measure-Learn. The fundamental activity of a startup is to turn ideas intoproducts, measure how customers respond, and then learn whether to pivot orpersevere. All successful startup processes should be geared to accelerate thatfeedback loop
  6. 6. Definitions & Theories | LEAN STARTUPthe Lean StartUp METHOD & APPROACH:not about code-writing, but about building things that people want.Using the Lean Startup method Companies:Can create order not chaos by providing tools to test a vision continuously.Can create a sustainable plan form the start, due to the fact that by the time thatproduct is ready to be distributed widely, it will already have established customers.The Lean Startup Method was created to answer a specific problem:Many StartUps spend time perfecting a product that they think people want withoutever showing it, even to the prospective customer.They often fail to reach broad uptake from customers because they neverdetermined whether or not the product was interesting.When customers show indifference about the idea, the StartUp fails.
  7. 7. Definitions & Theories | LEAN STARTUPthe Lean StartUp METHOD & APPROACH: 4 ways of working | thinking | doing: 1. Eliminate Uncertainty - "just do it" leads to work “under conditions of extreme uncertainty”. A Lean Startup continuously tests its vision. 2. Work Smarter not harder - "Should this product be built?" vs "Can this product be built?“ 3. Develop an MVP - Create a build-measure-learn feedback loop. 4. Validated Learning Shrink development process - focus on figuring “the thing customers want and will pay for” [source: ]
  8. 8. Definitions & Theories | LEAN STARTUPthe Lean StartUp MVP:MVPs are NOT necessary and are in fact a waste when:You are building a sustaining innovation product.You don’t care if you’re wasteful.You achieve product-market fit.We should beware of points 1 and 3 about cities.EXAMPLE of MVP in Kungsbacka, Sweden- Through The EuropeanCommission’s Sustainable Urban Mobility campaign“In collaboration with the local merchants of the inner-city we will try the delivery ofgoods by cargo-bikes on selected occasions.Objectives: Increase the number of pedestrians and cyclists in the city center.Increase the revenues of commerce.Try & evaluate if there is a place for some kind of delivery service even after theproject.” 08/04/13 - 12/08/13[Source:]
  9. 9. Definitions & Theories | LEAN STARTUPthe Lean StartUp PIVOT:Pivot = a change in strategy without a change in vision. The Pivot as city branding policy -PIVOT Dublin: the city as a test-bed/ platform for design solutions to local, nationaland global challenges. A pivot creates a departure point, a fulcrum, an angle fromwhich to proceed. It is a step in the process of lining up for the next move. It suggestssuccess, urgency and decisiveness.PIVOT sees these challenges and opportunities under four themes, which representissues that face all cities.1. Connecting Cities. This theme is about connecting resources to needs; ideas tofinance; and conversation to action.2. Making cities Lighter (sustainable)3. Making cities flow4. Making cities happy.[Source: ]
  10. 10. Definitions & Theories | LEAN STARTUPthe Lean as MANAGEMENT POLICY:Lean Thinking Melbourne (as Local Government policy)Lean Thinking is an improvement system which focuses on improving the quality,timeliness and cost of services we deliver from the perspective of the customer.The system provides: 1. a structure 2. techniques and tools for carrying out improvements.Goal: to deliver increased satisfaction for our customers and staff.A continuous improvement model
  11. 11. Definitions & Theories| LEAN STARTUPthe Lean as MANAGEMENT POLICY:Focus on the end-to-end systemic delivery of services and elimination of waste.Widely known for its use at Toyota (called the Toyota Production System).Focus on the end-to-end methodical delivery of services and the removal of non-value added wasteWASTE = Anything more than the minimum amount of: Process, Labor, Materials,Space, Equipment, and adds no value to the product or service!
  12. 12. Successful Examples| INTELLIGENT COMMUNITY FORUM (I.C.F.)The Intelligent Community Forum is: a think tank that studies the economic and socialdevelopment of the 21st Century community.The Intelligent Community Forum is working upon the notion that: for the 21stCentury community, connectivity is a double-edge sword: threatening established waysof life on the one hand, and offering powerful new tools to build prosperous, inclusiveand sustainable economies on the other.The Intelligent Community Forum (ICF) seeks to: share the best practices of theworlds Intelligent Communities in adapting to the demands of the Broadband Economy,in order to help communities everywhere find sustainable renewal and growth.
  13. 13. Successful Examples| INTELLIGENT COMMUNITY FORUM (I.C.F)DESPITE OF ALL: The implications of Intelligent Cities ought to merge the physical,institutional and digital space of cities having as intermediary a hybrid architecture ofmultiple combinations driven form basic generic categories of knowledge andinnovation [Komninos, Schaffers, Pallot, Trousse, Nilsson, and Oliveira 2008]
  14. 14. Successful Examples| STOCKHOLMIntelligent Community of the Year 2009: Stockholm, Sweden“This is a community that has methodically and substantially redefined thepossibilities of urban living and sets an example of how technology can play a role toenhance economic and social development,” said Louis Zacharilla, ICF Co-founder,2009 STOCKHOLM: Sweden´s political, cultural and economic center since the 1200s.Most of the countrys head offices and 1/3 foreign-owned companies are locatedthere. 1/3 Swedish companies is located in the county. high education levels are(51% of Stockholmers have studied at university levels compared with 35%nationwide) and average salaries are proportionally higher.2007 population of : 795.002030 expected population: 1.000.000 with parallel increase of the population at the district of Malaren Valley approximately at 3.5 millionsAccording the European Innovation Figuratives amongst 208 districts in Europe, Stockholm holds the first rank with “composite rate” 0.90 /1.00 & additional high performances in domains of innovation, knowledge intensity, on end education, patents, services of high technology.Holds the 1st rank from 2003.
  15. 15. Successful Examples| STOCKHOLMStokab , a city-owned company, has started building since 1994 a fiber-optic network throughout the municipality as a level playing field for all operators. 1.2 millionkilometer (720,000-mile) network / more than 90 operators & 450 enterprises as primarycustomers / expected to add 95,000 households to the network. Stockholm’s Mayor has set a goal of connecting 90% of all households to fiber by 2012.The most popular digital online services are: Child Care / Student-Teacher Dialogue / DigitalLibrary / Traffic Management / Telemedicine and e-Health.2007. Stockholm published Vision 2030: a world-class metropolis offering a rich urban living experience.2009. Stockholm has been chosen as the 1st Green Capital of Europe, for the holistic plan concerning her goal to be the 1st City to be introduced independent of  mineral fuel until 2050
  16. 16. Successful Examples| KISTAKISTA SCIENCE CITY.  One of the worlds largest and most rapidly growing ICT clustersis located just north of Stockholm. Kista Science City is an innovation zone which todayhouses more than 1100 businesses, 6000 students and 1000 researchers within ICT.Starts at the mid of 1970 as satellite city of Stockholm. In 1975 Ericsson moves into K.S.CIn 1978 ΙΒΜ moves into K.S.C. and from 1985 several small and medium enterprises.1990 the Municipality of Stockholm undertake the initiative to create the ElectrumInstitution in collaboration with private - public sector and universities, having as goal toimprove the knowledge transfer from academic-research society to civil society.31.000 are the human force working at K.S.C1.400 enterprises are accommodated in K.S.C. “Kista Science City is much more than “just” an ICT cluster, it’s a city of science witha well-planned public environment, with parks, recreation facilities, shopping facilities,good housing and cultural activities and events, where people can enjoy living, studyingand working. Projects are constantly under way at Kista Science City, enhancing andimproving the townscape in the form of more efficient infrastructure and planning of newdistricts.”
  17. 17. Successful Examples| KISTASome of the development projects that are ready in the near future are:2011: Arne Beurlings Square / Sky scraper hotel Victoria Tower / Construction startoffice complex NOD / Construction start residential area Kistahöjden2012: Construction start sky scrapers Kista Torn with apartments and library2013: Construction start residential area Kista Äng / Construction start new tramway / Office complex NOD is finished2014: Kista Torn is finished2015: Residential areas Kista Gård och Kistahöjden finished2017: Kista Äng finished & new tramway finishedDevelopment of Kista’s city-like environment is proceeding at a rapid rate. A numberof new construction projects are under way in the area; in addition to the futurelandmarks of Victoria Tower and Kista Torn, more housing is being built, togetherwith new squares that will become meeting places for Kista.
  18. 18. Successful Examples| LIVING LABS (L.Ls.)European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL) :international non-profit association - Brussels, November 2006grew in 3 "waves" reaching 129 L.Ls.(10 outside Europe) Lab: a cluster/city area hosting a full scale urban laboratory, givingground to the invention, prototyping and marketing of new mobile technologyapplications. “user driven open innovation”Key Innovative Concept: Real time and space participation of the citizenA L.L. is an ecosystem that allows for the simultaneous evaluation of the social andtechnological aspects of innovation, through a Partnerships of Public-Private-Peoples(PPPP) (i.e.end-users, corporations, citizens, the public sector, NGOs and academia)
  19. 19. Successful Examples| LIVING LABS (L.Ls.)L.L.s Promote: DIRECT involvement + collaborationReal time experimentation beyond that of a simple research field, throughconstant interactive tests that give constructive feedback //LEAN STARTUPTechniques of Real and Digital Space experiments (Innovaro 2009):1. Virtual Persons/entitiesImaginary characters helping to imagine future peoples needs-forms of integratingproducts and technology in a future way of life2. Behaviour ObservationReal time observation defining and understanding unspoken needs and behaviors3. User Groups1.000-6.000 members: consulting groups, peer reviews, on-line discussion,modification proposals4. Collaborative Designclients directly involved in the product/service development- design teams formed bydesigners, engineers, managers+ clients
  20. 20. Successful Examples| LIVING LABS (L.Ls.)L.L. Ecosystem Components:Broadband infrastructure & innovation:Cities/clusters become HUBS in the global flow of goods, services, people and ideas."Demand" is connected to "Offer" in sectors ranging from ICT technologies to energy,environment, food, health, tourism, culture, and usually each L.L. has a thematicorientation.(e.g.SOLET-eTourism, TRAIL-Technologies for Rurality, Agro Living Lab, Issy-les-Moulineaux Medialand, LIFENET, Gyor Automotive LL, ESAFrascati Living Lab,Telemedicine Living Lab, Cyber Care Clinique, RENER-Renewable Energies, Smart-House LLMadrid, CitySDK, Specifi, Creative Ring etc)Technological Components & open involvement of the interested partiesICT Technologies and Digital Space offer the necessary networks and platforms torender participation and involvement feasible, especially in the case of large groups.(eg.Crowd-spirit (, Chaordix (,Ecospace platform (,Cooltownstudios(, Ideascale (, PeertoPatent([source:,,]
  21. 21. Key Components| NETWORKS & TECHNOLOGY“Lean Smart Cities”: from centralized networks to decentralized or distributed onesKey factor:Technology & Technological Research  ICT Companies & Academia
  22. 22. Key Components| NETWORKS & TECHNOLOGYSmartCitizen Project platform to generate participatory processes of the people in the cities. Connectingdata, people and knowledge, it’s objective is to serve as a node for buildingproductive open indicators and distributed tools, and thereafter the collectiveconstruction of the city for its own inhabitants.Creation of citizen driven networks based on city environmental values or homeenergy consumption. Geolocate your data, manage what you share, with whom andwhy.“after PCs (digital content creation) and Internet (digital content sharing), nowwe can be aware of our environment and transform it”
  23. 23. Key Components| NETWORKS & TECHNOLOGYSmartGeometry Clusters(A)Synchronous Streams (sg2013)Data collection, interpretation, and manipulation allowing for better understanding ofconstruction-urban implementation sites, thus responding better to its specificitiesVolatile Territories (sg2013)Using collected data as direct morphological parameters, thusmaking formsexpanding and contracting according to it.[source: www.]ConnectMe by Ericsson"Imagine that your body is part of a network – able to transmit information, imagesand codes – simply by touching an object".[source:]Datenspiel / Dataplay (+Goethe Institute@Frowntails // Hybrid City RevolutionsConference) 19-26/5/2013 Athens4 experimental workshops about networks, data and their invisible flows in the urbanenvironment, directed by international artists. They will explore/use the cityselectromagnetic fields, to capture and map the citys data body and to propose newfree and independent models for sharing and distributing information.[source: ]
  24. 24. Successful Examples| MicrosoftProof of concept by Microsoft Proof of Concept can: find solution that meet the business needs Ensure that the solution can be deployed successfully Help enterprise decision-makers arrive at a purchasing decision quickly and cost-effectively Introduce Microsoft Dynamics solution to the staff to obtain their acceptance Provide an initial system configuration that can be carried forward to the next phases of implementationIntelligent Transport Proof of concept by Microsoft Birmingham : UKs first Intelligent City Bringing together digital media and transport technologies Information about: traffic congestion, car parking availability, bus scheduling provides real time location-specific tracking information through one platform Helps find the quickest and most fuel-efficient routes information gets constantly updated applicable for pedestrians and public transport users linking with many separate information sources[source:]
  25. 25. Successful Examples| IBM Smarter CityIBM smarter city solutions Social programs solutions Healthcare solutions Education solutions Public safety solutions Smarter buildings and urban planning solutions Government and agency administration solutions Infrastructure solutions[source: smarter_cities/overview/http://www- /?cm_mmc=agus_brsmartcity- 20090929-usbrp111-_-p-_-smcityvan-_- smcityvan]
  26. 26. Successful Examples| Barcelona 22@Poblenou: from a mid-nineteenth century vibrant and successful textile sector,Into ‘the Catalan Manchester’.2000: 22@Barcelona project transforms the old industrial areas of Poblenou in ahigh-quality environment for working, living and learning. An innovative districtoffering modern spaces for the strategic concentration of knowledge-based activities. TOTAL PLANNING AREA: 1.159.626 m² 22@ land. HOUSING: . Recognition of the existing 4.614 dwellings . Creation of 4.000 new state- subsidized housing units (minimum 25% rental). INCREASE IN GREEN SPACES: 114.000 m² land. NEW FACILITIES: 145.000 m² land. NEW JOBS GENERATED: 130.000. INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE PLAN: 180 million Euros
  27. 27. Successful Examples| Barcelona 22@22@Barcelona is based on a triple axis:•urban refurbishment -create a diverse and balanced environment where the differentfacilities coexist with state-subsidized buildings, equipments and green spaces.•economic refurbishment -an important scientific, technologic and cultural platformtransforming Barcelona into one of the most dynamic and innovative cities throughoutthe world. Εmphasis on SME, starts ups and entrepreneurs.•social refurbishment -interrelation among different professionals who work in thearea and the participation of the districts neighbours in the opportunities informationtechnologies offer.
  28. 28. Successful Examples| Barcelona 22@Barcelona Urban Lab - the city as an urbanlaboratory•Facilitate: Urban Lab acts as a gateway to the CityCouncil and facilitates internal coordination amongthe different areas•Pilot programs: allows for the creation of pilotprograms but is not a tool to sell products thatalready exist on the market.•Urban impact: pilot programs must demonstratean express need to use public spaces, the citystreets•Pre-market: seeks out innovative solutions tounresolved needs•Aligned: The pilot programs must meet theBarcelona City Council’s real needs and must havea direct impact on the functioning of the city or onthe services provided by the City Council itself,benefiting residents.
  29. 29. Successful Examples| CONCLUSIONSThrough the examples we can see Smart Cities being organized as multileveledurban systems, in which infrastructure and human capacities,information/knowledge handling institutions and digital networks completeeach-other, improving the capability of mutual problem solving.They can thus answer to more complex and crucial urban problems like:1. Competitiveness, growth, productive clusters extroversion (see SingaporeiN2015, L.Ls.,ENOLL)2. City Environment (see IMB, Smart Cities)3. City Transport (see MS, Intelligent Transport proof of concept)4. Security in urban areas (see CISCO, Intelligent Urbanization)