Need By Dr Subin Mohan


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Need By Dr Subin Mohan

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN NEEDS AND THE PRIORITY OF NEEDS By, Dr. Subin K.Mohan PhD Scholar Dairy Extension Division NDRI, Karnal
  3. 3. What is need? <ul><li>A need is something that is necessary for humans to live a healthy life. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs can be objective and physical, such as food and water, or they can be subjective and psychological, such as the need for self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>A need is something that is necessary for survival, whereas a want is simply something that a person would like to have. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions <ul><li>Psychological definition - Need is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a goal and the reason for the action. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Human Need - A person who does not have his or her needs fulfilled, i.e., a &quot;needy&quot; person, will function poorly in society. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Doyal and Gough’s categories of need for physical health and personal autonomy <ul><li>Adequate nutritional food and water </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate protective housing </li></ul><ul><li>A safe environment for working </li></ul><ul><li>A safe physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate health care </li></ul><ul><li>Security in childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Significant primary relationships with others </li></ul><ul><li>Physical security </li></ul><ul><li>Economic security </li></ul><ul><li>Safe birth control and child-bearing </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate basic and cross-cultural education. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Max-Neef classifies the fundamental human needs as: <ul><li>subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>protection </li></ul><ul><li>affection </li></ul><ul><li>understanding </li></ul><ul><li>participation </li></ul><ul><li>leisure </li></ul><ul><li>creation </li></ul><ul><li>identity </li></ul><ul><li>freedom </li></ul>
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEEDS <ul><li>All people have needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs represent the gap between what is and what ought to be. </li></ul><ul><li>The width of gap is indicative of the extent of need. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs can be commonly be grouped into three categories- </li></ul><ul><li>a) Physical needs e.g. water, food, shelter, clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Social needs </li></ul><ul><li>c) Integrative needs </li></ul><ul><li>Needs can be psychologically classified into felt needs/recognized needs and unfelt needs/ unrecognized needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs tends to be individual in nature, but also tends to be common to the members of a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs change with time and progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs of people change with age and growth and with changes in social, economic, family status etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative importance of needs is influenced by physical conditions and cultural norms. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Physiological needs- for human survival e.g. Breathing, Food, water, Sexual activity, Sleep, Homeostasis, excretion </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and Security needs include: Personal security, Financial security, Health and well-being, Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs: emotionally-based relationships- Friendship, Intimacy, Having a supportive and communicative family </li></ul><ul><li>Humans need belonging and acceptance. They need to love and be loved. In its absence, people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Esteem needs- All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect. </li></ul><ul><li>AKA the belonging need </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. </li></ul><ul><li>Two versions of esteem need. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower one- need for the respect of others, status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher one- self-esteem, strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>The last one is higher because it rests more on inner competence won through experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Self actualization: The motivation to realize one's own maximum potential and possibilities is considered to be the master motive or the only real motive </li></ul><ul><li>Self-transcendence: Near the end of his life Maslow proposed that there was a level on the hierarchy that was above self-actualization: self-transcendence. Some sort of unitive consciousness and plateau experience. Maslow estimated that only 2% of the population will ever achieve this level of the hierarchy in their lifetime </li></ul>
  11. 12. Application in organization <ul><li>Physiological needs: Provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Needs: Provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Needs: Create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events. </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem Needs: Recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization: Provide employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential. </li></ul>
  12. 13. McCLELLAND'S NEED THEORY <ul><li>Need for Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>People who are achieved or motivated typically prefer to master a task or situation. They prefer working on tasks of moderate difficulty, prefer work in which the results are based on their effort rather than on luck, and prefer to receive feedback on their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>People who have a need for affiliation prefer to spend time creating and maintaining social relationships, being a part of groups. People in this group do not typically be effective managers because they worry too much about how others will feel about them. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Power </li></ul><ul><li>People in this category enjoy work and place a high value on discipline. For one to win, another must lose. However, this can be positively applied in helping to accomplish group goals and to help others in the group feel competent about their work. </li></ul>
  13. 14. BRADSHAW’S CATEGORIES OF NEED <ul><li>Normative need: is need which is identified according to a norm (or set standard); such norms are generally set by experts. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative need : concerns problems which emerge by comparison with others who are not in need. Eg comparison of social problems in different areas in order to determine which areas are most deprived. </li></ul><ul><li>Felt need: is need which people feel </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed need : is the need which they say they have. People can feel need which they do not express and they can express needs they do not feel. </li></ul>
  14. 15. ThAnK YoU