Hand book of farm journalism


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Farm Journalism, Dr.Subin Mohan

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Hand book of farm journalism

  1. 1. Hand Book of FarmJournalism 2010
  2. 2. Hand Book of FarmJournalism Edited by Dr. Subin K.Mohan, BVSc & AH, MVSc Mr. G. Prasad Babu, BSc (Ag.), MScMrs. Talata C. Ratnayake, BSc (Ag.), MSc (AUS.) Mr. Ram Datt, BSc (Ag.), MSc
  3. 3. Pulari publishers Contents1) FUNDAMENTALS OF FARM JOURNALISM................................................ Ram Datt2) ROLE OF JOURNALISM AND MASS MEDIA IN DAIRY DEVELOMENT IN INDIA................................................................................................................ Talata C. Ratnayake3) ART OF WRITING AN ARTICLE………………………………………………….. Subin K.Mohan and Khajan Singh4) NEWS, FEATURE ARTICLES, SUCCESS STORIES AND POPULAR ARTICLES.......................................................................................................... G.Prasad Babu, Subin K.Mohan, Talata C.Ratnayake, Khajan Singh and Soja Augustin5) BASICS OF WRITING RESEARCH PAPER IN FARM ARTICLE AND JOURNALS…………………………………………………………………………. G.Prasad Babu, Khajan Singh and Subin K.Mohan6) BASICS OF WRITING SCRIPTS FOR RADIO AND TELEVISIONPROGRAMMES......................................................................................................Talata C. Ratnayake and Khajan Singh
  4. 4. Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF FARM JOURNALISM Ram Datt In the era of knowledge, intensive agriculture farmers need timely andlocal specific information about their farm practices. Farm journalism can playvery crucial role in collection, processing and dissemination of informationaccording to need of the farmers. The farm journalism should be based onscientific research and should be timely, local specific and according to needsof farmers.History of Farm Journalism The invention of the movable type printing press, attributed toJohannes Gutenberg in 1456, led to the wide dissemination of the Bible andother printed books. The first newspapers appeared in Europe in the 17thcentury. The first printed periodical was Mercurius Gallobelgicus; written inLatin, it appeared in 1594 in Cologne, now Germany. The first dailynewspaper, the Daily Courant, appeared in 1702 and continued publication formore than 30 years.1 It is believed that journalism had its nascent birth in India in Bengal inthe year 1780 when Bengal Gazette or the Calcutta General Advertiser wasstarted by James Augustus Hickey in 1780.2
  5. 5.  All India Radio (AIR) was established in 1936. (Name has changed as Akashvani in 1957)  Television broadcast started from 1959.  The Press Trust of India (PTI) was established in 27th August, 1947.  United News of India (UNI) was established in 1961.  Agricultural Research Information Centre (ARIC) was established by the ICAR in 1967. Now the name has changed to Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture (DIPA).  ARIS was established by the ICAR in 1995.  Mass media support to agriculture extension scheme launched in April 2005.Publication  1837- First agricultural journal Transactions of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India  1873 – Indian Forestry (Imperial Forest Research Institute)  1914 – Krishi Sudhar (Agra, Independent effort)  1931 – Agriculture and Livestock in India (ICAR)  1931 – Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences  1940 – Indian Farming  1947– Indian Livestock, Pashudhan, Indian Horticulture, Animal Sciences, KhetiIndian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) PublicationEnglish  The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Monthly)  The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences (Monthly)
  6. 6.  Indian Horticulture (Bi-monthly)  Indian Farming (Monthly)  ICAR News (Quarterly)  ICAR Reporter (Quarterly)Hindi  Kethi (Monthly)  Phal Phool (Bi-monthly)  Krishi Chayanika (Quarterly)Ministry of Agriculture  Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal management in India  Agricultural Journal of India  Journal of Tropical Veterinary Science  Gaon Samvardhan  Intensive Agriculture  Unnat Kheti  Home ScienceConcept of farm journalism A journal was originally an account of daily events. The word “joun”means day. The habit of keeping diaries or daily account gradually led to theevolution of the word journalism. According to Webster Dictionary, Journalism is the collection andediting of material of current interest for presentation through news media. It
  7. 7. may also mean the editorial or business management of an agency engaged inthe collection and dissemination of news. Journalism is a systematic process of gathering, writing, interpreting,processing and disseminating public opinion, public information and publicentertainment for publication in news paper, magazines and broadcast(Wolsley, 1969). Farm journalism may be defined as the collection and processing offacts, converting into local specific and need based and dissemination oftimely information to the farmers by different methods of communication.Principles of farm journalism“A principle is a statement of policy to guide decision and action in aconsistent manner” (Mathew). Principles guide to us to do work in rightdirection. Ray (2003) mentioned some principles of farm journalism which aregiven below: 1. Use simple language: Explain the technical terms in short and simple sentence, using common words which have concrete meaning. 2. Structure and arrange arguments clearly: Present ideas in a logical order, clearly distinguishing between the main and the side issues. 3. Make main points brief: Restrict arguments to the main issues clearly directed towards achieving stated goals without unnecessary use of words. 4. Keep important information at the top : Organize the write-up like an inverted pyramid, keeping the most important information at the top. 5. Use lively pictures and photographs: The pictures and photographs should be simple, bold, with good composition and good
  8. 8. contrast of light and shade, so that the message intended to be conveyed is clearly brought out. 6. Prepare a stimulating write-up: The presentation should be interesting, inspiring, personal and sufficiently diversified to sustain audience interest.Content of farm journalism  Should be simple  Should be precise  Should be timely  Should be local specific  Should be in local language  Should be based on facts/scientific research  Should be need based of local people  Should be interesting to the end users.Writing Style of Farm Journalism Manna (2004) summarized the style of writing in a farm journal as follows.3 1. The language of a write-up of a farm journal should be such that it can vibrate the right chord of the target reader. The language should be simple, conspicuous and lucid. Here, we may lay particular emphasis on lucidity, because without lucidity the subject matter will go over the head of the readers of a farm journal. 2. Issues should be narrated in simple, short sentences communicating one thought, preferably in active voice, which can serve the purpose of an example to a farmer. 3. Needless repetition of ideas and wastage of word should be avoided. Jargons and unfamiliar technical terms also should be avoided to the
  9. 9. extent possible. Where ever the use of technical terms is unavoidable, the terms should be properly explained at the first instance of its use.4. The issues which have relevance to target readers should be given prominence.5. Relevant illustrations, sketches, maps should be used to explain the points. Right from the manuscript stage of a write-up, the writer should use side headlines indicating bigger font and box with the bullet points and high colour background/border to highlight the prominent issues.Opportunities of farm journalism in India  Employment generation.  Provide timely information to local people  Development of the nation  Food security and sufficiency  Enhance socio-economic status of local people  Decrease disparities among the people  Increase education level among the society  Empowerment of local peopleLimitations of farm journalism in India  Availability of local specific information  Illiteracy of people  Local language  Needs of the local people  Lack of skilled people to disseminate information  In coordination between local agency and journalist  Translation of technical information into usable form  Difficulty in getting feedback from farmers  Delay of information
  10. 10. References 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_journalism 2. http://www.facebook.com/notes/journalism/history-of-journalismwhat- is-journalsim-how-is-it-in-india/123707186478 3. Ray, G.L. and Mondal, S. (2005). Journalism Including Communication Farm and Rural Journalism Public Relations. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana. Chapter 2 ROLE OF JOURNALISM AND MASS MEDIA IN DAIRY DEVELOMENT IN INDIA Talata C. Ratnayake Information on agriculture, both crop and livestock was communicatedamong farmers from ancient times. However, with the development inagricultural research, need arises to transfer new information andtechnologies to the users i.e. farmers. To fulfil this need, mass media likenewspapers, magazines radio, TV film and internet play a vital role. What weknow about the new information on technologies, public figures and publicaffairs is largely dependent upon what the mass media told us about it. Themajor objective of mass media in dairy development is to communicate thefeasible farm technologies in such a manner to attract the attention offarmers, help them to understand and remember the message and ultimatelyfacilitate them to take appropriate decision. Many sources indicated that during the last few decade means ofcommunication have really been revolutionized and the process stillcontinues. In the other hand, weak linkages among extension research,
  11. 11. marketing and farmers limit the effectiveness of research and extension tocontribute to agricultural development. However, Bhaskaran et al., (2008)reported that the study done by the National Sample Survey during June 2005revealed only six percent of the farmers look up to extension services forany technical information. This indicates the real need and relevance of themass media information to the farmers. The transfer of technology from the research - to the extension - tothe farmers are gradually changing and now more widely opened to anagricultural knowledge and information system. Among the various types ofmass media sources, newspapers can support extension by publishing newsof various extension activities, guidance and recommendations, achievements,market news, research findings, successful achievements and problem facedby farming community etc. The green revolution and white revolution could not have been comeabout so quickly without the use of media like print media and radio. Printmedia like newspapers, journals, bulletin etc. play important role in DairyDevelopment. Even today, with the onset of second communication revolution(TV, Computer, E-mail, internet etc.), the important of print media cannot beignored. The relevant studies conducted over time and space helps us to acquirea broad background in the importance of mass media and helps to identify thegaps in further investigation in more appropriate manner. Radio became morepopular in the countryside of India. It is enjoying a very high credibility as asource of farm information. It has been observed that farmers who are closeto extension work and specialists are better listeners of farm radio program.There are studies also which revealed that villages in which radio forumswere organized farmer had greater gain in knowledge of innovation, than inother villages. Various studies also proved that farmers always prefer
  12. 12. success stories of other farmers, which is presented in a popular, easy –to-read manner. Next preference they give for question-answer column whichthey consider as an effective form to get their doubts and queries cleared. Farm educational exposure, which comprising extension contacts andmass media exposure is an important factor for inducing knowledge andadoption as it provides the farmers with necessary knowledge aboutinnovations which help them in making decision for adoption of farmtechnology. Contact with the mass media should progressively influence mento become modern, seems to be quite logical. The mass media bringinformation about many aspects of modern living to their audience. Exposurestimulates and justifies the heightened aspirations for education and mobility.All these findings indicate that mass media communication is the mosteffective method for creating awareness about innovations. These help toaccept and adopt new innovations. So, mass media with its combination withother extension methods had been able to raise the level of aspiration offarmers.ReferencesBhaskran et al., 2008. Farm Journalism and Media Management, Agro tech publishing company.
  13. 13. Chapter 3 ART OF WRITING AN ARTICLE Subin K.Mohan and Khajan Singh Researches are meant for the benefits of common man, but stillmany of them are beyond their reach. Not to speak of agricultural sector.It is the duty of every extension professional to disseminate knowledgeregarding the various agriculture and animal husbandry related activitiesfor enhancing the production. The best method of choice for this purposeis mass media. Today journalism has immense importance in the day todayactivities of human life because with the help of journalism we are awareabout, what is going in world. The most important aspects of journalismparticularly farm journalism that of due importance are, writing news ornews articles in newspapers and magazines and also in radio andtelevision broadcasts. Now a days, special emphasize is given to the styleof writing characteristic of material in newspapers and magazines,consisting of direct presentation of facts or occurrences with little attemptat analysis or interpretation. Those materials will be of current interest orwide popular appeal.
  14. 14. GENERAL WRITING TIPS  State the facts briefly.  There should be a clear, defined purpose for the writing. The important purpose of writing is to inform or direct the farmers.  The way of presentation should be like that the average reader also understands it.  It is the duty of us to inform the audience what they need to know and why.  The main goal is to communicate accurately.  Write to express the ideas.  Use short, conversational words.  Try to avoid jargon and technical terms.  Write short sentences, usually 15-20 words.  Limit paragraphs to four or five sentences.  State the main message in the first sentence, discuss the detail in the sentences followed and thereafter with the purpose, discussion, and conclusions.  Use active voice and not passive voice.  Use standard punctuation, spelling and grammar.  Make sure the writing is neat and legible.  Maintain a consistent usage of one subject, one tense, one mood and voice in verbs. Sudden shifts these elements makes reading difficult.  Dont unnecessarily repeat the same word.  Dont use nominal (noun forms of verbs).  Use active verbs in the present tense, and avoid words like will, will be and must be.SIX-STEP WRITING PROCESS
  15. 15. There are mainly six steps in the process of effective writing of an article.They are A. RESEARCH : -Research starts with mind mapping or brainstorming. This is the creative partof the brain work before the ordered part puts the ideas together.  Decide/ select the topic.  Write down all ideas that you know about the topic.  Determine the aim/ focus of paper.  Determine the intended audience.  Rule out unnecessary ideas that do not relate to the purpose.  Group the ideas.  Eliminate any group that does not support the purpose or audience.  Assign headings to each group.  Prepare an outline for the article. B. PLANNING :- Good planning always helps the writer to visualize the readers and to identify their interests and felt needs. Before writing, the purpose of writing, the message we want to tell to them and characteristics of audience should be very clear to the writer. The writers to put him or her in the readers place and judge the writing. Before writing, the writer must answer six questions. A. i) Who? – The readers.  Who all are the people that you want to deliver the message?
  16. 16.  What are their problems? You cannot help people solving their problems until you know who they are.  Try to understand what the readers know regarding the topic and what they want to know about it.  Visualize their educational, social, economical, cultural level, their interests, attitudes and beliefs.  Understand whether the readers have the equipment, environment and capacity to use the information? Always remember that it is too risk reaching too many different kinds of readers, as a publication that has been planned for one kind of reader may not appeal to a reader of another group. Before we start writing, we should consider the audience who will be reading this document or article? Analyze the audience by preparing an audience profile. The audience profile should at least contain: 1. Responsibilities of the audience. 2. Purpose of audience to read the article. 3. Audience perceptions. 4. Audience education and technical training. 5. Audience experience.There are four types of audiences:1. General: This category consists of readers who are  Nonspecific.  Has no technical experience in this area.  Reads to be informed, persuaded, entertained, etc.
  17. 17. 2. Decision Maker: Most demanding and important audience belonged to this category  They deal with costs, personnel, productivity, programs, customers, contracts, etc.  They need bottom line information and conclusions.3. Operator: The readers of this category usually should be a graduate of vocational or technical schools.  Their experience level may vary.  They manufacture products or install, use, maintain or repair equipment  They usually want step-by-step procedure of things.4. Expert: These people have formal education and background.  They are familiar with the area and procedures.  So, we must have adequate data to support the ideas.  They are very knowledgeable of materials.ii) Where? – In which area do the intended readers live? Where will theyuse the publication? i.e. whether they will use this ideas in their ownpremises or for some other organization or in rural area or in urban area?iii) What? – means the facts that we have provided:  Be sure of the facts.  List those facts that help the readers to solve the problem.  Find a central theme to develop.  Weigh facts.  Check whether the information is timely and of local interest?  Does it meet the need of the intended reader?
  18. 18.  Then if it is practiced, can people use it or can they afford it? iv) Why? – This included the reasons for writing for the publication.  What is the purpose?  What is the expectation about the information to accomplish?  Do you want to stimulate interest in a programme?  Whether you are trying to show people how to do something?  Whether, you want to teach, to record, to announce, to entertain, to please, or for personal advancement?  What response is required from the reader?  What should be the feedback? v) When? – When is the material going to be used? vi) How? - This will be the outline for writing facts. Think thoroughly, then make a rough outline of facts listed. There are three parts to planning: o Introduction. o Development. o Conclusion.1. Start by forming an outline. Organize the known information into majorparts and group it.2. Establish the controlling idea which is also called as bottom line. This willhelp us organize the major groups and also to make sure that we haveadequate information to support the bottom line: Do not have more than threequestions or ideas. If we have too many ideas, audience will get bored andlose interest. The audience may think that the work is too difficult to getthrough and they may ignore it.
  19. 19. 3. Make sure that the bottom line is relevant to the purpose of the paper andto the audience.4. Make sure the content focused on a single idea.5. Make sure the information supports the bottom line.6. Select the sequence of parts to be more effective. Choose a developmentalstyle that will support the bottom line.  Time - chronological order.  Space - spatial order.  General to Particular - discuss general idea first and then break down into particular ideas.  Particular to General - discuss particular example first and then discuss the overall general idea last.  Discuss all advantages and disadvantages about that topic.  Break down into parts and analyse.  Cause and Effect - what will the consequences?1.Check for final consistency of the materials.2.The path should be from bottom line to major part to subordinate part. C) OUTLINE: - Now we have a bottom line and major parts. Now we must organize these parts into an outline. The article should include a headline, introduction, body, conclusion and references. a) Headline - Make this as attractive as possible because the reader will read this first then decide if he or she will continue reading the rest of the article.
  20. 20. b) Introduction - Introduce the problem that will be discussing in the article. c) Body – Here we have to discuss all the solutions to the problem we outlined in the introduction. Break up each point into separate paragraphs and keep them to about 5-6 lines. Create a sub-heading for each point. This makes it easier to read. d) Conclusion - This should include a brief summary of the article. e) References – It should be mentioned, from where you got the content. D. DRAFT: Writing everything that we want to say but focus on substance and organization. Draft quickly. Dont worry about phrasing and all. That will slow down the creative process. 1. Choose the best format and packaging and organizing are very important while writing. 2. Make the packaging easy to read and follow. Use headings, tables, indentions, underlining, highlighting, bold print, capital letters, italic print, color, columns, etc. in packaging.Steps to be takenFirst draft While preparing the first draft, we should go through certain questions.They are • Is the text needed • Is the content of each section is appropriate to that section
  21. 21. • Is the sequence of paragraphs proper • Should any paragraphs be divided • Are headings and subheadings appropriate to their sections and is their hierarchy clear • Is the title informative, specific, and concise • Does the abstract represent all elements of the article, within the length allowed by the journal • Should any tables or figures be eliminated • Is each table and figure cited in the text • Are footnoted, table headings, and figure legends precise and concise. Are they redundant with the text • Have you acknowledged assistance received up to this point • Have you checked quotations and references against original sources • Is each reference cited in the textMake the necessary changes and have the manuscript retypedSecond draft • Ask appropriate colleagues to read this draft and criticize its content and style. • Consider criticisms of colleagues and rewrite sections as necessary. • Add to acknowledgments, as appropriate, names of colleagues who made substantive criticismsThird draft
  22. 22. Review • Is the text clear and conciseCorrect • Make corrections in prose style. Prepare additional drafts to refine, further the content and style E. REVISE: While revising, try to see the material from the readers point of view. 1. Check the substance, organization, style, and correctness. 2. Check whether the document is relevant. 3. Follow this checklist to make sure substance and organization go together: a. Introduction b. Development c. Conclusion 3. Make sure the style of writing is effective. Make sure the style of writing follows the basic steps in structure: a. Bottom line b. Unity- There should be a connection between the information in the body and the bottom line. c. Coherence - information must follow an orderly sequence. d. Paragraph Coherence - every paragraph should focus on a single idea. e. Sentence Coherence - every sentence should focus on a single idea. f. Emphasis - stressing key parts and this will allows the reader to grasp ideas in order of importance.
  23. 23. g. ConclusionF. PROOF:You must check and mark the final copy. Always assign someone else dothe final editing of the work.CONCLUSION Effective writing is an art and how these magical words workdepends on how skillfully you plan the writing. Good planning helps you tovisualize the readers and identify topics based on their interests andneeds. So, for effective writing, there is only one short cut- THINK,PLAN, WRITE and REWRITE and nothing else.REFERENCESDrost, H. Effective writing of an article. www.istebuilt.comGrover, I., Sethi, N., Grover, D. (2004). Effective writing, Handbook of communication and media. Agrotech Publishing Acedemy, Udaipur.Ray, G.L., Mondal, S. 2005. Journalism including communication, farm and rural juounalisn, public relations. Kalyani publishers.www.apgea.army.mil/imo/DDB/writ-tip.htmwww.stheceaid.com/effective writing.htm
  24. 24. Chapter 4NEWS, FEATURE ARTICLES, SUCCESS STORIES AND POPULAR ARTICLES G. Prasad Babu, Subin K.Mohan, Talata C.Ratnayake, Khajan Singh and Soja AugustinNEWS STORY News is any timely information that interests a number of persons. It isa current event that is of interest to the readers of the news papers. Theornament of a news paper is news. It should be any accurate fact or idea.News is the record of the most interesting importance and accurateinformation. News is anything you didn’t know yesterday.The purpose of news story is  to develop interest
  25. 25.  to inform general public  to disseminate information  to create favourable attitudeNews should be  something that actually happens  unusual  important  new, recent or timely  something that interest farmers  it should be a new knowledgeCharacteristics of good news  The objectivity of news and news paper  Inverted pyramid form  Completeness  write in short paragraph  accuracy, brevity and clarity (ABC of News)  adherence of style of news  arrangement of news in sequence  importance of the news  use accepted principles of news writing  write the lead sentences  use 5 W’s and 1 H as guide  Avoid use of personal opinion.Factors determining news values Bherens and Evans (1984) mentioned six ingredients which determinenews worthiness of information. They are
  26. 26.  Timeliness – the more timely the information the greater is the news value  Nearness – the closer the information to the receiver geographically and psychologically greater is the news value  Consequence – the more the audience are affected by the information the greater is its news value  Human interest – information concerning human interests elements have more news value  Prominence – prominent people places things, events carry more news value  Editorial policy - the editorial policy of the organization broadly determines the kind and amount of information it shall present to the audienceIn addition to this there are some other factors which determine news valueinclude Uniqueness, impact, suspense, conflict, emotions, progress,importance, surprise, numbers, sex and novelty.Principles of writing news stories  there should be specific purpose in writing that is either to inform, educate or entertain  know about the people to whom we are writing  know the subject on which the readers are interested  information communication has to be timely and immediate  simple and clear writing is a must  sound convincing should be there  avoid exaggeration  use personal words to make it interesting  select right and short words  avoid unusual words  follow the one sentence one idea approach
  27. 27.  use short paragraph and short sentences  smooth transition from paragraph to paragraph  news writing must be specific  direct and meaningful quotations can increase interest  honesty is essential  don’t use rumours  use qualities when necessary  use past tense  avoid distortions  use elegant variations  use active voice  avoid jargons, use simple terms  make the captions attractive  see the lead paragraph is interesting  ensure that news story answers 5W’s and 1 HRules for writing news  news reporting must be short and brief  unnecessary words should not be repeating  negative words should be avoided  passive voice should be avoided  too much use of words or ornamental words should be avoided  reporting should be done on a specific subject  write so as to create interest in readers  follow good language and correct grammar  avoid mistakes  select good words and correct use of words  correct spelling of the word should be ensured  avoid mixture of present and past sentences  use current traditional words
  28. 28.  traditional words can also incorporated  use simple words  timely use of right words should be ensured  each news paper should have its own style of writing  sling words or languages should be avoided  any complex technical information should write in very simple languageHow to Write a News story? Writing news stories is not a particularly difficult task. It requires somesort of practice and everyone will be an expert if they follow the guidelines ofelements of news given belowElements of news writing Previously, six elements were considered for writing news and theyare the five "W"s and the "H" i.e. Who? What? Where? When? Why?How? Any good news story should provide answers to each of thesequestions. But, according to Ewton, 2007, one more element should also to beincorporated while writing news story and that is ‘so what’.Who?Several questions should be asked in order to highlight any people who maybe involved in the story.  Who all are your readers?  Who is involved in the particular event?  Who is affected by?  Find the major players, knowledgeable sources, stakeholders, etc.  Secondary people includes those who support or oppose an issue or who may be indirectly affected by the problem or event.
  29. 29. What?  What is going on?  What had happened?  What do the readers?  What can people do about it? Answers to these simple questions should be driven by key moments inthe story and the forces that have created the issue or alternately, fixed theproblem. This factor is the basic premise that supports why the story is newsworthy .When?It is important to include a timeline of events.  At what point does the story begin?  Where does it end?  When is the turning point in the story?  For future articles on the issue, an accurate timeline can be a useful tool.Where?Where is the action? This includes more than just an address. What thelocation looks like, sounds like and smells like as well as any surroundinglocations that might impact the story. A great news writer would be able todescribe the location with minimal words.
  30. 30. Why?  Why people are behaving like this?  Why does the story matters?  Why did this thing happen?Are there circumstances beyond the immediate story that contribute to thequestion, why?How?  How the story was revealed.  How the end has played out. ‘How’ is an important factor for people to make sure something terribleand that never happens again. ‘How?’ will add insight to a story.So What? News is at our fingertips today and requires much time to read it all, soit becomes important to learn quickly. Naturally, there will be questioningfrom the part of the readers, why should they care about this story? Writersneed to gain the In first paragraph write in the writing of the article about the confidence earlyreason why their story(Most important people to stick around and keep reading Lead matters. For points)they should know why this story relates to them and how it impacts their life? Then Lead facts When these seven factors compiles, the story will be informative and Most details about factsvital at the same time. Journalism is an incredible tool for society. More details about facts Minor detailsFig: 1 Inverted pyramid style of writing or reporting
  31. 31. Procedure in writing the news story Be alert in what is happening around you Know the format and the standard of your news paper Equip yourself with the literature and clippings on the subject allotted to you Establish contacts with people for information Collect all the facts you want Write them in the order of importance Pick the most important and most interesting facts for the lead Write the story in logical and organizing manner Develop the rest of the story Edit and rewrite Give an interesting caption FEATURE STORY
  32. 32. Feature stories are stories of people, places and events. These storieshighlight feelings and moods rather than basic facts. They are oftenbiographical stories of some personalities. A feature story is a good way totell others about something in detail. Local people enjoy learning about thelives of others through feature stories. We can tell stories about communitypeople who are making a difference.Characteristics of feature story  the news story stops after presenting the facts and ideas, but a feature story goes further in to depth about that information  it expose the background, birth and growth of ideas and events  it has appeal to the readers imagination  it is more personal with the reader  it can be written by first, second or third person  the writer has the freedom to write a feature storyConsiderations for writing the feature storiesWhile writing the feature story in the journal, magazine etc., certain thingshas to be considered  subject must be news  it must be seasonable  subject shouldn’t be prepared for the use of a small section of readers or farmers  there should be enough material  subject should be specific  Prepare a plan for writing a feature story after answering the following questions  Which all journals and magazines available?
  33. 33.  What the magazine want?  What kind of readers?Instructions for writing feature stories  Contact the person who is the main character of the story  Interview the person  Prepare open ended questions before the interview  If possible record the interview  Maintain eye contact  Review the answers after the interview  Identify the main focus of the story that you are going to write  Write an outline first  Write the story  Start with some interesting facts or events  Give descriptions about the persons or events  You can include direct codes of the person you interviewed  Present information in an interesting way so that your audience keep reading  Your conclusion should make some sort of impact on your readers  You can put morals or important messages in conclusion  Determine where to publish the article e.g. news papers, magazines etc.  Determine to whom (editor or reporter) to send the article  Prepare the article in the format of that news paper or magazineSUCCESS STORY A success story is a testimonial about how your product helpedsomeone in the real world. It is also called as case study application stories
  34. 34. or user stories. It can be short as a few paragraphs or as long as 10 pages.They are often produced as one page glossies with color prints. It is the mostpowerful document that one can write.Success story is a simple description of a program’s:  Progress.  Achievements.  Lessons learned.  A request for action.Success stories are important communication tools.  It will provide a framework for understanding, remembering, and acting on information.  It is not a surveillance report  It is an un-biased and complete evaluation picture of something.What is the need to write success story?  To gain visibility and credibility.  To educate and promote your program.  To satisfy information requests.  To educate stakeholders  To assure more support and resources.  To give publicity for early successes.  Market your program to your target population.
  35. 35.  Show progress when planned outcomes will not be realized until the distant future.  To show accountability  To verify the use of resources  To make a positive difference in people’s lives  To share success  To spread word about extension as a valuable resource  To reflect learn from your workStages in writing success storiesThere are three stages in writing success story.Stage-I consumer facing a challengeStage-II with the advice-help of extension agencies they took actionStage-III action achieved resultsTell your story through these stagesSRRE - of success storySituation - what promoted the programmeResponse – how did extension agencies respondedResults - who were benefitted and what was the outcome of the resultsEvidence – what the evidence and how you evaluate Tips to prepare success stories 1. Know what information you want to tell to your readers.
  36. 36. 2. Know your audience. 3. Know to tailor your message to your audience. 4. Know your story. 5. Always show a benefit 6. Present a memorable fact/truth 7. There should be an incorporation of emotional feelings. 8. Paint a picture 9. There should be a sense of immediacy 10. Be prepared 11. Be systematic and consistent 12. Know which issues are hot and why 13. Have several different types of success stories ready at all times 14. Periodically update your success stories 15.You can write a success story about an entire programme or part of programme 16.You could even write a success story several years after the completion of that programme 17. Success story should not exceed 4000 characters 18. Remember good success story depends on credible informationTypical outline of success storySuccess story should contain
  37. 37.  Title  Define the problem  Program description  Impact statement  Contact informationPOPULAR ARTICLE Research results which are beneficial to the farmers should becommunicated to them through proper communication channels. Here massmedia, especially print media play a key role in disseminating new farmtechnologies. Popular article is the means by which one can communicate themessage to the targeted audience in an interesting and understandablemanner. They can be preserved and use as a reference material. Readerswant to write to them on a subject of interest and in a manner which is easilyunderstandable. Popular articles are those articles which are published in populardailies and in other farm publications which are intended for farmers andgeneral public. All leading dailies are regularly publishing popular articlesthrough their farm feature pages. While writing popular articles, we shouldknow about its readers. Based on this, the subject should be selected. Weshould have a clear cut idea about the purpose of writing. Basically it impartsneeded knowledge to the farmer. We should know how, what and why we arewriting. After assessing all these parameters, study the topic in detail. Collectas much relevant information as possible.Principles of writing
  38. 38. 1. ABC principle (accuracy, brevity, clarity) 2. 5 W’s and 1H principle (who, what, why, where, when, and how) 3. KISS principle (Keep it short and simple) Short sentences and simple words have to be used, it should be written inactive voice. Popular articles should evoke human emotions. It shouldcommunicate ideas, values, interaction and aspirations. For instance, anexperience story of a successful dairy farmer is more readable than anarration of scientific livestock management.Criteria for writing popular article  There should be ample knowledge about the subject or topic. Collect all the information. If you don’t know anything about the subject or you can go for brain storming. See some magazines, journals, websites etc.  Know the readers (farmers, experts, illiterates etc.)  If you know the topic or subject you can write without preparation. Writing is technical and you should have complete knowledge about it  Search for more information  Decide how long your article should be  Use simple and familiar words and short sentences  Avoid academic style of writing  Make use of personal words and sentences  Give an attractive caption  Decide your limit  First organise your summary  An outline may be useful for new comers because this can help to focus the concept of the article  First paragraph should be a introduction about the subject, what you are going to tell your readers, show them exactly what they need to know including all data and technical information
  39. 39.  Last part of the article should contain discussion  You have to check your information whether it is faulty or are they based on facts  Delete unnecessary information  Remove contradictory data  Check and correct the grammar, punctuation  Proof readingEditing Editing is not a simply capitalising or paragraphing. It is buildingcommunication bridges by eliminating blocks in the communication process.For example, eliminate jargon words. The most successful communicator is aperson who edits his communication.Need for editing popular article 1) The quantity of information may be limitless but, time and space are limited 2) To make the language perfect and understandable to the audience 3) To make the message acceptable to audienceTips for editing popular article  Edit into short and simple sentences  Split long sentences into two or three sentences  Make short paragraph of 6-7 lines or 30-40 words  No sentence should start with figures  Avoid unnecessary words  Prepare in active voiceReferences
  40. 40. Ewton, Z. 2007.The five W’s, one H and ‘so what’ of News reporting, Sevenessential elements to a news story, http://www.associatedcontent.comMarcus et al. "The evolution of the summary news lead.".http://www.scripps.ohiou.edu/mediahistory/mhmjour1-1.htm.Scanlan, Chip (2003-06-23). "An examination of the inverted pyramid".Poynter Institute. http://www.poynter.org/column.asp?id=52&aid=38693 Chapter 5 BASICS OF WRITING RESEARCH PAPER IN FARM ARTICLE AND JOURNALS G.Prasad Babu, Khajan Singh and Subin K.Mohan A research paper is a written and published report describingoriginal results of a scientific experiment, no matter how spectacular theresult is.Or g a ni z a ti on of a resea r c h p ap er A research paper is an exercise of organizing the research findings in alogical order. A research paper should be highly systematic. It should
  41. 41. contain distinct and clear evident components. Organization is the effectiveway is to answer the following.  What was the problem? Ans: Introduction  How the problem has been studied? Ans: Materials and methods  What one found? Ans: Result  What do these findings mean? Ans: DiscussionOu tl i ni ng a r esea r c h p a p er Since, the research paper is usually one of the most complex paperswritten, it nearly always requires a careful outline. Writing a detailedoutline is the most laborious stage in the preparation of the paper.L a y o u t of a resea r c h p ap er The layout of the research paper should contain title, by-line, footnote, introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion,conclusion or summary and referencesT i tl e:  The title is to identify the paper.  The title must be specific.  The title represents the article’s content.A good title is usually built from three basic principles  Brief and to the subject  Indicate the purpose of the study
  42. 42.  Give important high-impact words The usual range of length of the title is between 10-15 words. Use standard terminology and avoid jargon words. In order to attract someone to read your abstract, the title must be informative. Don’t use highly specified and use of tough terminologies because they are known only to specialists and this will make title less informative. Titles should never contain chemical formulae, proprietary names, and unusual outdated terminologies, but scientific name can be used.B y - l i ne The byline normally has two elements, the name of the author i.e. theperson who contributed material for the research being reported and nameof the institution where the research was carried out.Fo o tno te Foot note means the address of authors.The acronym IMR DA research paper has four main parts  Introduction  Materials and methods  Results  Discussion
  43. 43. These are the essential parts. Apart from this, abstracts,acknowledgements, and list of references are all accessories. There aresome specific rules to guide authors in writing each of the four main parts.The main rules are as follow.R u l es f o r good i ntr odu c ti on  Present the background nature and scope of the problem investigated.  Where and how does the problem appear?  How wide are its impacts?  Review the literature and use only those literatures pertaining directly to the study, rather than the bibliography of the author’s reading on the subject.  The purpose of the literature review is to give the reader background to understand the work.  States briefly the methods of investigations as derived from literature.  State the principal findings of the earlier investigations indicating clearly what areas of the problem were addressed.  Stress the main conclusions as suggested by the results of earlier investigations pointing out the existing gaps, which supported the investigation.  State the method of the investigation. There are no clear cut regarding the length of the introduction of a scientific paper.Rules for writing materials and methods section The materials and methods section should be
  44. 44.  Clear enough so that someone else can repeat the same experiment without the presence of the author.  Don’t write in the past tense.  Give experimental designs, data, collection, and analysis.  Describe exactly the materials, quantities, and sources of the experimental materials.  Give reference only if methods are new or not well known.  Do not mix results in this section.Rules for writing the results section The results section contains  An overall description of the experiment.  The representative data.  The data should relate to the problem you stated and the results you claim.  Not necessary to mention everything you recorded or observed.  If there is a lot of numerical data to be reported, use tables and figures.Rules for writing the discussion section The discussion section presents  Principles, relationships, and generalizations shown by results.  Points out exceptions and defines points not settled.
  45. 45.  Shows how results agree or disagree with previously published work.  Discuss theoretical implications, practical implications and any projected beneficiaries.  States conclusions clearly and summarizes evidence for each conclusion.  It states future research arising from the conclusions, if anyRules for a writing conclusion section It contains a summing up of the points, opinion or decisions. Theconclusion should be based on the results and discussions. The followingareas should be observed closely  Relevance of the conclusion  Implications of the conclusion on future research  Implications of the conclusion on the country’s scientific development  Contributions to scientific community in generalWrite acknowledgements Any significant technical help, sources of special equipment, cultures,or other materials, outside financial assistance, such as grants, contracts, orfellowships must be acknowledged.References References to be cited in an article can be either published or unpublished documents. This differs among journals. References to published documents are usually listed in a bibliographic reference section at the end of the article.
  46. 46.  The accuracy of all reference material is the responsibility of the author, not the copy editor. Practices for citing references in the text vary widely and usually will be journal or document specific.Summary of this chapter The author should be clear about the facts before starting to write. State the principal results of the investigation. State the main conclusion suggested by the results. Describe, in brief, what the results mean. Drive the conclusions and argue for their support in the final section of the paper.
  47. 47. Chapter 6 BASICS OF WRITING SCRIPTS FOR RADIO AND TELEVISION PROGRAMMES Talata C. Ratnayake and Khajan SinghTELEVISION It is one of the most important media among the entire farmbroadcasting means. It can reach largest people in shortest time. People canwatch T.V by sitting in their home. It is suitable for dramatised presentationof a subject.Characteristics of effective TV programme  Good design  Good script  Good productionFactors that make the TV programme attractive  It should affect the lives of farmers  It should affect their health and family welfare  It should offer an immediate change of improvement in their income and lifestyle  It should allow them to make use of their natural talent  It provide them pleasure and information
  48. 48. Factors to be considered while preparing the format of a TVprogramme  Audience preference  Budget  Time  Type of information  Length of the program  Availability of facilities  Producer preference and abilitiesCommonly used formats on TV are: activities, actualities, animation,demonstration, documentary, drama, illustration task, interview, panel show,puppet show, slide show etc.Characteristics of a script writer  Creativity  Language and editing skill  Generalistic talent  Command over content  Capacity to put the content into story format in a logical sequence and suitable format  Perfect visualisation of entire programme in the mind  Selection of format in correct presentation method
  49. 49.  A thorough knowledge of the profile of the audience and their local language and terminology  Information regarding requirements of the farmersDev el o p i ng a tel ev i si on sc ri p t A script is a series of written instructions regarding the audio and/orvisual content of an item of media. It may take the form of a list of subjectswritten on a single sheet of paper, or it may be a whole book giving second–by second details of camera angles, sound effects, etc. Scripts can be usedfor any media which involves a sequence of information or images, e.g. slidesets, radio programmes and video programmes.Why we need a Script? Scripts improve the planning and production of audio-visual media in anumber of ways: a) It enables the participation of all the non-media people who have an interest in the production, sponsors, technical specialists and potential users. Using script as the basis of discussion, content and style can be discussed and approved before initiating production. b) Without a script, production can easily result in items of media, which are unwanted or inaccurate. c) It forces to media producer to give careful consideration for his work. Writing things down in an orderly manner usually improves results and confusing issues are unravelled. Unnecessary details can be eliminated, message becomes clearer and logical. d) It allows identifying necessary resources materials and scheduled activities. Everybody who involved could know what is required from them, whether they be cameramen, graphic artists, engineers or actor.
  50. 50. Finally we can say it simplifies the production.How to start?  Never start by writing the script.  Start by studying the audience and the subject area.  Get the information ready.Ask yourself • Who am I speaking to? • What kind of education do they have? • What kind of work do they do? Observe and discuss before making any decisions. In many cases yoursubjects will be determined by other people, but you will still need to collectfacts and examples. If you have to identify subjects, consider issues such asthe priority information needs of the audience, the relative interest value ofdifferent subjects and the ease of producing material on those subjects.How to treat the subject? While collecting the information, think of the different ways in which itcould present. What kind of pattern you are going to follow? This will depend on the answer to question like:  Should emphasize entertainment or education?  Do you want practical base or theoretical one? Accordingly, we can choose most suitable treatment. There are no hardand fast rules for that but only thing we should bear our mind is tounderstand, what will stimulate the audience. Once you have made some
  51. 51. preliminary decisions these should be written down and used as points ofreference during the further development of the work. This involves astatement of objective, audience and the proposed use of media. Writing a fullscript for some media can make considerable time, the responses /commentspeople given your proposal will ensure your efforts are worthwhile.The Story board For visual media, the story board provides a valuable link between theproposal and the full script.  The story board consists of a series of 3”x5” cards.  On each of the cards the media producer firstly draws a sketch of one scene of shot from the proposed work, and then makes notes which describes the scene and give ideas for the narrative.  The producer develops his scripts by adding, discarding and rearranging the cards.  This particularly helps in creating visual interest and continuity in a work.Script Layout  The final script can be written down in various layouts.  Different columns are used for audio and visual content.  Additional columns might be used for sequence numbers and time.  Upper case type is frequently used to indicate the name of a voice or a type of shot (MCU-Medium close up) while the lower cases used for narrative and the description of action.  There are no standard formats.  The scriptwriter should experiment until he finds one, which will cover all of his instructions in the clearest manner.
  52. 52. RADIO The success of agricultural development programmes in developingcountries largely depends on the nature and extent of use of mass media inmobilization of people for development. The planners in developing countriesrealize that the development of agriculture could be hastened with theeffective use of mass media. The radio was one of the main instruments usedin mass communication. We use radio to inform, alert, suggest, direct, makeinterest, stimulate and motivate people through its varietal programmes forbroadcast. Electronic media like radio can reach a large no of people and fast.Radio & television, thus becomes a most cost effective means of technologytransfer to the farming community. The special features of radio are firstly; itreaches even the remote corners of the country and has no physicalimpediments. Secondly, it imparts language education and providesentertainment and disseminates information to both literate and illiteratelisteners. Hazarika (1990) stated that radio has been found to have a high degreeof credibility and used extensively for agriculture information by farmers. Asa mass media method, still the radio has greater demand in United States too.According to the press release, large-scale commercial agriculturalproducers value radio most for daily agribusiness information. Furthermore,internet has definitely become an important part of the producers informationsources; but the traditional e.g. media mix of print, radio, and television(agricultural rural programming) is the most quantifiable and identifiable wayto reach the producer on both a broad level, as well as a daily level.
  53. 53. How to write radio script? Learning how to write radio script is critical for proper execution of radioprogram. It is a challenge because it is a format has its own rules. Only veryup-to date news or program is suitable. Step 1- Formulate a story idea.  Outline the characters, plot, setting, conflict and resolution.  The Script for radio talk should select a very current and interesting topic for the benefit of the audience/target group. One of the most important challenge is to make the useful information available to the farmers making their meaning clear to them so that they are motivated and finally they will adopt the practices  It should be practically relevant  It should be technically feasible  It should be economically viable  Time duration should be 5-10 minutes.  Five minutes talk is ideal with 120 words per minute.  600 words for the talk plus 50-100 words as stand by.  The central fact should be written out  The first ten second of the broadcast will catch or lose the attention of the listener.Step 2- Write a narrative of the story.
  54. 54. Always keep the limitations of radio in mind. We are writing for listeners,not viewers. Writing the news or programs for radio has to suit the ear, not toeye. We should not forget radio broadcast voice to ear method. In radio, thetalker cannot make use of his smile. He cannot gesticulate or use visuals. Hecannot even see how his listener is reacting or taking it in mind. It has noactors for the people to see. So, we have to be very careful about how wephrase our dialog. And in fact, the writing in a radio script is even moreimportant in some ways than the writing in a play or a screenplay because theaudience has nothing to look at; therefore theyre going to be listening to ourwords a lot more tentatively. Therefore,  The script should be very clear and convincing.  It should be in local language  The impact of radio language was heavy upon the written style, rather than on the spoken idiom.  The talkers arguments should be logical so that it stimulates and maintaining enough interest in the listener.  It has to be prepared in short, simple and direct with familiar words and simple sentences.  Need to strike a balance in the language they use.  Script cannot be ploddingly detailed and dull, yet being too colloquial may lead to sloppiness and lack of credibility.  The main points must be repeated several times.  Summarize the talk clearly.
  55. 55. Step 3- Divide the narrative into scenes , with good descriptions ofsetting, character, and sound effects. The script must include various cues fordialogue, music and sound effect and be able to quickly & clearlycommunicate the writers’ objective.Step 4- Write the dialogue based on the narrative. Let the charactersand sound effects give the listener a clear picture of the action in their mind.Step 5- Put the story into radio script format. This includes:a. Write a page heading. This is used to specify what program or episode we are working on andwhat page we are on in the script. It should be placed across the top of thepage.
  56. 56. b. Write a scene heading. This specifies the scene number, description of the scenes location,and time of day. c. Include script cues. There are three things a listener mainly retains from a radio drama:dialogue, music, and sound effects. Each of these audio components isidentified as a cue—because they happen at a given time in the script and thedirector may have to instruct someone to produce it. d. Insert music cues. Varying emotions can be achieved through the choice of music. Clearlywritten instructions regarding music cues will greatly assist the cast and crewin influencing the mood of a given scene. e. Include the dialogue cues. This helps the director and the actors prepare themselves for propertiming and execution. f. Insert the sound effect cues. Sound effects help to establish the scene or depict action. Sound effectcues are always underlined. g. Compose your production notes. Engineers cast or crew require specific instructions that are handled asproduction notes-comments from the writer on how to coordinate cues orachieve particular effects. These need to be clear and precise.Step 6- Edit your radio script after letting it sit for a few hours or days.
  57. 57. A fresh set of eyes will help to catch any mistakes in grammar or plot.Consider having a third-party scrutinize the script.Step 7- Present the script to your producer or editor and makerevisions as necessary. Radio scripts are the blueprints of our presentation. There is seldomtime in radio programs for script memorization so our notes and cues must beprecise to achieve the results in real time.ReferencesBhaskran et al., 2008. Farm Journalism and Media Management, Agro tech publishing company.Bolliger, E et al., 1995 Agricuture Extension International book distributing companyHazarika, P. 1990. Differential impact of farm radio Broadcast along with Audio Reinforcement in Transfer of Dairy Farming Technology in Kamrup District: Unpublished Thesis, Division of Dairy Extension, NDRI, Karnal.
  58. 58. About the authors DR. Khajan Singh, PhDDr. Subin K.Mohan, BVSc & AH, MVSc Principal ScientistPhD Scholar Dairy Extension DivisionDairy Extension Division National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI)National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) Karnal, Haryana, IndiaKarnal, Haryana, India Dr. Soja Augustin, BVSc & AH, MVScMr. G Prasad Babu, BSc (Ag.), MSc Veterinary SurgeonPhD Scholar KeralaDairy Extension DivisionNational Dairy Research Institute (NDRI)Karnal, Haryana, IndiaMrs. Talata C. Ratnayake, BSc (Ag.), MScOfficer in ChargeInstitute of Continuing EducationDepartment of Animal Production and HealthSri LankaMr. Ram Datt, BSc (Ag.), MSc. (Ag.)PhD ScholarDairy Extension DivisionNational Dairy Research Institute (NDRI)Karnal, Haryana, India