INTRODUCTION There is a decrease in the livestock population of Kerala over the years when compared to the total milk production. This shows the increase in the productivity of the animals which compensates the decreased animal population. According to economic review, 2007, daily milk production during 2006 was 58.02 lakh liters against the requirement of 67.2 lakh liters per day. According to ICMR recommendations, beyond 76 lakh liters of milk per day is required as the approximate human population of Kerala is around 3.2 crores.
How we maintain this gap? By purchasing milk from the neighbouring states.
WHAT IS THE NEED OF THEPRESENT STUDY?As an extension agency, we should study thepresent status of dairying in Kerala and the findout new strategies for dairy development toovercome all these lacunas
Present Status of Dairy Sector inKerala Of the 1.7 million breedable cattle 67 % are crossbreds Most of the cattle holding are one cow farms Per capita availability of milk is 220 gm /day Part of milk is being imported from other states to meet the demand AI units are available at the rate of one for 800 breedable cattle There is acute scarcity of feed and fodder. 97% of the population are Non Vegetarians. 65% of the meat consumed is from animals brought from other states About 10% of the Gross Domestic Product of the state is contributed by this sector and forms 40 percent of the agricultural GSDP.
Cattle population in Kerala -33.96 lakh (1996) declined to 21.22 lakh (2003)and further to17.19 lakh by 2006.The crossbred cattle population- 22.87 lakhs(67%) as per 1996 Census-increased to 93% in2006.
Total milk production -58.02 lakhs liters- 2007Contribution of Kerala to national milk production which was 2.4percent during 2003-04 declined to 2.1 per cent in 2008-09.growth rate - 4.24 per cent - 1990s compared to the Indian levelof 4.16 per cent, in spite of a weak fodder base. From 2001-07, a negative growth rate -(- 4.86%) and at Indialevel the growth rate declined to 3.64 per cent.In 2008-09- increased- 6.12 percent, a highest rate in recentyears.
In Kerala there are 3445 dairy co-operatives including 2646 Anand pattern societies functioning under KCMMF. Of the 22 dairies functioning in the State, 12 are in Co- operative Sector (Milma) and the remaining 10 are run by private/charitable societies which handle 64000MT milk per annum. >>
SWOT Analysis of dairy industry in KeralaStrengths:- Livestock population mainly comprises of crossbreed cattles. Purchasing power of consumers is increasing with growing economy of middle class people. Increasing demand for milk production since milk consumption is now a regular part of the diet. Plenty of highly trained and qualified technical manpower is available at all levels to support R&D as well as industry operation. Large number of commercial and hi-tech dairy farms is coming up. There is a vast scope for improvement of milk production as the productivity of our animals is low. Dairy industry provides employment and supplementary income to the rural families. Urbanisation More financial stability of the common people. (Vijetha and Mohan, 2010)
Weakness low yielding animals. High cost of labour. Quality of milk is low, which is not up to the international standards. Limited investment in dairy industry. Absence of comprehensive and reliable milk production data and no matching between investment and profit in the industry. Unawareness of scientific dairy farming, clean milk production and value addition. Inability to feed the cattle throughout the year. Inadequate training in modern cattle management.
Opportunities Expanding the dairy industry will create enormous job and self employment opportunities. Increase in investment in dairy sector Increased export potential for indigenous milk products. Increase in demand for dairy products. Utilization of by-products of the dairy industry for manufacturing value added products (VAP) for world market.
Threats Excessive grazing pressure on lands resulting in its complete degradation. Indiscriminate cross breeding to meet the increasing milk demand leads to disappearance of valuable indigenous breeds. The role of middleman in dairy business activities is still a very large threat. Lack of awareness among farmers about milk quality. To curb Global warming due to increased methane production from dairy animals, it is required to replace the large number of less quality livestock with less number of high quality animals.
Agencies working in dairydevelopment sector in Kerala State AH department State dairy development department KAU KLDB MILMA and other cooperative societies NGOs
EVOLUTION OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEPARTMENT IN KERALA At the time of integration (1-7-49) of Travancore and Cochin, a separate Veterinary Department was in existence in Cochin state, while Animal Husbandry activity was a part of Agricultural Department in Travancore state. The cattle in those days were mostly non descript desi varieties with poor milk production. Artificial Insemination facilities were introduced in selected areas with the establishment (February 1952) of Key Farm Centres (ICAR) at Trivandrum, Kottayam, Ernakulam and Ollukkara, using semen of Sindhi Breed. Grading up of local cows with Sindhi and buffaloes with Murrah had been the breeding policy in vogue at that time. Currently, after 45 years of formation of Kerala State about 2638 institutions are functioning in the Animal Husbandry Department. Panchayat Raj Act came into existence on 2nd October 1995, most of the institutions of Animal Husbandry Department were handed over to Grama Panchayats, Gilla Panchayats, Block Panchayat, Municipalities and Corporations.
Goals of Animal Husbandry Department Strengthening the livestock population of the state in terms of both number and quality Increasing the production of milk, egg and meat Creating more self- employment opportunities in the Animal Husbandry sector. Assisting weaker sections of the society to enhance their income level. Control of animal diseases Conduct scientific studies into relevant aspects of livestock rearing. Collection and analysis of data and information on the Animal Husbandry Sector of the state. To equip the farmers with modern scientific practices in Animal Husbandry.
MAIN PROGRAMMES OF DAIRY DEVEOPMENT DEPARTMENT OF KERALASl.No. Programme Schemes (a) Farmers Contact Programme Rural Dairy Extension (b) District Level Cattle Show & Seminar1 Service (RDE) (c) Assistance to set up below Model Commercial Dairy Farm Unit Fodder Development2 a) Fodder Production Programme (a) Milk Collection Room & Building (b) Purchase of Computer (c) Purchase of fully Automatic Milk Packing Machine Modernization of (d) Purchase of Generator3 Dairy Co-operatives (e) Purchase of Milk Cooler (f) Improving facilities for processing of milk & marketing (g) Automatic Milk Collection Unit (h) Purchase of Cream Separator
5 Dairy Training Centres of the state offers various types of training. Training for Members/Personnel of Dairy Co-operatives - Training in milk testing Training for Dairy Farmers - Training is imparted in modern scientific cattle rearing Training for house-wives/women- Training is imparted in manufacture of milk products Training for unemployed youth- Training is imparted in fodder conservation & fortification of paddy straw
Dairy Farmers Contact Programme In a farmers contact programme, a group of 30 farmers will be assembled together. Modern scientific methods in cattle rearing, fodder cultivation and importance of milk hygiene and clean milk production will be discussed. The Department will assist in starting farms- will give 25 % of the total cost or Rs. 37,500/- whichever is less, as loan. The assistance will be released after completing the cultivation of fodder, shed construction, remittance of insurance premium and purchase of milking machine.
Some special schemes/ packagesKsheera Karshaka seemandhini- Dairy farmers will get 300 rs/month pension insurance scholarship to their children support for natural calamities like tsunami hospital expenditures ambulance charge after death of farmerDairy Farmers Welfare fund Board: more than 50000 farmers will be getting pension.Vidharbha package, Special package to Wayanad, Idukki package, Farm dept relief funds
Quality control- Any consumer can directly approach the MMPO certified labs for checking quality of milk and milk products, but they have to pay a particular fee. Both chemical and microbiological quality are monitored. Milk or any other milk product found sub-standard will be prohibited to market in Kerala.
Kerala Agricultural University College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences College of Dairy Science & TechnologyProgrammes/ Projects Ksheerasree programme Tribal indigenous knowledge system & practices in livestock based livelihood Livelihood security of WSHGs through livestock rearing
Kerala Livestock DevelopmentBoard (KLDB)Sunandini (cross of nondescript cattle X Brown Swiss, Jersey and HF) limiting the exotic inheritance to 50%.Kulathupuzha, Mattupetty & Wagamon model dairy farms- Model hi-tech dairy farms with all the latest technologies on feeding, milking, shed management and recording practices is a model in the state for production of bull calves for breeding programme and supply of high producing females calves to farmers and Government farms.LIVECON- CONSULTANCY SERVICE OF KLDB It will be provide support to farmer, other Govt departments, and institutions for preparation of project reports. It will take up supervision and implementation of hi-tech dairy farm project
Milma – “The Goodness Keralawakes up to” Kerala Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (KCMMF), popularly called milma was established in April, 1980 with its Head Office at Thiruvananthapuram for the successful implementation of the Operation FloodThe name milma represents:- 2,702 primary milk co-operative societies 7.78 lakhs farmer members Three Regional Co-operative Milk Producers Union Twelve Dairies capable of handling 9.90 lakhs litres of milk per day Thirteen Milk Chilling Centres Two Cattle Feed Plants with cumulative capacity of 600MT per day One Milk Powder Plant of 10MT per day capacity A well established Training Centre 5,200 retail outlets Over 32,000 people working either directly or indirectly for the functioning of milma
Non Government Organizations(NGOs) Eg : PDDP kalady Sreyas, kambhalakkad Mitranikethan >>
Factors affecting the declination oflivestock population in Kerala nutritional stress characterized by shortage of fodder and dry roughage high cost of health care economic impact of infectious diseases like FMD unscientific management of livestock high feed cost lack of labour fragmented land holdings increased urbanization
Constraints faced by dairy farmersin rearing livestock Lack of time Lack of manual help Increased expenditure in rearing Lack of space Lack of veterinary aid Difficulty in getting feed and fodder Large quantity of feed required More number of animals Health related problems Age related problems Dairy farmers are not organized Little access to dairy information Less financial resources to help Absence of milk collection system (Mohan et al., 2007)
Strategies for development of dairy sector in Kerala
1) Conservation of traditional milkproducing systems Small units with 1 to 2 animals still form the backbone of milk production in Kerala. More than 80% of the total milk produced in the State comes from this group. No new units are added up over the years and at the same time the attrition rate in this group is high. Income from a crossbred cow -Rs. 1500- 3000/- a month under ideal management conditions. This is much less than the expectations of an average farmer of the State. No new entrants are coming due to social stigma of being identified as a cattle owner which is not commensurate in terms of social status and income.
2) Promote small commercial dairy ventures The ill effects of economic melt down can be exploited by Kerala for dairy development in particular if proper planning is done. For this every district should have an office where officers from Department of Animal Husbandry (DAH) and Department of Dairy, KLDB (Kerala Livestock Development Board), Department of Agriculture, Milma Kudumbhasree and Financial agencies are available. This single window should cater all the needs of new entrepreneur in dairying.
3) Establishment of hi-tech farms Government intends to start large Hi-tech farms at Idukki and Wayanad Districts. This will ensures milk security in Kerala. It is advisable to declare to special milk zones in these two Districts to start these ventures in public-private participatory mode. These farms definitely will be a moral boost for new entrepreneur in dairying across the state.
4) Availability of high qualitysemen Average milk yield of a cow in Kerala is 7.5 lit/day/animal. out of 14 districts of the state, 9 falls in the coastal belt. Hot humid climate prevalent in these coastal districts are not supportive to exploit the full genetic potential due to heat stress related problems. To cater the needs of progressive farmers high quality semen should be made available in places where the environment is congenial (High ranges) and where there is sufficient biomass on payment basis. To cater the needs of small producers, semen of bulls with optimum production potential and adaptable to local conditions needs to be provided without hindrance.
5) Prevention of genetic drain Most of the elite farmers are not caring their calves This indirectly leads to genetic drain of progenies of high-producing cows. The calf feed subsidy scheme is implemented for the farmers who have a milking cow and calf. New schemes can be envisaged for farmers who are interested in rearing premium calves. In dairy related projects, thrust should always be given to purchase new milking animals to augment production. New schemes where calves are supplied to these farmers and taken back before calving can be envisaged.
6) Upgrading the role of dairy co-operatives Their main role presently is only procurement of milk from farmers. They have to take lead roles in other activities related to dairying. Eg: (a) Fodder banks - Organize farmers to cultivate fodder in available lands and act as fodder bank. Once a market and price is assured for fodder more and more people will become interested in fodder production even if they don’t have dairy animals.
Labour banks There is acute shortage of skilled labourers especially milkers. Societies can take a lead role to form labour banks with skilled milkers. Portable milking machine can be supplied to them so that the farmers need not worry about milking related activities. This also gives a respect to the role of milker’s thus attracting jobless youth to this work. They can also try to collect milk from the producers to the society thus reducing the work load of farmers. (c) Instead of banks lending money for purchase of animals, the same can be routed through the societies. These establishes a bond between farmers and societies. The money can also be easily realized from the cost of milk.
7) Establishment of new feed factories The government and private feed factories together have the capacity to produce 1300 to 1700 tonnes of feed daily. This accounts to only 2/3rd of the requirement of the State. The government is planning to start a new factory at Quilon. In districts like Palghat, Allepey and Kole fields of Thrissur were mechanized harvesters are used; the paddy straw is wasted in the field. The government can plan to start small complete feed block areas so that this wasted straw can be efficiently converted into good quality feed. This should be handed over to grama, block or district panchayats to carry out production.
8) Conserve energy and protectenvironment Scientific designs pertaining to locality and herd size should be prepared and made mandatory for the farmers. To control pollution and related problems, biogas units should be made compulsory This saving energy can be used for household cooking purpose. Pollution control norms for livestock sector should be established with legal framework to protect farmers and livestock sector.
9) Fixing the price of milk accordingto the production cost Cost of production is more Availability of milk in cheap from neighboring states Two axis price system is followed
10) Attract people to the AH sector Cattle fairs Exhibitions Media Hi-tech dairy farms in tourist places
11) Information dissemination &Transfer of technology Through media Through veterinary institutions Through dairy professionals
Strategies for ensuring clean milk production in KeralaNeed for improving the quality of milk. At the national level less than 1% of the total milk produced is exported. Unfortunately even though the farmers are aware of these facts they are not interested in improving the quality of milk since it is not being recognized in terms of monetary benefits. Quality milk production can be encouraged among farmers by giving premium price on a three axis pricing policy. In primary society level, dye reduction test and at the processing plant, somatic cell count or E coli test may be introduced in some selected areas as a step towards quality assurance.
11) CMP awareness programmesshould be launched Proper awareness should be given to the dairy farmers regarding clean milk production through personal advice, film shows, demonstrations etc. so that the producers make out the consequences of unhygienic practices of milk production on the health issues of people as well as on their long term economic interests. Trained extension agents should conduct awareness and training programmes for milk producers, village cooperatives and other dairy professionals.
12) Incentive payment plan should be established Consumers should pay more for quality of milk. This can be achieved through consumer education programmes utilizing mass media and other means. Imposition of penalty on default, penalty to the societies on supply of poor quality milk and payment of higher price to the cooperatives supplying good quality raw milk should be done. Protection of the consumer right for better quality milk through appropriate legislation is necessary. License all milk vendors for ensuring safe handling of milk and milk products.
13) Concept of organic milk shouldbe widely disseminated People are more health conscious. Organic farm products fetch good price from the consumer. Milk is not an exception to that consumer expectation. Dairy organizations should plan programmes to meet this demand and this can be only achieved through clean milk production.
Conclusion The present data of milk production in Kerala showed an average growth rate of 6.12 percent, the highest rate in recent years, points out that, there is an ample scope for us in the dairy industry. The constraints of the dairy farmers have to be solved. The Government and the allied departments have to work together in an integrated manner with a long term vision to ensure milk flush in Kerala. New strategies have to be adopted and implemented in a war footing manner to ensure milk security in Kerala.