Clean milk production


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Clean milk production

  1. 1. CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION<br />(in farmer’s premises)<br />Contents<br />1. Indian Dairy Industry………………………………………<br />2. SWOT analysis of Indian Dairy Industry<br />3. Need for producing clean milk………………………………<br />4. Basic concepts in milk production…………………………….. <br />- Milk and its Composition.<br /> - Milking.<br /> - Lactation.<br /> - Milking intervals, frequency, routines, methods <br /> and systems. <br />5. Milk hygiene……………………………………...................<br />Udder infection.<br />Cleaning milk production equipment.<br />Water supplies.<br />Detergents and disinfects.<br />Milking premises.<br />Daily routines.<br />6. Clean milk production in the farmer’s premises........................ <br /> <br /> - Source hygiene and preparations (in general)<br /> - Milking environment or cattle shed hygiene.<br /> - Animal hygiene.<br /> - Hygienic measures to be followed while milking.<br /> - Feed and water hygiene.<br /> - Utensil hygiene.<br /> - Utility hygiene.<br />7. Mastitis……………………………………………………<br /> - What is mastitis and its types.<br /> - Causes of mastitis.<br /> - Elimination of infection.<br /> - Tests for mastitis.<br /> - Treatment of mastitis.<br /> - Methods to control mastitis.<br /> - Mastitis awareness.<br /> - Antibiotic residues issue and farmer role.<br />8. Ensuring milk hygiene in Indian conditions…………………………………<br />- Educational propaganda.<br />- Incentive payment plan.<br />- Concept of organic milk.<br />- Establishment of quality task force.<br />- Technological intervention.<br /> - DPIP studies and management system.<br />9. Organic milk-the new world milk………………..<br />References…………………………………………………….<br />CHAPTER 1 <br />INDIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY<br />Vijetha B.T.<br />The dairy sector in India is very complex and astounding. The country has plains with long tradition of milk production and consumption and on the other hand, there are forest and hilly regions with no tradition of dairying. Most of coastal belts also do not have much of dairy tradition. She has a population of more than 1 billion with diverse food habits, cultures, traditions and religions, regional variations within the country. Cow is more than 80 per cent of the livestock population of India. Cow slaughter is banned in many states of India except Kerala and West Bengal. There are no restrictions on buffalo culling (articlesbase, 2009). Till about year 2000, India was not on the radar screen of most international dairy companies. This is because she was neither a major importer nor an exporter of dairy products. From 2000 onwards, Indian dairy products, particularly milk powder, casein, whey products and ghee started making their presence felt in global markets. <br /> <br />Even though, planned development of the dairy sector started with the launch of the first five-year plan in 1951, policies and programmes under the first three five-year plans (1951–66) were inadequate to influence milk production and milk output continued to be stagnant. By the end of the third five-year plan these inadequacies were apparent and the government made serious policy reorientation to ensure sustained increase in milk production. Development of rural milk sheds through milk producers’ co-operatives and movement of processed milk to urban demand centres became the foundation of government policy. This policy found institutionalization in the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and was translated into action by the Operation Flood Project and the nation-wide milk co-operative network promoted under the project, for marketing the rurally produced milk and by this process milk production suddenly increased. <br />India’s dairy has a long history which started with processing of an insignificant 200,000 litres per day (lpd) of milk in 1951, presently the organized sector is handling some 20 million lpd in over 400 dairy plants and today India is producing more than 100 million tons of milk per annum. India ranks 1st in the world in milk production. Our per capita milk consumption is around 250 g per day. India is expected to maintain last year’s record of being the world’s largest milk producer, with an estimated 110 million tonnes in 2008-09. <br />Within the country, farmers’ milk cooperatives showed a better performance. They procure about 9.2 million tonnes, an increase of 9.7 per cent over the previous year, handling over 14 per cent of the national marketable surplus. The cooperative sector covered about 21 per cent of the country’s villages and over 18 per cent of the total milk-producing households in rural areas.<br /> India’s milk production will continue to grow at about 3 per cent per annum inspite of many difficulties such as stagnant livestock herd size and shortage of fodder. Due to increasing population, per capita availability of milk will increase by only about 1.5 per cent per annum which will be grossly inadequate compared with the economy growing at 6 per cent per annum. Production growth is only 3 per cent but consumption growth is more than double the rate of production which will obviously leads to a mismatch between demand and supply. This will create opportunities for international dairy companies and great opportunities for branded dairy products to enter this huge market of more than a billion people in India (Chawla et al., 2009).<br />In our country, milk production takes place in small and very small holdings i.e. approximately 70 million households that scattered throughout the country. The marginal producers and smallholders, who account for some 78% of all land holdings, constitute to the major milk production sector. They own more than 60% of all milch animals (The milk-animal group in India consists of buffalo, cattle and goats). In India, many small-scale farmers engaged in livestock enterprise in order to improve their livelihoods. Regular milk sales allow them to move from subsistence to a market based income. But there is a significant threat that the poorer livestock producers who will be crowded out and left behind if the global livestock sector is keep changing rapidly like this with a strong and growing demand, rapid institutional and macroeconomic policy changes. Appropriate national and international policy framework is needed to prevent threat to Indian dairy industry in general and dairy farmer in particular.<br /> Inadequacy of official data about livestock population is a perennial problem with most developing countries but fortunately, in India this problem is not as severe as we have one of the oldest and most reliable census systems in the world. India conducts a fairly reliable livestock survey regularly from which its approximate livestock population known till today and will go on so in future also. <br />The decade of 2000-2010 will be recorded in dairy history as the decade of exports. But, the next decade will be different as. India is finding it difficult to sustain exports of dairy products due to low global prices and high domestic prices. Since India producing large quantity of milk surplus to Indian market, it can compete globally in future in terms of export if Indian dairy industry made more organized, produces clean and hygienic milk and become consumer friendly by reducing domestic prices which will indirectly reduce her import and promote export of dairy products in future. <br />CHAPTER 2<br />SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY<br />Vijetha B.T. and Subin K. Mohan<br />SWOT (Strengths, Weakness, Threats, and Opportunities) analysis of the current dairy scenario of the country would reveal the following:<br />Strengths:-<br />The vast livestock population is a vital asset for the country which will sustain and continue to propel Indian economy in future.<br />Purchasing power of consumers is increasing with growing economy and continuously increasing population of middle class.<br />Increasing demand for milk production since milk consumption in India is now a regular part of the diet.<br />Crop residues and agricultural byproducts on which Indian dairy farming largely thrives keep the input cost low.<br />Labour cost in India is also fairly low makes industry cost competitive.<br />Plenty of highly trained and qualified technical manpower is available at all levels to support R&D as well as industry operation.<br />Large number of dairy plants in all sectors is coming up.<br />There is a vast scope for improvement of milk production as the productivity of our animals is low. <br />Our dairy industry continues to grow and the margins are still fairly reasonable.<br />Our dairy products could compete globally on the price front in future since our dairy farmers not receiving any subsidy and if world dairy market opens up post WTO negotiations.<br /> Buffalo is the India’s milking machine accounting for more than half of the milk production which is notable for its efficiency as a converter of course feeds into rich milk.<br /> Dairy industry provides employment and supplementary income to the rural families.<br />Weakness:-<br />Milk production system in many parts of India is still largely dominated by low yielding animals.<br />Poor condition of roads and erratic power supply is a major challenge for procurement and supply of good quality raw milk.<br />Under developed raw milk collection systems is there in certain parts of country.<br />Quality of milk is low, which is not up to the international standards.<br />Limited market support.<br />Limited investment in dairy industry.<br />Neglected animal health cover.<br />Poor infrastructure for transportation, processing and distribution.<br />Absence of comprehensive and reliable milk production data and no matching between investment and profit in the industry.<br />Unawareness of scientific dairy farming, clean milk production and value chain.<br />Inability to feed the cattle throughout the year.<br />Inadequate training in modern cattle management.<br />Seasonal fluctuations in milk production patterns.<br /> Regional imbalance in milk supply.<br /> Species wise variations in milk quality.<br /> Maintenance of cold chain from collection point to destination is still a major handicap.<br />Opportunities<br />Expanding market will create enormous job and self employment opportunities.<br />Increase in investment opportunities as economy is growing at the rate of 8% of GDP.<br />Increased export potential for indigenous milk products.<br />Increasing demand for dairy products becomes income elastic.<br />Transform the quality of life in rural India.<br />Utilization of byproducts of the dairy industry for manufacturing value added products (VAP) for world market.<br />Threats<br />Excessive grazing pressure on lands resulting in its complete degradation.<br />Indiscriminate cross breeding to meet the increasing milk demand leads to disappearance of valuable indigenous breeds e.g. Haryana breed.<br />Unorganized dairy industry handling 85% of milk produced, remain the key issue to be addressed.<br />The role of middleman in dairy business activities is still very large threat.<br />Lack of awareness among farmers about milk quality parameters.<br />Export of quality feed ingredients making the domestic producers rely on low energy fodders.<br />Adulterated liquid milk in certain pockets of India need to be prevented at the initial level itself.<br />Entry of multinationals into dairy industry resulted in milk diverting towards VAP in large proportion, likely to affect the availability of liquid milk for mass consumption in future.<br />To curb Global warming due to increased methane production from dairy animals, it is required to replace the large number of less quality livestock with less number of high quality animals.<br />CHAPTER 3<br />NEED FOR PRODUCING CLEAN MILK<br />Subin K.Mohan, K.M.Dileepkumar, Ani Bency Jacob, Vijetha B.T.<br />Milk production in India is growing at 4% per year, and at present India contributes 15% of the total global milk production. The country boasts of nearly 300 million dairy cattle. India is having dual distinction in the dairy segment by being both the world's largest milk producer as well as largest milk consumer. Dairy sector contribution is around 65-70% to livestock sector (Naware, 2007). Despite of its immense dairy wealth, India has to travel a long distance to acquire a good position in terms of milk quality. The need for quality begins at the farm where milk is produced. If milk is not produced hygienically it can affect the health of many people.<br />One of the most important factors of milk production is its quality but, we can say that milk quality is a relative term, as the consumers perception about milk quality is changing day to day and from person to person. There are many misconcepts regarding milk quality among the common people and to many, it may refer to fat content as, it is believed that thicker the milk better it is. But, this will not be the perception of a pioneer in this field, say a microbiologist, who will totally disagree or recommend discarding the milk, if the bacterial load is in millions or more than the specifications, whatever is the fat content. But, a child may refuse to drink milk if it smells, irrespective of the good fat content and the negligible bacterial load. Therefore, in order to produce milk of various acceptable parameters, it is necessary to face this issue on various fronts evenly.<br />Another important factor that affects milk quality is contamination. Besides being a health hazard, contamination of milk can lead to huge economical losses. Sterile milk is secreted from the udder. But, contamination of milk is occurred at different levels like at farm, during collection and storage, and at processing centers. There is every chance for rapid proliferation of harmful microorganisms as the essential nutrients in milk is an ideal medium for microbial growth. Milk needs to be protected from all possible sources of microbial contamination and various types of disease organisms. Therefore, the employment of hygienic practices at the time of milking is one of the first and most important steps in clean milk production.<br />WHAT IS CLEAN MILK?<br />‘Clean Milk’ is defined as milk drawn from the udder of healthy animals, which is collected in clean dry milking pails and free from extraneous matters like dust, dirt, flies, hay, manure etc. Clean milk has a normal composition, possesses a natural milk flavour with low bacterial count and is safe for human consumption (Sinha, 2000).<br />Clean milk production results in milk that:<br />Is safe for human consumption and free from disease producing microorganisms.<br />Has a high keeping quality.<br />Has a high commercial value.<br />Can be transported over long distances.<br />Is a high quality base product for processing, resulting in high quality products.<br />Dairy farmers must aim at maximizing the milk production and output from their dairy herd. At the same time, the farmer must ensure that milk is produced in clean and hygienic conditions. They should always bear in mind that the milk produced should fit for human consumption and it ensures human health. It is essential to aware people including the producers and consumers that even though milk is essentially sterile at the point of production, it is a very nutritious medium for microbial growth, and spoils very quickly if not handled properly. It becomes contaminated during milking, cooling and storage, and milk is an excellent medium for bacteria, yeasts and moulds that are the common contaminants. Their rapid growth, particularly at high ambient temperatures can cause marked deterioration, spoiling the milk for liquid consumption or manufacture into dairy products. Problems occur if poor hygienic practices are employed. All the above factors make the milk unsuitable for human consumption and finally it is an economical loss to the farmer. The following reasons will justify why every farmer should strive to produce clean and wholesome milk:<br />Farmers are not paid for the milk which is rejected in the market. <br />In effect, their labour and other inputs used in producing this milk will become useless. <br />Dirty milk will have low keeping quality and if it cannot be used quickly, then it is thrown away and lost as useless food. <br />CHAPTER 4<br />BASIC CONCEPTS IN MILK PRODUCTION<br />Subin K.Mohan, K.M.Dileepkumar, Ani Bency Jacob, Vijetha B.T.<br />The knowledge of milk and its production is essential for producing clean milk and the farmers should be aware of it. Nowadays, the dairy sector is changing from the ancient perception of milk production for household usage to the modern perception of commercial or large scale milk production. Farmers are seeking more information about clean milk production. Apart from the basics of clean milk production, they should be provided with the information regarding the basic concepts in milk production. This chapter is intended for the above purpose.<br />WHAT IS MILK?<br />Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. <br /><ul><li>Milk is the main product from a dairy enterprise
  2. 2. It is produced basically as food for human consumption.
  3. 3. It provides the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food.
  4. 4. It is also an essential nutritive diet for humans.
  5. 5. The early lactation milk is known as colostrum, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby.
  6. 6. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby.
  7. 7. The exact components of raw milk vary by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C.
  8. 8. Cattle's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic.</li></ul>Composition of milk<br /> The composition of milk varies due to different factors such as the breed of cow, feeding, climate, and time of the year. Milk contains various nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water, vitamins, minerals etc. The exact milk composition is given below.<br />TABLE<br />2) EFFECTIVE MILKING<br />Dairy farmers, with varying levels of skill, knowledge and resources, maximize returns from milk production by influencing lactation through selective breeding and control of reproduction, nutrition, disease and general management. The methods of milking have a particularly important effect because a cow cannot secrete more milk than the removed milk. Thus, maximizing milk removal in ways which are economic will take fullest advantage of secretion potential.<br />3) LACTATION<br />Lactation includes both milk secretion and storage in alveolar cells and ducts within the mammary gland, followed by milk ejection (let-down) and milk removal. Milk secretion is continuous and usually at a constant rate for at least 12 hours resulting in a gradual increase in internal udder pressure. Milk ejection is a neuro-hormonal reflex initiated by various stimuli at milking time. These stimuli, which reflect good husbandry practices, are either natural (inborn) or conditioned (learned by experience). They cause the alveoli and small milk ducts to contract forcing milk towards the udder sinus. Once, this has happened most, but not all, of the milk can be removed when external forces such as suckling or milking open the streak canal (teat duct) at the teat end, but at least 10% will be retained in the udder as residual milk.<br />4) MILKING INTERVALS<br />The 10–20% of the secreted milk which is not expressed from the secretary tissue and is retained in the udder when milking is completed is called ‘residual milk’ and has a much higher fat content than even the end-of-milking strippings. The quantity of residual milk is proportional to total yield. Farmers usually milks in the morning and afternoon. The milking interval between two successive milking is different or unequal and this unequal milking intervals results in larger net carryover of milk fat from the longer night-time to the shorter daytime interval. As a result there is a faster secretion rate and higher fat content in afternoon milk production. Milk yields, particularly from higher yielding cows, are usually greater when milking interval is adjusted to 12 hour. The effect of uneven intervals is not large up to 16 and 8 hours, and can be minimized by milking the higher yielder first in the morning and last in the afternoon.<br />5) MILKING FREQUENCY<br />Herd lactation yields will increase as the frequency of milking is increased. On average, the rise in milk yields will be between 10% and 15%, the largest increases occurring amongst heifers. The chemical composition of the milk (fat and solids-not-fat) will be unaffected. Recent commercial data from developed dairying areas also reveal that up to 10% increase in yield is required to cover the extra costs of milking three times daily. The benefit of the increased frequency is obtained by milking three times daily throughout lactation rather than reverting to twice daily when milk yields begin to fall. The reasons for the increase in lactation yields are inconclusive; the most likely being the more frequent removal of secretion inhibiting substances which begin the drying-off process.<br />6) MILKING ROUTINES<br />The aim of an efficient and effective milking routine is to leave the least amount of residual milk in the udder. Milk ejection can be stimulated manually by a series of activities carried out by the milker. The amount of residual milk is inversely proportional to the strength of the conditioned stimuli signals, which are developed into a regular, repetitive milking routine, including such activities as feeding and udder preparation. The stimulation response is transitory, the maximum effect declining within a few minutes of milk ejection occurring. Therefore, delayed milking will reduce the amount of milk removed. The internal pressure of milk within the udder peaks between one and two minutes after milk ejection and therefore milking should be completed as soon as possible after this occurs. <br />Cows are habitual creatures and consequently changes to the routine should be made gently and quietly. It is important to avoid any circumstances which upset or frighten them causing the release of adrenalin which adversely affects the circulatory and musculatory systems, thus restricting effective milk ejection and prolonging the duration of milking. The response of cows and those milking them to a pleasant and stress free environment will be measured in terms of production levels.<br />Because residual milk and strippings have fat percentages that normally exceed 10%, incomplete or slow milking can reduce markedly the fat content of the milk at any particular milking. However, it is important to recognize that milk fat retained in the udder is not lost but will be obtained at succeeding milkings. In fact, although management factors (eg. varying milking intervals and milking frequency) may alter the fat content of milk at one milking, the average fat content over a period of time will be unaffected. On an average, the fat content of milk obtained must be the same as that secreted into the udder. The concentrations of protein, lactose and other SNF are unaffected by changes in milking management either at one or more milkings.<br />7) MILKING METHODS<br />Hand milking and machine milking are the two methods prevalent in India .Hand milking has be done using clean, dry hands. Hand milking is performed by massaging and pulling down on the teats of the cow's udder, squirting the milk into a bucket. <br />Milking is also done by using milking machines. The teat cups are attached to the cow's teats, then the cups alternate between vacuum and normal air pressure to extract the milk. The milk is filtered and cooled before being added to a large bulk tank of milk for storage.<br />8) SYSTEMS OF MILKING<br />a) Hand milking<br />Cows are milked usually from left side. Milking can be start either cross wise or forequarters together and then hind quarters together or teats appearing most distended milked first. Removing the few streams of fore milk from each teat helps to remove any dirt from the teat canal and gives the operator a chance to detect mastitis. <br />Hand milking is done either by stripping or by full hand method. Stripping is done by firmly holding the teat between our thumb and fore finger and drawing it down the length of the teat and pressing it to cause the milk to flow down in a stream. Grasping the teat with all the five fingers and pressing it against the palm does fisting or full hand milking. The teat is compressed and relaxed alternatively in quick succession, thus the method removes milk much quicker than stripping as there is no loss of time in changing the position of the hand. Full hand method is superior to stripping because it stimulates the natural suckling process by calf and this method exerts an equal pressure on the large teats of cows and buffaloes. Knuckling should always be avoided to prevent injuries of the teat tissues. The first few strips of milk from each quarter should be discarded as it contains highest number of bacteria.<br />Hygiene standards are important during milking. Milker should use clean milking clothes and narrow mouthed milking buckets to prevent dust, dirt and udder hairs falling into the milk. Clipping the udders and tails reduces the chances of contamination. The foremilk is drawn and examined and dirt should be removed from udders and teats by washing and drying with disposable paper towels. Milking should be practiced with clean, dry hands, using the full hand in preference to just finger and thumb, a practice which can lead to misshapen udders and teat injury<br />Milk cooling methods will depend mainly on the local water supply. If the quality, quantity or temperature is unsuitable or unreliable, then the milk should be taken, within 3 hours of production, to a cooling center. If an unlimited free supply of clean, cold (below 15°C) water is available, the cans of milk can be immersed in running water. Water usage can be reduced and cooling rate increased by inserting a turbine in-can cooler into the cans of milk. Alternatively, the milk may be tipped and allowed to flow over a corrugated surface cooler connected to the water supply.<br />For cleaning the milking bucket and foremilk (strip) cup, stool and udder washing equipments and other utensils is best done by an initial rinse in clean water immediately after milking, followed by scrubbing in a hot (45°C or above) detergent/disinfectant solution before finally rinsing in chlorinated water (50 ppm). Another option is after scrubbing the equipment in hot detergent solution, disinfect by immersing it in hot (above 75°C) water for at least 3 minutes. All equipment should be drained dry, and be ready in dry, clean condition for further milking. <br />b) Bucket machine milking<br />First major development in the mechanization of milking systems came through bucket milking and is designed for herds kept in cowsheds. Each portable unit, consisting of a lidded bucket, varying capacity, pulsator and teat-cup assembly or cluster, requires manual attachment to a vacuum supply when it is moved from cow to cow during milking. Milk is tipped from the buckets into milk cans positioned in the milk room or in the cowshed. This system is mechanically simple and relatively low cost for running and maintenance when compared with milking machines in parlours. Milking performance is comparatively less than milking machines. It is more time consuming in the form of walking from cow to cow and carrying equipment and transporting, lifting and tipping milk. Bucket machine milking usually practiced for 30 cows per hour. Performance of bucket milking can be improved by using a trolley carrying the milk cans, spare milking machine bucket and udder preparation equipment and can be used for about 40 cows per hour. Cooling the milk can be done by using an in-can turbine cooler when the cans are full or buckets of milk are cooled in corrugated surface cooler in dairy. Cooling efficiency is improved and water requirements reduced by connecting the cooler to a chilled water unit.<br />Cleaning bucket milking machines and its ancillary equipment is done using detergent/disinfectant solutions. After milking, visible dirt and milk deposits of the equipment are removed with cold, clean water. Each unit is connected to the vacuum supply and 10 liters of clean water drawn through the teat-cups into the unit bucket. The initial rinsing is followed by scrubbing the milking equipment (except pulsators and pulse tubes) in a hot (not less than 45°C) detergent/disinfectant solution using 45 liters per 3 milking units. The equipment is rinsed in chlorinated water (50 ppm) and allowed to drain dry in a clean place. Ancillary equipment is treated similarly.<br />c) Direct-to-can milking<br />The direct-to-can milking system is used when there is increased in number of cow size. Direct-to-can milking system having low capital investment, running costs and labour input. In this method, milk is drawn direct from the udders to the milk cans via a specially designed lid which connects the milk can to the vacuum supply. Milk can be replaced when it is full. Cooling of the milk is done by inserting an in-can cooler into the cans of milk and connecting it either to a clean, cold water supply or to a chilled water unit. <br />Milking equipments are cleaned by rinsing in clean water to remove all visible dirt and milk deposits. The stainless steel lid and rubber gasket, rubber tubes and a stainless steel teat cup assembly are loaded into a purpose designed steel-mesh basket and immersed into a rubber or mild-steel bin containing a 3-5% caustic soda solution. The equipment remains in the solution until the next milking. Before use, all traces of caustic soda solution removed by thorough rinsing in chlorinated (50 ppm) water. On monthly intervals the solution is renewed and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) added at the rate of 60gms to 45 liters of solution to prevent hard water deposits. After each milking the cooler and ancillary equipment are cleaned in the similar way as for bucket milking machine.<br />d) Pipeline milking<br />A milking pipeline or milk pipeline is a component of a dairy farm animal-milking operation and is used to transfer milk from the animals to a cooling and storage bulk tank and is installed in large cowsheds and milking barns. The main advantages of pipeline milking are that the milk is transported under vacuum from udder to dairy for cooling and storage and the cleaning and disinfection of the milking equipment can be done in-situ with very little manual involvement (clean-in-place). There are facilities for insertion of devices into the milking pipeline to reveal clinical signs of mastitis, indicate the milk yield from each cow, allow samples to be taken and automatically remove the cluster when milk flow ceases (thus eliminating over milking). Though comparatively high investment, labour costs are low in this system. This system is used in large and medium sized herds milked in parlours, particularly where bulk milk collection is involved. Milking performances of more than 85 cows per man hour can be achieved through this system.<br />Milk cooling can be done by discharging the milk over a corrugated surface cooler connected to the water supply or a chilled water unit and can be collected in milk cans underneath. The pipeline and all milk handling systems are cleaned after every milking session using a pipeline washing system. Cleaning and disinfection of the pipeline milking plant in-situ done by first removing manually visible dirt and milk deposits from external surfaces and making a complete circuit between milking and milk transfer pipelines. Recirculate hot detergent/disinfection solution when the initial hot water rinse reaches 65°C at the discharge point, for 10–15 minutes at 10–15 liters per unit. Finally rinsing is done with chlorinated water at 50 ppm.<br />Acidified Boiling Water (ABW) cleaning is done on heat disinfection and consists of a single, once-through circulation of near boiling water (at 15–20 liters per unit), maintaining a temperature above 77°C on all milk contact surfaces for at least 2 minutes. One litre of dilute acid (70% w/w nitric acid or sulphamic acid crystals) is drawn during the first 2–3 minutes of flow into the boiling water to prevent deposition of hard water salts. The refrigerated bulk milk tank is cleaned mechanically or manually.<br />Milking machines<br />Milking machines are used to harvest milk from cows instead of manual milking for milking more cows using fewer people and less effort. Milking unit is made up of a claw, four teat cups, (Shells and rubber liners) long milk tube, long pulsation tube, and a pulsator. The claw is an assembly that connects the short pulse tubes and short milk tubes from the teat cups to the long pulse tube and long milk tube. Claws are usually made of stainless steel or plastic or both. Teat cups are composed of a rigid outer shell (stainless steel or plastic) that holds a soft inner liner or inflation. Transparent sections in the shell allow viewing of liner collapse and milk flow. The annular space between the shell and liner is called the pulse chamber.<br />Modern milking machines work using a pulsating vacuum to cause a rubber sleeve round each teat to simulate the effect of hand milking or a suckling calf. Continuous vacuum is applied inside the soft liner to massage milk from the teat by creating a pressure difference across the teat canal. The vacuum applied to the teat causes congestion of teat tissues (accumulation of blood and other fluids). Atmospheric air is admitted into the pulsation chamber about once per second (the pulsation rate) to allow the liner to collapse around the end of teat and relieve congestion in the teat tissue. The ratio of the time that the liner is open (milking phase) and closed (rest phase) is called the pulsation ratio. Pulsation rate is usually about 45-60 per minute. The ratio of time that the machine is in milk phase vs. rest phase should be between 50/50 to 60/40 (pulsation ratio). Pulsation ratios are slightly different for teat cups milking the fore quarters vs. the rear quarters. Teat-end vacuum should be stable and should be approximately 11-12 inches of mercury.<br />Streams of milk from the four teat cups are usually combined in the claw and transported to the milk line, or the collection bucket in a single milk hose. Milk is then transported (manually in buckets) or with a combination of airflow and mechanical pump to a central storage vat or bulk tank. Milk is refrigerated either by passing through a heat-exchanger or in the bulk tank, or both.<br />When milking is completed the vacuum to the milking unit is shut off and the teat cups are removed. Milking machines is useful for keeping the milk enclosed and safe from external contamination. The interior 'milk contact' surfaces of the machine are kept clean by manual or automated washing procedures. <br />MILKING PARLOUR INSTALLATIONS<br />Milking parlours/ sheds are the buildings in which milk is exacted from cows and stored before collected for processing. Shed layouts are important to the milking process, to the cow as well as the farmer. At first, static parlour design followed the cowshed stall arrangement with the cows standing side-by-side and a milking unit positioned between each pair of stalls. In these abreast parlours, cows enter across the operator's working area and both are on the same floor level. Later, a step was included to elevate the cows 0.3–0.4 m. Even with this addition milking cannot be carried out in an upright position and it was not until the introduction of the tandem parlour that genuine two-level milking became possible. In these, the cows stand head-to-tail in individual stalls on one or both sides of the operator's pit or work area with a floor level difference of 0.8 m. Each stall is fitted with an entry and exit gate giving access to and from a passage flanking the stalls. A simplified version of the tandem, known as the chute parlour, eliminates the need for separate access passages by having batch entry/exit of cows through the stalls when a division between each stall is opened. The number of cows in each batch equals the number of stalls on each side of the operator's pit. In both the tandem and the chute the distance between udders of adjacent cows is 2.5 m. This disadvantage renders large parlours impracticable, a problem which was solved by the development of the herringbone parlour. By standing a batch of cows in echelon formation at an angle of 30°–35° to the sides of the operator's pit, the distance between udders is reduced to 0.9 m. There are no individual stalls, the cows being restrained on the platform (or standing) by an entry gate, an exit gate and a rump rail parallel to the pit side. <br />ABREAST PARLOURS<br />5048253175<br /><ul><li>Abreast milk parlour construction costs are low per cow place.
  9. 9. Here operators have to bend or crouch to perform most of the routine tasks on each cow.
  10. 10. Milking efficiency is hindered by cows crossing the operator's work area.
  11. 11. Cows in the exit passage are remote from the operator's control.
  12. 12. Individual stalls allow individual attention during milking.</li></ul>TANDEM PARLOURS<br /><ul><li>Tandem milk parlour construction costs are high per cow place.
  13. 13. Here operators can milk standing upright.
  14. 14. Cows in the entry/exit passages are remote from the operator's control.
  15. 15. Size of parlour and throughput are limited by the distance (2.5m) between udders.
  16. 16. Individual stalls allow individual attention during milking.
  17. 17. Food troughs can be easily reached and inspected by the operator.</li></ul>CHUTE PARLOURS<br /><ul><li>This is the cheaper and batch milking version of the tandem.
  18. 18. Cows enter and leave through the stalls.
  19. 19. The operator has control over cow entry/exit.</li></ul>HERRINGBONE MILKING PARLOURS<br />In herringbone milking parlours, cows enter, in single file, and line up almost perpendicular to the central aisle of the milking parlour on both sides of a central pit in which the milker works. After washing the udder and teats the cups of the milking machine are applied to the cows, from the rear of their hind legs, on both sides of the working area. This method is popular in major producing countries and suitable for herds of 50 to 400 cows. A modification of this method is also popular called the side-by-side, in which the cows stand at right angles to the pit so that 3 cows can occupy the space required for 2 cows in a herringbone. Four-sided and, more recently, three-sided (trigon) herringbones have been built for larger herds. Three-sided herringbone with, consequently, smaller batches causing less delay from a slow milking cow. Multi-sided parlours economize in the number of units and stalls required compared with the conventional two-sided herringbone. <br />1905022860<br /><ul><li>In herringbone milk parlours, cows stand in echelon formation at 30°–35° to the operator's pit with no division between cows.
  20. 20. Distance between udders is reduced to 0.9 m.
  21. 21. Here the operator has control over cow entry/exit.
  22. 22. Cows enter and leave in batches.
  23. 23. Suitable for herds of 50–400 cows.</li></ul>TRIGON PARLOURS<br /><ul><li>Three-sided herringbone with, consequently, smaller batches causing less delay from a slow milking cow.
  24. 24. Comparative parlour performance capacity will require 20–25% fewer units and stalls than the conventional herringbone.</li></ul>SIDE-BY-SIDE PARLOURS<br /> <br /><ul><li>This model is a modification of the herringbone milk parlours.
  25. 25. Cows stand at right angles to the operator's pit, so that 3 cows occupy the length required for 2 in the herringbone.
  26. 26. Cows must be milked through the back legs.</li></ul>SWING OVER MILKING PARLOURS<br /> Swing over parlours are the similar as herringbone parlours except they have only one set of milking cups to be shared between the two rows of cows. When as one side is milked the cows on the other side are moved out and replaced with unmilked cows. These parlours are advantage that it is less costly to equipment, however it operates at slightly better than half-speed and person can milk about 100 cows. <br />ROTARY MILKING SHEDS<br /> Rotary milking sheds consist of a turn table with about 12 to 100 individual stalls for cows around the outer edge. The turn table is turned by an electric-motor drive at a rate that one turn is the time for a cow to be milked completely. As an empty stall passes the entrance a cow steps on, facing the centre, and rotates with the turn table. The next cow moves into the next vacant stall and so on. The operator, or milker, cleans the teats, attaches the cups and does any other feeding or whatever husbandry operations those are necessary. Cows are milked as the platform rotates. The milker, or an automatic device, removes the milking machine cups and the cow backs out and leaves at an exit just before the entrance. The rotary system is capable of milking very large herds—over a thousand cows.<br />Originally, rotary parlours were built for very large herds but more recently smaller ones have been designed to provide an alternative to the herringbone. As in the case of static parlours, the cows stand either side-by-side, i.e., rotary abreast; head-to-tail i.e., rotary tandem or in echelon formation, i.e., rotary herringbone. During milking, cows walk onto a rotating platform singly with the operator standing at the point of entry to prepare the udders for milking and attach the teat cup clusters. The cows leave the platform when rotation brings them opposite the exit passage, the clusters having been removed automatically when milk flow ceased. High capital and maintenance costs, mechanical faults and the introduction of automation into static parlours have all contributed to a declining interest in rotaries. The most successful version is undoubtedly the rotary abreast which has no moving parts on the platform, the cows face inwards towards the centre and the operator is positioned at the circumference of the platform to control cow entry.<br />ROTARY ABREAST<br /><ul><li>Rotary abreast is the least expensive rotary system per cow place in terms of cost and space requirement.
  27. 27. Cows face inwards separated by static tubular metal divisions.
  28. 28. No moving parts on the platform.
  29. 29. Operator standing at the platform perimeter can assist cow entry but cannot see the cows during rotation.</li></ul>-129540405130ROTARY TANDEM<br /><ul><li>Most expensive per cow place in terms of cost and space requirement.
  30. 30. Cows stand nose-to-tail in stalls circling the operators work area.
  31. 31. Operator cannot assist cow entry but can see all cows easily during rotation.</li></ul>ROTARY HERRINGBONE<br /><ul><li>Cows stand in echelon formation facing outwards around a central work area.
  32. 32. Designs vary from simple yoke ties only on the platform to rotationally operated moving divisions which position the cows and allow entry and exit.</li></ul>AUTOMATIC MILKING SHEDS/ ROBOTIC MILKING SHEDS <br />These types of milking sheds can be seen in Australia, New Zealand and many European countries. Automatic milking sheds use the voluntary milking (VM) method this allow the cows to voluntarily present themselves for milking at any time of the day or night., although repeat visits may be limited by the farmer through computer software. Computers direct the automatic removal of the milking cups as the flow reduces. A robot arm is used to clean teats and apply milking equipment, while automated gates direct cow traffic, eliminating the need for the farmer to be present during the process. The entire process is computer controlled. <br />CHAPTER 5<br />MILK HYGIENE<br />Subin K.Mohan, Vijetha, B.T., K.M. Dileepkumar, Ani Bency Jacob <br />The milk secreted into an uninfected cow's udder is sterile. Invariably it becomes contaminated during milking, cooling and storage, and milk is an excellent medium for bacteria, yeasts and moulds that are the common contaminants. Their rapid growth, particularly at high ambient temperatures can cause marked deterioration, spoiling the milk for liquid consumption or manufacture into dairy products. This can be avoided by adopting the simple, basic rules of clean milk production. The common sources of contamination that affect milk hygiene are<br />a) UDDER INFECTION<br />The essential requirements are to maintain udders free from infection (eg. mastitis); manage cows so that their udders and teats are clean; milk them in such a way that minimizes bacterial contamination; store the milk in clean containers and, wherever possible, at temperatures which discourage bacterial growth until collected. Simple and low-cost husbandry practices enable milk to be produced with a bacterial count of less than 50,000 per ml. The golden rule of clean milk production is that prevention is better than cure.<br />It is impossible to prevent mastitis infection completely, but it can be kept at low levels by adopting practical measures. Most mastitis is sub-clinical and although not readily detected by the stockman, it will not normally raise the bacterial count of herd milk above 50,000 per ml. Once the clinical stage is reached, the count may increase to several millions/ml and one infected quarter may result in the milk from the whole herd being unacceptable. Hence, it is important to detect clinical cases and exclude their milk from the bulk.<br />Other sources of contamination<br />Under normal grazing conditions, cows' udders will appear clean and therefore washing and drying will be unnecessary. Otherwise, any visible dirt must be removed using clean, running water, individual paper towels or cloths in clean water to which a disinfectant has been added (eg. sodium hypochlorite at 300 ppm). If udder cloths are used, provide a clean cloth for each cow. After each milking wash and disinfect them and hang up to dry. Disposable paper towels are preferable and more effective for drying after washing. When cows are housed or graze in heavily stocked paddocks, external udder surfaces are usually grossly contaminated with bacteria even when they appear visibly clean, therefore routine udder preparation procedures should be followed. Whenever udders are washed they should be dried.<br />Fore-milking has little effect on the total bacterial count of the milk but is an effective way of detecting clinical symptoms of mastitis. Filtering or straining the milk removes visible dirt but not the bacteria in the milk because they pass through the filter. Aerial contamination of milk by bacteria is insignificant under normal production conditions.<br />The milk contact surfaces of milking and cooling equipment are a main source of milk contamination and frequently the principal cause of consistently high bacterial counts. Simple, inexpensive cleaning and disinfecting routines can virtually eliminate this source of contamination.<br />b) Cleaning milk production equipment<br />It is virtually impossible with practical cleaning systems to remove all milk residues and deposits from the milk contact surfaces of milking equipment. Except in very cold, dry weather, bacteria will multiply on these surfaces during the interval between milkings, so that high numbers (e.g. 106 per m2) can be present on visually clean equipment. A proven cleaning and disinfectant routine is required so that with the minimum of effort and expense, the equipment will have low bacterial counts as well as being visually clean.<br />The essential requirements are, to use milking equipment with smooth milk contact surfaces with minimal joints and crevices, an uncontaminated water supply, detergents to remove deposits and milk residues and a method of disinfection to kill bacteria.<br />c) Water supplies<br />Unless an approved pipe supply is available, it must be assumed that water is contaminated and therefore, hypochlorite must be added at the rate of 50 ppm to the cleaning water. Hard water (ie. high levels of dissolved calcium and other salts) will cause surface deposits on equipment and reduce cleaning effectiveness. In such cases, it is necessary to use de-scaling acids such as sulphamic or phosphoric, periodically.<br />d) Detergents and disinfectants<br />Detergents increase the wetting potential over the surfaces to be cleaned, displace milk deposits, dissolve milk protein, emulsify the fat and aid the removal of dirt. Detergent effectiveness is usually increased with increasing water temperature, and by using the correct concentration and time of application. Detergents contain inorganic alkalis (eg. sodium carbonate and silicates and tri-sodium phosphate), surface-active agents (or wetting agents), sequestering agents ie water-softening (eg. polyphosphates) and acids for de-scaling. Disinfectants are required to destroy the bacteria remaining and subsequently multiplying on the cleaned surfaces. The alternatives are either heat applied as hot water or chemicals. Heat penetrates deposits and crevices and kills bacteria, providing that correct temperatures are maintained during the process of disinfection. <br />The effectiveness of chemicals is increased with temperature but even so, they do not have the same penetration potential as heat and they will not effectively disinfect milk contact surfaces which are difficult to clean. Many chemicals are suitable as disinfectants, some of them combined with detergents (i.e. detergent-sterilizers). Use only those which are approved, avoiding particularly those which can taint milk (eg. phenolic disinfectants). Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Sodium hypochlorite is an inexpensive example of an approved disinfectant suitable for most dairy purposes. Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) can also be very effective at concentrations of 3%–5% at ambient temperatures, providing adequate contact time is given with the surfaces to be cleaned and disinfected.<br />Note: Dairy disinfectants are sold as concentrates and in this form are often corrosive and damaging to the skin and eyes. They should always be so labeled, handled with care and stored out of reach of children. Disinfectants should not be mixed unless specific instructions are given and disinfectant powders must be kept dry. If any concentrated detergent and/or disinfectant come in contact with the skin or eyes the affected area should be washed immediately with copious amounts of clean water. If acids are used they must always be added to the water not vice versa.<br />e) Milking premises<br />The milking premises should have a dairy or suitable place equipped with a piped hot and cold water supply, a wash trough, brushes, a work surface, storage racks and cupboards and, if necessary, a vacuum pipeline connection. In addition, it is advisable to have a dairy thermometer (0°C - 100°C), rubber gloves and goggles for use when handling chemicals.<br />f) Daily routines<br />Daily routines for cleaning and disinfecting vary with the size and complexity of the milking installation but will include methods of removing dirt and milk from the equipment followed by disinfection. For hand milking, bucket and direct-to-can milking machines, basic manual methods of cleaning and sterilizing are adequate and effective. For pipeline milking machines in-situ (in-place) systems are necessary.<br />Milk can become grossly contaminated from bacteria on ancillary equipment which must also be cleaned and disinfected effectively. Coolers, either the corrugated surface or the turbine in-can, can best be cleaned and disinfected manually and stored in the dairy to drain. Refrigerated bulk milk tanks can be cleaned either manually using cold or warm detergent/disinfectant solutions, or for the larger tanks, by automatic, programmed equipment. In either case, cold water chlorinated (50 ppm) rinse precedes and follows the washing solution. Foremilk cups can be a potent source of bacterial contamination and need to be cleaned and disinfected after each milking. They should then be stored in the dairy to drain.<br />It is important with any method of cleaning that the equipment is drained as soon as possible after washing for storage between milkings. Bacteria will not multiply in dry conditions but water lodged in milking equipment will, in suitable temperatures, provide conditions for massive bacterial multiplication. Equipment with poor milk contact surfaces, crevices and large number of joints, remaining wet between milkings in ambient temperatures above 20°C, should receive a disinfectant rinse (50 ppm available chlorine) before milking begins.<br /> <br />CHAPTER 6<br />CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION IN THE FARMER’S PREMISES<br />Subin K.Mohan<br />Clean milk production can be achieved only through establishing a minimum set of practices that could cause significant improvement in the quality of milk at the individual producer level. The most important do’s and don’ts that contribute to milk quality have their place in the cowshed where milk is produced. They appear to be very simple, but are of immense importance. Following are the standard hygienic practices to be adopted by a farmer for clean milk production.<br />SOURCE HYGIENE AND PREPARATIONS (IN GENERAL)<br />Check for mastitis with a strip cup or any other method. <br />Isolate sick animals and milk them last (Their milk should not be mixed with good milk). <br />Wash udder, teats and flank of the animal with clean water preferably add a disinfectant. Wipe with a clean cloth. <br />Always groom and cut the hair around the under. <br />Dispose fore-milk. <br />Tie tails of troublesome animals when milking. <br />1) MILKING ENVIRONMENT or CATTLE SHED HYGIENE<br />The animal shed is one of the main sources of contamination. At the same time however, a good shed protects against micro-organisms as it keeps out other animals, people, wind, rain and excessive heat, all increasing the danger of contamination. <br />Separate premises located far away from human living quarters, sewage, manure pits and stagnant water pools are advisable for housing and milking of animals.<br />The farmer should have his cattle shed at a well-elevated place.<br />The shed can be permanent or movable. <br />Where possible provide a cement floor for easy and proper cleaning. <br />There should be good drainage. Water should drain easily and away from the shed. <br />Floor and gutters should have adequate slope for easy drainage and removal of dung. <br />Provide a clean feed trough, water trough and protected store. <br />There should be a good source of water nearby. <br />The shed should be located away from bad smells and odours. <br />It should be properly ventilated, with windows admitting daylight.<br />The cattle shed should be properly illuminated. <br />Built the cattle shed in North-South direction (long axis) as it will get the benefit of morning and evening sun, so that amble sunlight will be available.<br />The stall air should be always fresh, pure, and free from dust and dirt.<br />Avoid direct air currents and dust source in cow shed and milking byre.<br />Exhaust fans can be provided.<br />White washing of sheds should be done periodically.<br />Dry and tick free bedding should be provided. DDT may be used to kill ticks.<br />CLEANLINESS<br />It is equally important to clean the cattle shed from time to time. The milking area of the shed needs special hygienic attention. <br />The floor of the milk shed should be swept with clean water, and disinfected with one-percent bleaching powder solution.<br />Mud, urine, faeces, and feed residues should regularly be removed from the shed. Washings, manure and other wastes should be efficiently disposed.<br />Brooming the cattle shed and removal of dung and urine from time to time will control the files which are a major menace and source of infection. Chemical sprays can also be used.<br />It is recommended to clean (sweep) the cattle shed minimum 30 minutes ahead of actual milking so that the flying dust is allowed to settle on the ground which prevents its entry in milk vessels. <br />The shed should be fitted with fly-proof wire mesh wherever possible. <br />Keep the feed materials having off-flavours away from the milking area since these flavours are known to enter milk.<br />It should be cleaned after every milking. <br />Livestock should not have access to the shed during the day.<br />Cleaning of walls, standings, gutter and other surroundings should be practiced regularly.<br />2) ANIMAL HYGIENE<br />The milch animals needs due attention with regard to its health and cleanliness for producing hygienic milk.<br />i) ANIMAL HEALTH<br />The farmer should keep the milch animals in good health. Milking animal should be free from diseases like TB, Brucellosis etc and all bacterial and viral diseases which can be transmitted from animal to man through milk.<br />Good health can be achieved by<br />Prevention of diseases through vaccination.<br />The animals should be periodically examined for udder infections and other diseases.<br />Sporadic diseases should be timely treated. <br />The animals should be screened for TB and mastitis at frequent intervals since these diseases are harmful for public health. <br />The farmer should groom the back, belly and insides of thighs of animal to remove the dried dust and fallen hairs from the body coat so that they do not enter milk.<br />Regular deworming.<br />Weaning of calf.<br />Infected animals should be got treated by the local veterinarian.<br />In case of infectious and serious diseases, animals should be isolated or discarded.<br />Adopt all sanitary precautions to control spread of infection.<br />Milk of infected animals should not be mixed with the bulk supply until the animal is fully recovered.<br />The most commonly affecting disease due to mis-management is MASTITIS*.<br />* the details about mastitis will be dealt later in another chapter<br />ii) BODY AND UDDER HYGIENE<br />The body and udder of the animal should be cleaned before milking by washing and wiping with a clean cloth.<br />The materials that contaminate the body of the animal are dung, mud, bedding material, straws etc. These act as the reservoirs of micro organisms. To prevent the entry of these contaminants into milk, dirty coat should be regularly washed, clipped or brushed. This is more important in case of buffaloes, as they wallow in dirty ponds and carry mud and filth on their body. By these methods, dirt will not fall into milk.<br />Hairs of hind limbs, udder and tail of the animal to be milked should be shaved off.<br />Wash udder with towel socked in 1% potassium permanganate solution.<br />Fore milk may contain microorganisms and this should be collected and removed from the cowshed. <br />UDDER WASHING<br />Washing and cleaning should be done gently without damaging the orifices and clefts between the quarters of the udder.<br />Don’t think that regular washing of udder causes chapped or sore teats.<br />There should be three buckets of water along with separate cloths,<br />Plain water<br />Disinfectant solution<br />Mild detergent solution for final wash.<br />First wash with plain water and this will remove dirt particles from the udder. A gentle detergent solution can be used for removing persistent dirt. Still the dirt persists, wipe it with a wet cloth, the cloth should be wrung along with the bucket.<br />During severe winters, lukewarm water is preferred and this will also helps in letting down of milk.<br />The temperature of the warm water should not be beyond 55oC.<br />Addition of hypochlorite (500ppm i.e. 5 gram hypochlorite powder in 10 liters of water or half oz per gallon of water) helps to disinfect the udder and is used as udder wash.<br />Quaternary ammonium compounds (200-400 ppm) are better substitutes as many farmers think that chlorine is irritating to udder. More over QAC has less harmful effects on tissues and organic matter has lesser effects on its activity.<br />In Indian conditions, Dettol and Savlon can be diluted and used to disinfect udder and teats.<br />Soaps, if used for udder washing, may serve only cleaning purpose as they have no microbial property required for sanitation.<br />After each milking wash and disinfect them and hang up to dry. If udder cloths are used, provide a clean cloth for each cow. It should be sterilized before next use. <br />Disposable paper towels are preferable and more effective for drying after washing.<br />The udder and teats should be wiped with clean cloth dipped in detergent after milking.<br />3) HYGIENIC MEASURES TO BE FOLLOWED WHILE MILKING<br />i) ANIMAL PREPARATION<br />Do not excite the animals.<br />Regularize milking intervals.<br />While beginning to milk, the udder should be properly wiped with a clean moist cloth dipped in disinfect solution and squeezed. <br />It is advisable to change the cloth from animal to animal. <br />If not possible, at least dip the cloth in disinfectant while going to the next animal. <br />ii) MILKER’S HYGIENE<br />The milker should take care to follow strict hygienic practices from beginning to end to avoid contamination of milk. He should be<br />Be healthy and clean. <br />Be in good health, not suffering from any disease like TB or flu, cholera, typhoid etc. <br />Persons with injury, skin and infectious diseases should not handle the milk.<br />Take bath before milking.<br />Wear clean clothes.<br />Wash hands with soap and water before commencing his work.<br />Soaps and clean towels should be provided for the milkers always.<br />Maintain short finger nails so as not to cause any injury to the teats.<br />Cut hair (ladies can cover their heads when milking as guard to falling hair) <br />Avoid bad habits like smoking, talking, spitting and chewing tobacco during milking time.<br />Don’t dip fingers in milk.<br />Don’t apply oil in hands which is really not necessary and allows the dirt to enter milk. <br />Milker should not cough or sneeze while milking as this will spreads the infection. <br />Ensure that his sweat drops do not enter into milk.<br />Be quick and efficient. <br />Milk continuously (no interruptions). <br />It is recommended that the persons engaged in milking and handling of milk should be subjected to regular medical inspection.<br />iii) METHOD / MILKING PRACTICE<br />The animal should be milked out completely. No milk should be left inside after milking.<br />Eliminate fore milk as it contains high bacterial counts. If it gets mixed with rest of the milk, the entire milk will be spoiled due to high microbial count.<br />Dry milking should be practiced. <br />Avoid dipping the fingertips in milk. <br />Wet milking should be avoided.<br />Avoid applying oil in hands as this allows the dirt to enter milk.<br />Applying fat in hands while milking can also be practiced as it reduces the chances of teat injuries. <br />Full hand milking method should be followed as it reduces teat aberrations and there by chances of mastitis.<br />Hand milking should always be done using clean, dry hands. <br />Preferably avoid end-of-milking stripping with the finger and thumb. <br />Rear quarters should be milked first as they contain most milk and the milking bucket hooded to reduce contamination from dust and udder hairs.<br />Avoid practices like knuckling which can cause mastitis.<br />Squeeze the teat and do not pull. <br />All milk should be got from the udder i.e. avoid incomplete milking.<br />The milker should not cough or sneeze as this will spreads the infection.<br />He should ensure that his sweat drops do not enter into milk. <br />At the end of milking, the teats should be dipped in disinfectant solution (commonly iodophor) <br />This method is called teat dipping and this helps in closure of teat sphincters. <br />Teat dipping reduces the entry of mastitis germs and there by mastitis.<br />Milking should be completed in 6-8 minutes.<br />Milking machine can be used in farms having more than 8 cows.<br />If the herd size exceeds 100, a separate milk parlour will ensure better hygiene.<br />The animal should be fed after milking so that the animal naturally keeps standing for a longer time. If the animal is allowed to sit immediately after milking, there are good chances for the mastitis germs to enter the teat canals before their sphincters close up. <br />Ensured that the animals having any disease should be milked in the end. <br />Milk of diseased animals and disease suspected animals should be disposed of separately. <br />Milk from the animals receiving antibiotic treatment should be handled separately for a period of 72 hours after stoppage of treatment.<br />Machine milking will create a pleasant sensation for the cows if the machine is kept clean, maintained properly and operated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Attach and remove clusters carefully to avoid vacuum fluctuations which cause mastitis. Readjust slipping teat cups and replace fallen clusters immediately. It is most important that milking is done with a well designed, carefully cleaned and properly maintained machine which is operated strictly according to the manufacturer's instructions.<br />The animals should be dried off 60-70 days before calving.<br />4) FEED AND WATER HYGIENE<br />Feed that is old, stale, infested and vegetables like cabbage, turnip, onions, garlic are bound to cause off-flavours. Therefore, these should be stored away and not be given to milch animals within a couple of hours of milking. Such feeds should be avoided.<br />The farmer should remember that any sudden change in feeding may lead to variation in composition of fat. <br />Weeds, polluted water, slush and unsanitary conditions lead to bad smell of milk.<br />Insecticides and pesticides may enter into milk mainly via feed materials. It is better to use the de-oiled ingredients in cattle feed which will eliminate the risk of pesticide contamination of milk.<br />Feeds which have been contaminated with aflatoxins, plant toxins, heavy metals and radioactive metals should be avoided.<br />Clean and potable water supply should always be available. Facilities should be provided for a sufficient supply of safe and potable water for drinking, washing udders and flanks of the animals, utensils and milkers’ hands etc.<br />Clean water should be used for providing water to animals and for cleaning purposes.<br />5) UTENSIL HYGIENE<br />The pails or other containers used for milking and storage of milk under farm conditions play a significant role in determining the microbial quality of milk. In case of milking machine practiced on organized dairy farms and milking equipments, need regular care. The following measures need tot be adopted.<br />MILK VESSELS<br />All milking utensils should be of uniform size.<br />Clean and tinned utensils having smooth surface free from dent and crevices should be used for milking and storage of milk.<br />The vessels used for drawing milk should be properly cleaned and disinfected. <br />The pail should have small opening to avoid contamination from outside. <br />The milk should be transferred from the pail through a clean cotton cloth used as strainer into a milk can or milk storage tank. <br />The utensils used for milk handling should be of aluminium or stainless steel. The usage of empty oil cans, dalda tins, teapots etc. should be avoided.<br />Seamless utensils preferred.<br />Use cans, sufurias or metal buckets in milking.<br />Wherever milking machines are used, all the recommendations given by the supplier should be followed. <br />CLEANING<br />Provide a good washing place. <br />Proper washing procedure should be adopted.<br />All the utensils should be cleaned, scrubbed well, exposed to sunrays, or sterilized by using steam. <br />Rinse excess milk with cold and clean water. <br />Scrub with a brush using hot water mixed with a detergent e.g. soap or detergent. At farm level, washing soda coupled with exposure to sunlight or rinsing with scalding water or use of detergent- cum- sanitizer like iodophores can be practiced.<br />Rinse with cold water and place the utensils to dry on a rack upside down during the day for complete drainage of water and also to avoid contamination through air, insects, rodents, mosquitoes, reptiles etc.<br />In case of milking machines, proper cleaning and sanitization of various parts should be done regularly. Metal parts should be cleaned with metal brushes. For rubber parts, 0.4% - 0.5% NaOH can be used. Cleaning-in-place is preferred for pipelines of milking equipments. It should be cleaned and sterilized with cold water followed by hot detergent wash (45oC) and finally hot water sterilization (85oC). Before milking, the equipment should be subjected to chlorine rinse with 300ppm hypochlorite solution.<br />STORAGE<br />Utensils should be stored at night in a safe and clean place, which is well ventilated. <br />Milk should immediately be transferred to milk room from barn and stored.<br />6) UTILITY HYGIENE<br />a) INCOMPLETE MILKING<br />There are two forms of incomplete milking. One is that excessive amounts of residual milk are retained in the udder because of inadequate milk ejection stimuli or the inhibitory effects of adrenalin secreted by cows becoming frightened and upset during milking, or even by slow milk removal. The other form is that some of the available milk is left in the udder when milking ceases which is also known as ‘strippings’. The modern milking machine is designed to remove 95% of available milk without recourse to additional cluster weight or manual assistance. Hand stripping, particularly with the finger and thumb should be avoided. The amounts of strippings are likely to be small even in relation to normal levels of residual milk and if not removed are unlikely to affect significantly either the lactation yield or quality of milk.<br />b) MILK HANDLING<br />a. Filtering<br />Use a white filter cloth. <br />Filter immediately after milking. <br />Disinfect, wash and dry the filter cloth after use. <br />b. Storage<br />Store milk in cool and clean place. <br />The room used to store milk should without other materials. such as chemicals and should also be lockable. <br />c. Marketing or Disposal<br />Milk should be delivered to the market as soon as possible. <br />It is advisable to delivery milk early in the morning and evening to avoid hot periods of the day. <br />c) SPEEDY TRANSPORTATION<br />It is essential to reduce the time gap between milking and its reception at the dairy dock. Therefore, the first step may be to organize speedy transportation of milk from village societies and collection centers, closer to dairy plants. The conventional milk routes need to be split into two groups: one, those which can bring in the best quality milk, and the other for the balance milk. The use of smaller (3 to 5 tonnes) energy-efficient trucks can greatly help in using milk routes effectively and in optimization of transportation costs. After planning the routes, the dairy organization should also consider to give incentive price for milk as the microbiological standards will improve from time to time. Depending on the microbiological standard as denoted by the MBR(Methylene Blue Reduction) time, the premium can be paid up. <br />d) MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY<br />In a study sponsored by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) during 1986-87, the Kaira Cooperative Milk Union reported that quality of milk as delivered by most farmers was quite satisfactory in that over 93 per cent of the samples showed an average MBR time of more than two hours. The study, covering II milk routes in different directions and different distances, further revealed that the deterioration of the quality had set in at the village society level as only 73 per cent of the samples there had an MBR time of more than two hours. Thus, the study attributed that the main cause of concern was improper cleaning of milk cans and other milk collection equipment. The situation aggravated further due to undue long exposure of milk to high ambient temperature leading to rapid spoilage; consequently, only 4 per cent samples had an MBR time of more than two hours. Findings from other places also revealed the necessity of chilling the milk at village society level to control the microbiological, chemical and physical reactions from taking place.<br />The performance reported in this study by the Kaira Union cannot be generalized since the things are comparatively well organized there due to extensive work done in last 50 years. On all-India basis, the things are different to look at. It is reported that it is not uncommon for dairy plants to receive raw milk with a plate count of five to ten million per ml or a spore count of 500 to 2,000 per ml. Whereas, in North America, milk from the producer can be rejected, it has a count of more than 75,000 per ml. If we compare this then we see a long road ahead to achieve the target of clean milk production.(FAO report)<br />CHAPTER 7<br />MASTITIS<br />Subin K.Mohan, K.M.Dileepkumar, Ani Bency Jacob, Vijetha B.T.<br />Mastitis is the inflammation of the udder and is common in dairy herds causing huge economic losses. It cannot be eradicated but incidence can be reduced to low levels by good management of dairy cows.<br />Of the several causes of mastitis, microbial infection is important. Although bacteria, fungi, yeasts and possibly virus can cause udder infection, the main agents are bacteria. The most common pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Str. dysgalactiae, Str. uberis and Escherichia coli, though other pathogens can cause occasional herd outbreaks. Mastitis occurs when the teats of cows are exposed to pathogens which penetrate the teat duct and establish an infection in one or more quarters within the udder. The course of an infection varies from weeks to months in a mild form which usually cannot be detected by the farmer and this type of mastitis is called as sub clinical mastitis. When the animal is infected by certain pathogens like E.coli, the infection is frequently more acute. There is a general endotoxaemia with usually exhibited symptoms like raised body temperature, loss of appetite, reduction in milk yield and the cow may die unless supportive therapy is given. When clinical mastitis occurs, the effective antibiotic therapy should be administered and this will eliminate the bacterial infection. Infections may spontaneously recover but if the infection is recurring, it is advisable to cull the animals. The susceptibility of cows varies considerably and new infections are most common in older cows in early lactation, at the start of the dry period and when the management is poor.<br />Mastitis causes direct economic losses to farmers in several ways. <br />Milk yields are reduced<br />Milk that is abnormal or contaminated with antibiotics is unsalable<br />High cost of veterinary drugs and antibiotics<br />Extra labor is required for treatment and monitoring<br />A higher culling rate<br />Occasional fatalities<br />Control and eradication programmes. <br />The milk processing industry also incurs losses because of problems that result from antibiotic in milk, and the reduced chemical and bacterial quality of mastitic milk.<br />WHAT IS MASTITIS? Mastitis is defined as an inflammation of the mammary gland or udder. It is the reaction of milk-secreting tissue to injury produced by physical force, chemicals introduced into the gland or most commonly from bacteria and their toxins. It is usually characterized by physical and chemical changes of milk and pathological changes in udder tissues. The usual changes noticed in milk are discoloration, presence of clots in milk or milk becoming watery. Udder will get swollen, painful, heat, and change in colour. <br />There are different classifications for mastitis. They are<br />1. Subclinical mastitis: No detectable swelling of the udder or abnormalities in the milk. Special screening tests, however, such as the California Mastitis Test (CMT), Wisconsin Mastitis Test (WMT) and the catalase test will show changes in the milk. This type of mastitis is referred to as "hidden." It is based on an estimation of somatic cell counts.<br />2. Clinical mastitis: Can be mild or acute. Here symptoms are being exhibited by the animal.<br />3. Mild clinical mastitis: involves abnormality in the milk such as flakes, clots, and a watery or other unusual appearance. A hot or sensitive udder may be slight or absent, however there may be signs of swelling.<br />4. Severe clinical mastitis: involves a hot, hard sensitive udder that is quite painful to the animal. The onset is sudden and the animal may become ill showing signs of fever (105° -107° F), rapid pulse, depression, weakness and loss of appetite. When the whole system of the animal is affected, the condition is referred to as acute systemic mastitis. Milk production will be usually ceased.<br />5. Chronic mastitis: A persistent udder infection exists most of the time in the subclinical form occasionally can develop into the clinical form before returning to the subclinical. The results are hard lumps in the udder from the walling off of bacteria and the forming of connective tissue.<br />CAUSES OF MASTITIS<br />An udder quarter becomes infected when<br />The teats are exposed to pathogens.<br />The pathogens penetrate the teat duct.<br />The infection is established within the udder.<br />The cow has several natural defenses against infection; the most important one is the healthy teat duct which prevents bacterial penetration. The defense mechanisms within the udder act mainly to reduce the severity of infections but can eliminate some types of infection. Many factors influence the frequency of mastitis infection and management is particularly important. New infection is most common at drying off, at calving, in older cows and in poorly managed cows.<br />The primary cause of mastitis in cattle, goats and sheep are well-recognized groups of microorganisms, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Pasteurella sp. and Coliforms, E. coli, Enterobacter sp., and Klebsiella sp. as we discussed in the introduction of this chapter. Nineteen microorganisms have been identified as causative agents of mastitis in cattle. Yeast and fungus have also been found frequently infecting the udder, but usually go unnoticed because they produce a mild or subclinical mastitis.<br />All dairy cows are continuously exposed to pathogens that can cause mastitis but, new infection is normally infrequent. This is because the exposure to pathogens is usually small. The number of pathogens in the milk of infected quarters will vary from less than 1000 to many millions per ml of milk but, it is usually less than 10,000 per ml and further diluted by the milk from the majority of uninfected quarters (FAO). The number of pathogens on clean pasture will be extremely small. The exposure of cow’s teats to microorganisms will be greatly increased when teat sores and lesions on teat ducts are colonized by these mastitis pathogens or when cows lie on contaminated bedding or corrals. Occasionally the exposure will be increased from improperly cleaned milking equipment or through udder washing with contaminated water. This can be avoided by adopting simple methods of cleaning equipment. While soil and fresh bedding materials are usually relatively free from mastitis pathogens they can develop a very large pathogen population (>106/gm) within a few days under optimum conditions of moisture and temperature. <br />PENETRATION OF THE TEAT DUCT<br />The healthy teat duct (streak canal) is extremely effective in preventing the passage of pathogens into the udder. It is the cow’s most natural barrier against mastitis infections. It not only acts as a physical barrier against penetration but the lining of the duct also contains secretions that inhibit bacterial growth. Pathogen penetration can occur during milking, in the intervals between milking and even when cows are not lactating. If pathogens penetrate during milking they may be flushed out otherwise infection usually occurs. It is most important to recognize that even when very small numbers of pathogens (e.g. less than 20) if penetrates the duct, infection usually occurs (FAO). <br />Apart from this, cattle management is of immense importance. These occur with faulty machine milking and also if milkers insert contaminated objects through the teat duct.Vacuum fluctuations in the teat cup liner below the teat in certain milking machines results in turbulence of milk and milk which is normally flowing away from the teats, returns to the teat through the short milk tubes i.e. reverse flow or impacts. These impacts can have sufficient force that the pathogens carried in the milk penetrate into or through the teat duct causing infection. These infections can be reduced by using a milking machine fitted with liners that do not slip during milking, that have adequate diameter short milk tubes and an effective air bleed in the claw piece. Even, better protection is achieved by using liners fitted with shields or milking with non-return valves in the milking machine cluster.<br />Inserting instruments through the teat duct should be avoided but when necessary say for a therapy, the teat end should be scrubbed with disinfectant for 15 seconds before insertion and the instrument must be sterile. If there is any doubt about sterility, the instrument should be placed in boiling water for at least 30 seconds, but if this is impractical it should be scrubbed in surgical spirit (70% ethanol).<br />This brief description of the prime importance of pathogen exposure, duct penetration and the establishment of infection deals only with the main aspects that is important in considering mastitis control. There are other physiological and environmental factors which are equally important in particular herds. These include nutrition, heat stress and factors such as age of cow and stage of lactation.<br />ELIMINATION OF INFECTION<br />Antibiotic therapy is the most effective treatment in controlling bovine mastitis. The effectiveness of the drug will depend partly on the sensitivity of the pathogen treated, to the drug used and also to the way the drug is formulated. This influences the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs from the milk. No antimicrobial drug is ideal for all conditions and mixtures are used to be effective against a range of pathogens (i.e. broad spectrum) for use in lactating and dry cows. Nearly, all therapy is given without prior knowledge of the causative pathogen. Under these conditions treating quarters exhibiting clinical mastitis with basic standard products gives a bacteriological elimination of 75–90% of streptococcal and about 30% of staphylococcal infections (FAO). If the treatments are given after the final milking of lactation (i.e. dry cow therapy) using formulations designed for this purpose the cure rates are improved and are about 50% for staphylococcal infections (FAO). The rates of elimination of staphylococcal infections varies considerably between herds and are lower in cows with more than one infected quarter and those with more severe clinical mastitis.<br />If we are following intra-mammary infusions, course of therapy is often 2 or 3 infusions at 24 hour intervals, rejecting the milk from the cow for 2 or more days after the last infusion to avoid antibiotic contamination of the bulk milk. Treatment, the choice of antibiotic and the milk reject time should be on veterinary advice and when there are severe persistent infections, systemic administration of antibiotic may also be used to overcome the endotoxemia. Many infections are eliminated by culling cows and this can be increased by the sale of cows with persistent clinical mastitis.<br />TESTS FOR MASTITIS<br />The tests for mastitis are either microbiological, to detect the causative pathogen, or tests for the changes in the composition of milk which occurs with the inflammation. Tests for pathogens are not required routinely but are necessary to investigate special herd problems. The tests for changes in milk composition are simpler and some may be carried out on the farm eg. California Mastitis Test (CMT). Electronic automated laboratory tests for somatic cells in milk (eg. using Fossomatic or Coulter equipment) can be used to provide regular information to farmers. Many other tests are also available which measure specific biochemical changes in the composition of milk (eg. Bovine serum albumin (BSA); antitrypsin test and NAGase test). The most widely used for routine screening of farm bulk milks is electronic cell counting which can readily be integrated with other tests of milk composition. When it is necessary to detect abnormal quarters on the farm a simple cowside test is useful eg. CMT, strip cup test.<br />PRINCIPLES OF MASTITIS CONTROL<br />Mastitis cannot be eradicated but can be reduced to low levels by adopting simple and economic management routines that relate to the patterns of infection. Currently it is not possible to control mastitis by vaccination. Therapy is invaluable if the problem persists and the solution is preventing new infections. In practice, the key to control is good cattle management particularly steps to reduce exposure to pathogens and also the planned use of antibiotic therapy because, control depends on management, and the steps must be simple and economic and fit easily into a milking routine.<br />TREATMENT OF MASTITIS<br />Treatment should be practiced as per the advice of the local veterinarian. Still, the farmers have to take due importance to milk out frequently the residual milk of affected cow as, by this process the load of bacterial toxins can be reduced and it will hasten recovery. There are many indigenous medicines like applying the mixture of anona leaves, salt and turmeric on udder is also highly useful. <br />METHODS TO CONTROL MASTITIS<br />The following routine will reduce the proportion of infected cows and clinical mastitis by at least 70% if used regularly at each milking (FAO). Mastitis will be reduced to very low levels and is frequently eradicated.<br />Adopt good cow management practices as the essential basis for a mastitis control routine (eg. feeding, housing, hygiene). Mastitis is unlikely to be controlled with neglected, underfed cows kept under stress in dirty conditions.<br />Reduce exposure to pathogens<br />Clean thoroughly all equipment used when milking.<br />Do not house cattle under dirty conditions.<br />Change organic bedding materials daily or use sand for bedding.<br />Wash dirty udders before milking with clean running water preferably with the hand, a disposable paper towel or a disinfected cloth and dry thoroughly.<br />Do not wash with contaminated cloths and water.<br />Dip or spray all teats after milking with disinfectant teat dip. (eg. hypochlorite, iodophor, chlorhexidine)<br />Adopt practices that prevent the occurrence of teat lesions (sores, chaps and teat damage). If they occur use a teat dip or spray containing an emollient.<br />If practical milk clinically affected cows last.<br />Additional benefits can be obtained by disinfecting hands before milking each cow, using individual paper udder cloths, dipping teat cups in disinfectant before each cow is milked, and back flushing. These reduce bacterial exposure but their effects are secondary to those described above.<br />Reduce the chances of pathogens penetrating the teat duct by<br />Avoiding teat injury or fly attack.<br />Using a milking machine that is correctly tested, and maintained.<br />Using a milking machine modified to prevent reverse flow and impacts.<br />Minimize the effects of vacuum fluctuations by avoiding liner slip, fitting shields or non-return valves into short milk tubes or liners.<br />Reduce the duration of infections by<br />Detecting clinical mastitis by examining foremilk or fitting mastitis detectors.<br />Giving intra-mammary infusions of antibiotics under veterinary supervision to clinically affected cows.<br />Treating cows at drying off with infusions of antibiotics recommended by a veterinarian<br />Cull cows with repeated clinical mastitis.<br />Reduce mastitis in non-lactating growing cattle or cows in the dry period<br />Avoid using low lying grazing land and damp wooded areas where flies are common.<br />Move cattle from pastures known to give problems with mastitis.<br />Adopt good fly control measures.<br />Treat cows at drying off with antibiotics recommended by veterinarian.<br />All cows should be treated, alternatively treat cows that have previously shown signs of infection.<br />CULLINGAnimals showing chronic mastitis or frequent disease occurrence should be culled.<br />Note: The reduction in infection is not immediate but levels fall by about 50% in one year and continue to fall in successive years.<br />MASTITIS AWARENESS AND THE ORGANISATION OF MASTITIS CONTROL<br />The experiences of many throughout the world indicate that, if farmers are to control mastitis successfully, they require some technical and laboratory assistance. This can be provided by government agencies, cooperatives or the milk collecting dairies. The support should:<br />Provide an extension service (veterinary and animal husbandry) to ensure that farmers receive the correct information on the best routines to follow for their environment.<br />Report regularly to farmers (e.g. monthly) giving the results of appropriate tests made on herd bulk milk to indicate the progress made in reducing mastitis.<br />Ensure that good milking equipment, disinfectants and antibiotics are available.<br />Investigate the causes of failure in herds adopting the recommendations but not making progress.<br />Although laboratory support is essential, it is important to recognize that mastitis is widespread and for successful control in a national herd or the herds in a cooperative it is necessary that most, preferably all, the herds carry out the routine.  Effective mastitis control depends on farmers regularly following the simple management practices. Tests will not often provide information that leads to special action for farmers to take that is additional to what they should be doing.<br />ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN MILK <br />HOW DO ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES ENTER THE MILK SUPPLY? <br />Use of antibiotic might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Dairy cattle that have been treated with antibiotics produce milk containing antibiotic residues for a period of time after treatment. Antibiotic residues enter the milk supply when treated cows are returned to the milking herd early or when a cow retains antibiotic residues in her system for an extraordinary length of time. <br />WHY ARE ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES OF CONCERN? <br /> Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. Antibiotic residues in milk may lead to: <br />Severe allergic reactions in sensitive consumers.<br />Culture failure and subsequent loss of product.<br />A change in consumer perception of milk being a pure, unadulterated, natural product. <br />All of these concerns may result in major economic losses to the dairy industry. <br />How can we safeguard our milk from antibiotic residues? <br />Processors have a key role in ensuring that milk containing drug residues is not accepted at dairy plants and processed into finished dairy products.<br />Dairy processors can protect the milk supply by testing milk for antibiotics before accepting each shipment at the dairy plant. <br />If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected.<br />The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter.<br />Treated cows are therefore required to be excluded from the milk supply for a specific time period to ensure that antibiotic residues no longer remain in their milk.<br />In addition, efforts continue to educate producers and veterinarians on the need to eliminate drug residues from the milk supply.<br />Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to prevent that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg. <br />CHAPTER 7<br />ENSURING MILK HYGIENE IN INDIAN CONDITIONS<br />Subin K.Mohan, Ani Bency Jacob, K.M. Dileepkumar, Vijetha B.T.<br /> Though, all the do’s and don’ts of hygienic milk production procedures are explained to farmers, they generally may feel it as a burden because they have been practicing their own methods for a very long time and have not seen any adversity like disease outbreak due to consumption of milk produced by them. Therefore, to get many things done for ensuring clean milk production becomes challenging. The factors responsible for this situation are lack of awareness and availability of proper facilities. The following strategies should be adopted to ensure production of hygienic milk.<br />1) EDUCATIONAL PROPAGANDA<br />Proper awareness should be given to the dairy farmers regarding clean milk production through personal advice, film shows, demonstrations etc. By such extension works only the producers knows about the dreadful effects of their carelessness and unhygienic practices of milk production on the health issues of people as well as on their long term economic interests. They should be educated properly. Without improving the quality of the raw material, the quality of the finished product cannot be improved. <br />A massive awareness programme has been launched to improve the quality of raw milk. Trained extension agents conduct awareness and training programmes for milk producers, village cooperatives, procurement and other dairy professionals, members of milk cooperatives and transporters. They are educated about the importance of animal health & hygiene, use of potable water for washing milk vessels, clean stainless steel utensils, clean hands, hygienic milking procedures as well as a clean and tidy environment. <br />Proper information is disseminated to the milk producers, village cooperative personnel and transporters about the effect of time and ambient temperature on the quality of milk so that milk is cooled within two and half hours after milking and rapidly transferred to the processing plant. The plant personnel are trained in the operation & maintenance of the processing plant & utilities, hygiene & sanitation and ISO/HACCP systems and the boards of directors of the cooperatives are briefed on the need for hygienic milk production and technological developments. The marketing professionals are also trained on the quality aspects of milk and milk products so that the marketing chain can be designed accordingly with suitable temperatures of storage and transportation applicable to various products. <br />2) INTRODUCING INCENTIVE PAYMENT PLAN<br />Payment for milk is usually based on quality of milk along with the two axis price system- Fat and SNF. But, usually less importance is given to the milk quality. For this, the consumers should also be willing to pay for quality of milk and this can be achieved through consumer education programmes utilizing mass media and other means. We can also achieve this through imposition of penalty on default, penalty to the societies on supply of poor quality milk and payment of higher price to the cooperatives supplying good quality raw milk. Protection of the consumer right for better quality milk through appropriate legislation is now become a necessity. The Milk and Milk Products Order should be strengthened. All milk vendors should be licensed for ensuring safe handling of milk and milk products. If properly enacted, such order will surely go for a long way towards improving the supply of quality milk.<br />3) WIDESPREADING THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIC MILK<br />Organic farm products are the latest concept of market that fetch good price from the consumer. Milk is not an exception. Hence, it will be in the interest of the dairy organizations to plan their programme to ultimately meet this demand and this can be only achieved through clean milk production.<br />4) ESTABLISHMENT OF QUALITY TASK FORCE<br />It is suggested that the dairy organizations whether cooperative or private, concentrate their focus on the animal husbandry practices and milking practices apart from utmost care at milk collection centers. For that, the dairy organization should create a task force to initiate quality improvement programme. The mode of action is that, the task force should undertake benchmark survey in terms of standard plate count and spore counts, and then decide the targets to be achieved in phased manner. This should be followed by awareness programmes including farmer education and providing them required materials.<br />Most quality control laboratories in the dairy plants are busy with routine testing for fat and SNF for ensuring that milk and milk products