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RUBEE IN UNDERGROUND COAL
MINES

by:
Subhash Kumar*, P. K. Mishra, P. K. Mandal and A.
Kushwaha
CSIR-Central Institute of ...
WHAT IS RUBEE?


RuBee or P1902.1 is an on-demand, Bidirectional, peerto-peer network protocol that uses long wavelength
...
RUBEE VS RFID
RFID (IEEE 802.15.4)

RuBee (IEEE P 1902.1)

Signal Type

RF (EM) type

Magnetic type

Frequency

High and U...
THE RUBEE TAGS

Tag
Crystal
Caps
Sensors

Chip
Battery
IMPLEMENTATION IN UG MINES…



Buried objects detection



Trapped miners tracing



Detection of misfire.
HOW ???
BURIED OBJECTS DETECTION
In case of ROOF FALL, the mine machinery
goes underneath the coal. To detect their
location is a ...
BURIED OBJECTS DETECTION
Base Station
Receive RX

LF Magnetic Wave

Transmit TX
BURIED OBJECTS DETECTION
Base Station
Transmit TX

LF Magnetic Wave

Receive RX
TRAPPED MINERS TRACING


A RuBee tag can be installed in the miner’s
caplamp; in case of accidents such as
STRATA FAILURE...
TRAPPED MINERS TRACING
Obstacle
Base Station

LF Magnetic Wave
Receive RX

Transmit TX

Hi Base! I m here...
TRAPPED MINERS TRACING
Obstacle
Base Station

LF Magnetic Wave
Transmit TX
Receive RX
Hello Tag! Where r u???
DETECTION OF MISFIRE
In case of BLASTING, some explosives may
remain misfired.
 If prior to BLASTING, RuBee tags are
atta...
DETECTION OF MISFIRE
DETECTION OF MISFIRE
Base Station

Receive RX

Transmit TX
DETECTION OF MISFIRE
Base Station

Transmit TX

Receive RX
MAJOR CONCERNS OF RUBEE TO
IMPLEMENT IN UG MINES…


Design of a feasible and compatible antenna for low

frequency.

Micr...
MAJOR CONCERNS OF RUBEE TO
IMPLEMENT IN UG MINES…


Design of feasible and compatible antenna for low

frequency.


The ...
CONCLUDING REMARKS…
RuBee is not a replacement of RFID; it is
actually an alternative.
 RuBee tag radiates very low power...
REFERENCES…








Accenture White Paper, 2001. Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID), White Paper.
August, J., Water...
CONTD…










Brown, W. C., 1984. The history of power transmission
by radio waves, IEEE on Microwave theory and
T...
CONTD…










Nogee, A., 2004. RFID Tags and Chip: Changing the
World for Less than the Price of a Cup of Coffee. ...
FINDINGS…








RuBee is not a replacement of RFID; it is actually an
alternative.
Because RuBee uses such a low fre...
Maxwell's Equations
THE RUBEE TAGS

Tag
Chip
Crystal
Sensors

Battery
THE RUBEE TAGS

Antenna
Chip
Sensors
Crystal

Tag
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…
Director, CSIR-Central Institute of Mining and
Fuel Research, Dhanbad
 Ministry of Coal, Govt of India,...
RuBee in Underground Coal Mines
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RuBee in Underground Coal Mines

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Presented in proceedings of National Symposium on PTSM-2013 at IIT BHU Varanasi (UP)

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RuBee in Underground Coal Mines

  1. 1. RUBEE IN UNDERGROUND COAL MINES by: Subhash Kumar*, P. K. Mishra, P. K. Mandal and A. Kushwaha CSIR-Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research Barwa Road, Dhanbad, Jharkhand -826015
  2. 2. WHAT IS RUBEE?  RuBee or P1902.1 is an on-demand, Bidirectional, peerto-peer network protocol that uses long wavelength (under 450 kHz) transceiver mode.  The protocol is similar to WiFi (IEEE 802.11), ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) and Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15).  It relies on low-frequency magnetic waves to track products and transfer information, therefore, also called LFID.  It excels in situation where RFID has limitations.
  3. 3. RUBEE VS RFID RFID (IEEE 802.15.4) RuBee (IEEE P 1902.1) Signal Type RF (EM) type Magnetic type Frequency High and Ultra High Low Frequency(<450kHz) Read Speed (tags per sec) 100-200 6-10 Battery Life 1-4 years More than 10 years Range 1-100 m 1-20 m Bandwidth 20-150 Kbps Small Data Storage Capacity 4 -32KB 5KB Network Size (Nodes) 64,000 8 Security Low High Node Cost $0.05-$4 $0.1-$10 Base Station Cost $500-$1,500 $1 - $200
  4. 4. THE RUBEE TAGS Tag Crystal Caps Sensors Chip Battery
  5. 5. IMPLEMENTATION IN UG MINES…  Buried objects detection  Trapped miners tracing  Detection of misfire.
  6. 6. HOW ???
  7. 7. BURIED OBJECTS DETECTION In case of ROOF FALL, the mine machinery goes underneath the coal. To detect their location is a challenge.  This problem can be mitigated by attaching these equipments with RuBee tags. 
  8. 8. BURIED OBJECTS DETECTION Base Station Receive RX LF Magnetic Wave Transmit TX
  9. 9. BURIED OBJECTS DETECTION Base Station Transmit TX LF Magnetic Wave Receive RX
  10. 10. TRAPPED MINERS TRACING  A RuBee tag can be installed in the miner’s caplamp; in case of accidents such as STRATA FAILURE/FLOODING the miner’s position can be easily traced.
  11. 11. TRAPPED MINERS TRACING Obstacle Base Station LF Magnetic Wave Receive RX Transmit TX Hi Base! I m here...
  12. 12. TRAPPED MINERS TRACING Obstacle Base Station LF Magnetic Wave Transmit TX Receive RX Hello Tag! Where r u???
  13. 13. DETECTION OF MISFIRE In case of BLASTING, some explosives may remain misfired.  If prior to BLASTING, RuBee tags are attached with the explosives, the misfired can be detected. 
  14. 14. DETECTION OF MISFIRE
  15. 15. DETECTION OF MISFIRE Base Station Receive RX Transmit TX
  16. 16. DETECTION OF MISFIRE Base Station Transmit TX Receive RX
  17. 17. MAJOR CONCERNS OF RUBEE TO IMPLEMENT IN UG MINES…  Design of a feasible and compatible antenna for low frequency. Microstrip Patch Antenna
  18. 18. MAJOR CONCERNS OF RUBEE TO IMPLEMENT IN UG MINES…  Design of feasible and compatible antenna for low frequency.  The readability of RuBee can be affected by the relative position and orientation of the tag and the reader antenna  RuBee protocol have to use anti-collision mechanism  Slow read rate (6-10 per second)  Shorter range
  19. 19. CONCLUDING REMARKS… RuBee is not a replacement of RFID; it is actually an alternative.  RuBee tag radiates very low power ( 40 nW) which is within the safety limit of power rating for explosives.  The RuBee tags also satisfy the safety rules of IEC 60079-0. 
  20. 20. REFERENCES…     Accenture White Paper, 2001. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), White Paper. August, J., Waterhouse, P., Stevens, J. K., Vandenberg, M. L., Truong, K., 2007. Low frequency tag and system, US Patent Application: 20070063895. Bandyopadhyay, L. K., Chaulya, S. K. and Mishra, P. K., 2010. Wireless Communication in Underground Mines: RFID–based Sensor Networking, Springer. Bolic, Miodrag (Editor), Simplot-Ryl, David (CoEditor), Stojmenovic, Ivan (Co-Editor), 2010. RFID Systems: Research Trends and Challenges, Wiley.
  21. 21. CONTD…      Brown, W. C., 1984. The history of power transmission by radio waves, IEEE on Microwave theory and Technique, Vol. 32, No. 9, pp. 1230-1242. Finkenzeller, K., 2003. RFID Handbook—Fundamentals and Applications in Contactless Smart Cards and Identification, second ed. Wiley, New York. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RuBee#RuBee_tag_details. Accessed on 01-01-2013. Landt, J., 2005. The history of RFID, IEEE potentials, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 8-11. Mishra, P. K., Bolic M., Yagoub, M. C. E. and Stewart, R. F., 2012. RFID Technology for Tracking and Tracing Explosives and Detonators in Mining Services Applications, Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 76, pp.-33-43.
  22. 22. CONTD…      Nogee, A., 2004. RFID Tags and Chip: Changing the World for Less than the Price of a Cup of Coffee. InStat/MDR. Oracle & Visible Assets Inc., 2010. An introduction to RuBee Technology, White Paper. http://www.rubee.com/Partners/Oracle/RuBee%20White %20Paper%20-%20v3.pdf. accessed on March 24, 2010. Schuman, E., 2006. RuBee Offers an Alternative to RFID. Waterhouse, P., Verge, C. W., Vandenberg, M. L., Truong, K. , Stevens, J. K., August, J., 2006. Networked RF tag for tracking freight, US Patent no.: 7049963. Wyld, D. C., 2005. RFID: The right frequency for Government, IBM Center for the Business of
  23. 23. FINDINGS…     RuBee is not a replacement of RFID; it is actually an alternative. Because RuBee uses such a low frequency it does not consume much power and has a 5-years to 15-years battery life using simple Lithium coin-size batteries with a range of 1″ to 50 feet. RuBee tags overcome many of the technological problems seen with RF near steel and water. RuBee is safe and cost effective as the power consumption is very less.
  24. 24. Maxwell's Equations
  25. 25. THE RUBEE TAGS Tag Chip Crystal Sensors Battery
  26. 26. THE RUBEE TAGS Antenna Chip Sensors Crystal Tag
  27. 27. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS… Director, CSIR-Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad  Ministry of Coal, Govt of India, New Delhi  CMPDI, Ranchi 

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