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Communicable
Diseases and Tetanus
By-Group 5
Communicable Diseases
Communicable Diseases is one that can
be transmitted from one person to
another and is caused by an...
Types of
Communicable Diseases
 Hantavirus
 HIV/AIDS
 MRSA
 Measles
 Pertussis
 Rabies
 Flu
 Sexually Transmitted ...
Direct Mode of
Transmission
Direct Contact
Vertical Transmission
Droplet Infection
Animal Bite Transmission
Contact w...
Indirect Mode of
Transmission
Air-Borne Transmission
Vehicle-Borne Transmission
Vector-Borne Transmission
Fomite-Borne...
Prevention of
Communicable Disease
Good Site Planning
Provision of Basic Clinical Services
Provision of Appropriate She...
Types of Prevention
Primary Prevention
Secondary Prevention
Tertiary Prevention
Primary Prevention
Prevention Before Disease
Increasing the Resistance of the Host
Inactivating the Agent
Interrupt the...
Secondary Prevention
Prevention at earliest time after disease
 Begin Treatment
 Stop Progression
 Protect Others in th...
Tertiary Prevention
Prevention after Disease
Limits the progression of disability.
Treatment of symptoms and
rehabilitat...
Tetanus
 Tetanus is a medical condition characterized by a
prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. The
primary s...
Types of Tetanus
Generalized Tetanus
Neonatal Tetanus
Local Tetanus
Cephalic Tetanus
Generalized Tetanus
 This is the most common type of tetanus, representing about 80% of
cases. The generalized form usual...
Neonatal Tetanus
 Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in
newborns, usually those born to mother...
Local Tetanus
 This is an uncommon form of the disease, in which
patients have persistent contraction of muscles in the
s...
Cephalic Tetanus
This is a rare form of the disease, occasionally
occurring with otitis media (ear infections) in
which C...
Symptoms of Tetanus
 Tetanus often begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles—also
known as lockjaw or trismus. The spasm...
Prevention
 Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination with tetanus
toxoid. The CDC recommends that adults receive
a booster...
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Communicable Diseases and Tetanus

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Communicable Diseases and Tetanus

  1. 1. Communicable Diseases and Tetanus By-Group 5
  2. 2. Communicable Diseases Communicable Diseases is one that can be transmitted from one person to another and is caused by an infectious agent that is transmitted from a source to a host. Communicable diseases are diseases that you can "catch" from someone or something else.
  3. 3. Types of Communicable Diseases  Hantavirus  HIV/AIDS  MRSA  Measles  Pertussis  Rabies  Flu  Sexually Transmitted Disease  Tuberculosis  West Nile Virus
  4. 4. Direct Mode of Transmission Direct Contact Vertical Transmission Droplet Infection Animal Bite Transmission Contact with Soil
  5. 5. Indirect Mode of Transmission Air-Borne Transmission Vehicle-Borne Transmission Vector-Borne Transmission Fomite-Borne Transmission Hand-Borne Transmission
  6. 6. Prevention of Communicable Disease Good Site Planning Provision of Basic Clinical Services Provision of Appropriate Shelter Clean Water Supply Sanitation Mass Vaccination Against Specific Diseases Regular and Sufficient Food Supply Control of Vectors
  7. 7. Types of Prevention Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention
  8. 8. Primary Prevention Prevention Before Disease Increasing the Resistance of the Host Inactivating the Agent Interrupt the Chain of Infection Restricting Spread of Infection
  9. 9. Secondary Prevention Prevention at earliest time after disease  Begin Treatment  Stop Progression  Protect Others in the Community  Case Finding  Health Screening  Health Education
  10. 10. Tertiary Prevention Prevention after Disease Limits the progression of disability. Treatment of symptoms and rehabilitation vary with each specific disease.
  11. 11. Tetanus  Tetanus is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin.  Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound. As the infection progresses, muscle spasms develop in the jaw (thus the name lockjaw) and elsewhere in the body. Infection can be prevented by proper immunization or post-exposure prophylaxis.
  12. 12. Types of Tetanus Generalized Tetanus Neonatal Tetanus Local Tetanus Cephalic Tetanus
  13. 13. Generalized Tetanus  This is the most common type of tetanus, representing about 80% of cases. The generalized form usually presents with a descending pattern. The first sign is trismus, or lockjaw, and the facial spasms, followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and rigidity of pectoral and calf muscles. Other symptoms include elevated temperature, sweating, elevated blood pressure, and episodic rapid heart rate. Spasms may occur frequently and last for several minutes with the body shaped into a characteristic form. Spasms continue for up to four weeks, and complete recovery may take months. Sympathetic Over Activity (SOA) is common in severe tetanus and manifests as labile hypertension, tachycardia, dysrhythmia, peripheral vasculature constriction, profuse sweating, fever, increased carbon dioxide output, and late development of hypotension. Death can occur within four days.
  14. 14. Neonatal Tetanus  Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in newborns, usually those born to mothers who themselves have not been vaccinated. If the mother has been vaccinated against tetanus, the infants acquire passive immunity and are thus protected. It usually occurs through infection of the unhealed umbilical stump, particularly when the stump is cut with a non-sterile instrument. As of 1998 neonatal tetanus was common in many developing countries and was responsible for about 14% (215,000) of all neonatal deaths. In 2010 the worldwide death toll was 58,000 newborns. As the result of a public health campaign, the death toll from neonatal tetanus was reduced by 90% between 1990 and 2010, and by 2013 the disease had been largely eliminated from all but 25 countries. Neonatal tetanus is rare in developed countries.
  15. 15. Local Tetanus  This is an uncommon form of the disease, in which patients have persistent contraction of muscles in the same anatomic area as the injury. The contractions may persist for many weeks before gradually subsiding. Local tetanus is generally milder; only about 1% of cases are fatal, but it may precede the onset of generalized tetanus.
  16. 16. Cephalic Tetanus This is a rare form of the disease, occasionally occurring with otitis media (ear infections) in which C. tetani is present in the flora of the middle ear, or following injuries to the head. There is involvement of the cranial nerves, especially in the facial area.
  17. 17. Symptoms of Tetanus  Tetanus often begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles—also known as lockjaw or trismus. The spasms can also affect the chest, neck, back and abdominal muscles. Sometimes the spasms affect muscles that help with breathing, which can lead to breathing problems.  Prolonged muscular action causes sudden, powerful, and painful contractions of muscle groups, which is called "tetany". These episodes can cause fractures and muscle tears. Other symptoms include drooling, excessive sweating, fever, hand or foot spasms, irritability, swallowing difficulty, and uncontrolled urination or defecation. The episodes can also cause destruction of elements of the nervous system through viral cell exchange.
  18. 18. Prevention  Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination with tetanus toxoid. The CDC recommends that adults receive a booster vaccine every ten years, and standard care practice in many places is to give the booster to any patient with a puncture wound who is uncertain of when he or she was last vaccinated, or if he or she has had fewer than three lifetime doses of the vaccine. The booster may not prevent a potentially fatal case of tetanus from the current wound, however, as it can take up to two weeks for tetanus antibodies to form.

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