PROSPECTS OF ENZYMES
* Enzymes are the key players in biological activities. All chemical reactions occurring in
living cells (for breakdown of nutrients and synthesis of cellular constituents) are
catalysed by their group of molecules – enzymes.
*These are naturally evolved biocatalysts that are designed to perform their function in
an efficient manner, and still providing a precise and suitable control mechanism to the
cell for survival under range of environmental conditions.
*4000 enzymes are known and 200 microbial original types used commercially
*12 major producers and 400 minor suppliers
*75% of total enzymes produced by three top enzyme companies
-Denmark based Novozymes
-US based Du Pont thru acquisition of Danisco
-Switzerland based Roche
*Application fields of enzymes
-Technical applications –Pulp & Paper / Textiles / Laundry detergents
-Food Processing – Dairy / Baking / Juice / Starch Processing /Brewing
-Animal Feeds Industry
-Organic Synthesis industry
INTERNATIONAL SECTORWISE BREAKUP OF ENZYMES
-Feed & other technical 20%
-Household Care 25%
-Foods & Beverages 40%
Sources of Enzymes:
Around fifty years ago, enzymes were being produced strictly from animals. Pigs or
cows were butchered and enzymes were extracted from their pancreases. The
problems with animal enzymes were multifold.
They were not very stable at the low pH (acidic) environment of the stomach so that
taking them orally meant that much of the enzyme product was destroyed before doing
Also, animals can be exposed to antibiotics and steroids, which wouldn’t be healthy.
Finally, animal enzymes were limited as to type
Plant enzymes were discovered and used next. These animal-friendly enzymes are
much more stable under low pH conditions, such as inside the stomach, and
temperature changes don't seem to affect them as much. While clearly a step up from
animal enzymes, plant enzymes don't always give much variety in what they can do.In
digestive conditions, they work very well; however, as systemic enzymes doing their
work outside of the digestive tract, there isn't much to choose from. Another is they
could contain harmful substances such as phenolic compounds.
*Bacterial / Fungal / Yeast
Microbial enzymes have since come along and provide for numerous enzymes that
perform multiple body functions. In fact, there are likely microbial enzymes out there that
we haven't even discovered yet-enzymes that will one day prove beneficial to us.
Microbial enzymes are extracted from fermented bacteria or fermented fungal
organisms. Each has been tested for effectiveness and safety in humans and those that
show promise are researched and provided for human use.
Emmex – alpha – amylase ,alkaline protease
Profile of Enzymes in various applications:
a)Textile – amylase for removing starch
Stonewash jeans have look and feel due to enzymes , while in yarn treatment enzyme
catalase can be used to break down the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen
b)Leather Processing –dehairing and degreasing of leather – earlier paraffin solvent
system was used , now lipase enzyme introduced
c)Paper – Hemicellulase enzymes such as xylanase enhances bleaching efficiency and
helps reduce use of harsh chemicals such as enzyme bleach .Deinking of waste paper
and separation of ink from cellulosic fibres happen by use of enzymes cellulose and
HOUSEHOLD & PERSONAL CARE APPLICATIONS
a)Washing with phosphates has been banned to reduce load on rivers. Lower wash
temperature reduced energy needed to do a load of laundry .Hence enzymes have
replaced phosphates and reduced energy requirement .
b)Milder dishwashing detergents – Replacement for harsh chemicals which are very
c)Contact lens cleaner – Protease and lipase enzymes helps to dramatically remove
the soil on the contact lens in the eye .Proteinaceous and lipid materials from the eye
gradually accumulate on the contact lens.
FOOD AND FEED DIGESTIVE ACIDS
a)Alpha galactosidase for improved nutritional value of legume and soy-based
foods .Full utilization of potential nutritive value inlegume and soybased foods is limited
by the presence of non-digestible sugars such as raffinose and stachyose . These
sugars contain chemical linkages that cannot be broken by natural enzymes produced
in the body. The enzyme alphagalactosidase is used to convert stachyose and raffinose
to simple sugars that are adsorbed by the human digestive tract .
b)Dairy applications-Rennet an enzyme mixture from the stomach of calves and other
ruminant mammals, is a critical element in cheese making which facilitates separation of
curd from the whey. Chymosin is produced through a microbial route from a genetically
modified microorganism containing the gene for calf chymosin and commercially
available today .
Cheese flavours- The lipases contribute to distinctive flavor development during the
ripening stage of production ,that acts on the butterfat in cheese to produce flavours that
are characteristic of different types of cheese.
c)Lactose Free Dairy Products- Lactase , an enzyme that occurs naturally in the
intestinal tract of children and many adults ,that converts milk sugar found in dairy
products and glucose and galactose.People now enjoy these nutritious foods due to the
digestive enzyme,lactase or labeled as lactose-free.
d)Baking Applications- Potassium bromated has been used for improving flour
quality.Bromate has been used to bake bread of a consistently high quality with a high
consumer acceptance, but it has been abandoned in many countries now. Glucose
oxidase has been used to replace the unique effect of bromated.
Enzyme Technical Benefits
Pulp & Paper Industry
Amylases Cleaving starch molecules to reduce the viscosity for surface sizing in
coatings, but not used for dry strength agent additive
Lipases Deinking and to control pitch in pulping processes
Improving softness by hydrolyzing cellulose in fibers, creating weak spots
in fibers, making fibers flexible
Mannanases Degrading the residual glucomannan to increase brightness
Laccases Bleaching to improve brightness
β-xylanases Enhancing pulp-bleaching process efficiency
Amylases Desizing efficiently without harmful effects on the fabric
Removing the fuzz and microfibers to give the fabric a smoother and
Loosening the indigo dye on the denim to give a slightly worn look
Pectinases Destabilizing the outer cell layer to improve fiber extraction
Laccases, glucoseoxidases Creating bleaching agent in whiteness.
Proteases Hydrolyzing protein-based stains in fabrics into soluble amino acids
Decomposing fatty material, such as fats, butter, sauces and the tough stains
on collars and cuffs.
Amylases Removing resistant starch residues.
Modifying the structure of cellulose fiber to increase the color brightness
and soften the cotton
Chymosin, lipases, lysozymes Cheese manufacturing
Breaking down lactose to glucose and galactose in milk processing to avoid
Degrading starch in flours and controlling the volume and crumb structure
β-xylanases Improving dough handling and dough stability
Oxidoreductases Giving increased gluten strength
Lipases Improving stability of the gas cells in dough
Proteases Reducing the protein in flour.
Amylases, glucoamylases Breaking down starch into glucose.
Clarifying cloudy juice, especially for apple juice
Degrading pectins which are structural polysaccharides present in the cell
Increasing the overall juice production.
Acting on soluble pectin hydrolysis and on cell wall components with
Cellulases, hemicellulases Lowering viscosity and maintenance of texture
Laccase Increasing the susceptibility of browning during storage.
Naringinase and limoninase Acting on compounds that cause bitterness in citrus juices
Food Processing α-amylases Cleaving α-1,4-glycosidic bonds in the inner region of the starch
Causing a rapid decrease in substrate molecular weight and viscosity
Attacking α-1,6- linkages, liberating straight-chain oligosaccharides of
glucose residues linked by α-1,4-bonds
amylopullulanases Acting on both α-1,6- and α-1,4-linkages
Starch processing β-amylases
Cleaving α-1,4-linkages from non-reducing ends of amylose, amylopectin
and glycogen molecules.
Producing low-molecular weight carbohydrates, such as maltose and “β-
Attacking α-1,4-linkages and α-1,6-linkages from the non-reducing ends to
release β-d- glucose.
Isoamylases Hydrolyzing α-1,6-linkages in glycogen and amylopectin.
Glucose isomerases Catalyzing isomerization of glucose to fructose
Transferring a segment of a 1,4-α-D-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy
group in a similar glucan chain to create 1,6-linkages.
Increasing the number of branched points to obtain modified starch with
improved functional properties such as higher solubility, lower viscosity,
and reduced retrogradation.
α-amylases Hydrolyzing starch to reduce viscosity
Increasing maltose and glucose content.
Hydrolyzing glucans into soluble oligomers and leading to lower viscosity
and better filterability.
Improving wort separation.
Pullulanases Hydrolyzing α-1,6 branch points of starch
Securing maximum fermentability of the wort
Brewing Industry Amyloglucosidases Increasing glucose content.
Increasing 1% fermentable sugar in “light” beer
Increasing soluble protein and free amino-nitrogen (FAN)
Proteases Malt improvement
Improving yeast growth
Pentosanases, xylanases Hydrolzing pentosans of malt, barley and wheat
Improving extraction and beer filtration.
Converting α-acetolactate to acetoin directly
(ALDC) Decreasing fermentation time by avoiding formation of diacetyl.
Making beer taste right.
Animal feeds industry Xylanases Degrading fiber in viscous diets
Degrading phytic acid to release phosphorus, and liberating calcium,
Degrading protein into its constituent peptides and amino acids to overcome
α-amylases Digesting starch
Hydrolases, such as lipases,
nitrilases, nitrile hydratases, Acylation, deacylation, enantioseparation.
lactate dehydrogenases Reduction of C-O and C-C bonds
alcohol, Oxidation of alcohols and oxygenation of C-H and C-C bonds
aldolases, Diels-Alderases C-C coupling.
α-fucosidases, sialidases Glycosidic bonds.
polyphenol oxidases Hair dyeing
Protein disulfide isomerases,
oxidases, Hair Waving
Papain, bromelain, subtilisin Giving gentle peeling effects in skin care.
oxidases Toothpastes and mouthwashes
Profitability of Enzyme Firms:
The major industrial enzyme manufacturers are –
Novozymes, India –Bangalore –market leader Rs 242 cr turnover
Advanced Enzymes – Ahmedabad – Rs 154 cr
Rosari Biotech –Ahmedabad – Rs 72 cr
Zytech & Maps , India – Ahmedabad
Companies are registering around 25-30% growth rates
Indian biotech industry is 2% of global biotech market
Out of Rs 17,400 cr
Biopharma Rs 2452.5 cr
Bioservices Rs 733.05 cr
Bioagri Rs 537.77 cr
Bioindustrial Rs 156.66 cr
Bioinformatics Rs 64.25 cr
1.BIOLOGICAL ROLE AND SOURCES OF ENZYMES
2.What are enzymes
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (increase or decrease) chemical
Enzymes are specialized protein molecules facilitating most of the body's
metabolic processes - such as, supplying energy, digesting foods,
purifying your blood etc.
They also assist in fighting aging, weight loss, lowering cholesterol,
cleaning the colon, breaking down fats, strengthening the immune
system, improve mental capacity, detoxifying the body, building muscles
from protein, eliminating carbon dioxide from the lungs etc.
3.Many genetic disorders (diabetes, Tay-Sachs disease) occur due to the
deficiency or total absence of one or more enzymes. The disease
conditions like cancer, results due to an excessive activity of one or more
Routine medical tests monitor the activity of enzymes in the blood, and
many of the prescription drugs (penicillin, methotrexate) exert their
effects through interactions with enzymes.
Enzymes and their inhibitors can be important tools in medicine,
agriculture, and food science
4.There are two major types of enzymes: synthetases and
The synthetases (also known as metabolic enzymes) help to build body
structures by making or synthesizing larger molecules.
The hydrolases (also known as digestive enzymes) use the process of
hydrolysis to break down large molecules into smaller ones by adding
water to the larger molecules.
Enzymes have one (or more) active sites in their structure that have great
specificity for certain substrates (bind only to these) and catalyze their
transformation into specific product.”
6.Three dimensional structure of an enzyme preserves its ACTIVE
Conditions that can affect three dimensional structure include:
heat, pH (acid/base balance) and other chemicals (salt, charged ions).
7.Enzymes have been isolated from every type of living organism. Many of
these biological catalysts are significant only from an academic or
medical standpoint, but some of the available enzyme from this vast
repertoire have been utilized for agricultural and industrial purposes for
Around fifty years ago, enzymes were being produced strictly from
animals. Pigs or cows were butchered and enzymes were extracted from
their pancreases. The problems with animal enzymes were multifold.
They were not very stable at the low pH (acidic) environment of the
stomach so that taking them orally meant that much of the enzyme
product was destroyed before doing the job.
Also, animals can be exposed to antibiotics and steroids, which wouldn’t
be healthy. Finally, animal enzymes were limited as to type.
Plant enzymes were discovered and used next. These animal-friendly
enzymes are much more stable under low pH conditions, such as inside
the stomach, and temperature changes don't seem to affect them as
much. While clearly a step up from animal enzymes, plant enzymes don't
always give much variety in what they can do.
In digestive conditions, they work very well; however, as systemic
enzymes doing their work outside of the digestive tract, there isn't much
to choose from. Another is they could contain harmful substances such as
Microbial enzymes have since come along and provide for numerous
enzymes that perform multiple body functions. In fact, there are likely
microbial enzymes out there that we haven't even discovered yet-
enzymes that will one day prove beneficial to us. Microbial enzymes are
extracted from fermented bacteria or fermented fungal organisms. Each
has been tested for effectiveness and safety in humans and those that
show promise are researched and provided for human use.
11.So, microbes are preferred to plants and animals as source of enzyme
They are usually cheaper to produce.
They are extracted from fermented fungus or bacteria.
Their enzyme contents are more controllable and predictable.
One doesn’t have to worry about contamination with antibiotics or
steroids. The pH range is broad which makes them active in stomach acid
and throughout our body.
Last but not least, there is a reliable supply of raw material to make
12.The table below lists several of the industrially on sequential enzymes
and their sources in nature.
13.NATURAL FOOD SOURCES OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES:
Pineapple (bromelain) –
The bromelain in most digestive enzyme supplements is extracted from
pineapple stems, since they have the highest concentration of the
Bromelain is a group of powerful proteolytic digestive enzymes and
provides several other health benefits, most of which are still under
Studies have revealed that bromelain is also effective in fighting cancer
Pineapple is also a great source of several other nutrients including
manganese, vitamin C, and potassium
14. Green Papaya (papain) –
Like the bromelain in pineapple, papain is a group of proteolytic digestive
enzymes. Papain, often extracted from papaya, is another major
ingredient in digestive enzyme supplements. Papain is also added to
most enzyme supplements that are formulated specifically for pain relief
(arthritis, sports injuries, etc.). Papain may also have anti-inflammatory
properties. Papaya is an excellent source of several other nutrients
including potassium, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, folate, beta-
carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin.
Mangoes –(magneferin, katechol oxidase, and lactase)
Green mango powder (amchur) is often used as a tenderizing agent for
meats. Mango lassi is a common drink in South Asian restaurants and it's
made from a combination of mangoes, yogurt, and spices. Not only are
mangoes a rich source of digestive enzymes, they're also an excellent
source of potassium, vitamin A, and beta-carotene. Mangoes are also a
good source of vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium
Plain yogurt isn't just an excellent source of "good" bacteria. It's basically
fermented milk and contains many of the same enzymes. Yogurt is
antiviral and antibacterial. It protects the digestive system and helps to
Kiwifruit (actinidin) –
The actinidin enzyme in kiwifruit eases digestion due to it's proteolytic
enzyme qualities. Actinidin is also found in pineapples, papayas, and
mangoes. Aside from kiwi being a great source of digestive enzymes, it's
also a great source of several other nutrients including vitamin C (almost
twice the amount in an orange), magnesium, and potassium
A STUDY OF PECTINS
Pectin is a one of the most label friendly and versatile hydrocolloids. Due to excellent gelling and texturizing
capabilities, combined with great flavour release, pectin is widely used in the fruit processing industry, for
confectionery applications, as well as being the preferred stabilizer in yoghurt drinks and acidified milk
beverages. CEAMSA's line of Ceampectin extracted from citrus fruits is your natural choice.
The world pectin market is currently estimated at 319 million U.S. dollars. There is a steady increase in
the consumption of pectin on average 3,0 - 3,5%
PECTIN CONSUMERS :
"Pectin is partial methyl esters of polygalacturonic acid and their sodium, potassium, calcium and
ammonium salts obtained by extraction in an aqueous medium of appropriate edible plant material,
usually citrus fruits, apple & sunflower. In some type of pectins, a portion of the methyl esters may
have been converted to primary amides by treatment with ammonia. Commercial product is normally
diluted with sugars for standardization purpose. These are further specified to pH value, gel strength,
viscosity, degree of esterification and setting characteristics."
Types of Pectin :
Commonly used pectins are of two different types mainly high methoxyl pectins (HM-pectins) having
degree of esterification (D.E.) more than 50 % and low methoxyl pectin (LM-pectins) having degree of
esterification less than 50 %. High methoxyl pectins are further classified as ultra rapid set, rapid set,
medium rapid set and slow set. Low methoxyl pectins are also specified as conventional and amided
type. The degree of amidation (D.A.) indicates the presence of carboxyl groups in the amide form.
Raw Materials :
We manufacture pectins from various edible plant sources like citrus peels and sunflower heads. Citrus
pectins are manufactured from lime and orange peels, may be wet or dry. Sunflower pectins are
manufactured from naturally dried sunflower heads after removal of oil seeds.
Pectin (from Ancient Greek: πηκτικός pēktikós, "congealed, curdled"
) is a
structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls ofterrestrial plants. It was first isolated
and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot.
It is produced commercially as a white to light brown
powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used in food as a gelling agent particularly in jams and
jellies. It is also used in fillings, medicines, sweets, as a stabilizer in fruit juices and milk drinks, and as a
source of dietary fiber.
In plant biology, pectin consists of a complex set of polysaccharides (see below) that are present in most
primary cell walls and are particularly abundant in the non-woody parts of terrestrial plants. Pectin is
present not only throughout primary cell walls but also in the middle lamella between plant cells, where it
helps to bind cells together.
The amount, structure and chemical composition of pectin differs among plants, within a plant over time,
and in various parts of a plant. Pectin is an important cell wall polysaccharide that allows primary cell wall
extension and plant growth. During fruit ripening, pectin is broken down by
the enzymes pectinase and pectinesterase, in which process the fruit becomes softer as the middle
lamellae break down and cells become separated from each other. A similar process of cell separation
caused by the breakdown of pectin occurs in the abscission zone of the petioles ofdeciduous plants at
Pectin is a natural part of the human diet, but does not contribute significantly to nutrition. The daily intake
of pectin from fruits and vegetables can be estimated to be around 5 g (assuming consumption of
approximately 500 g fruits and vegetables per day).
In human digestion, pectin binds to cholesterol in the gastrointestinal tract and slows glucose absorption
by trapping carbohydrates. Pectin is thus a soluble dietary fiber.
Consumption of pectin has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels. The mechanism appears to be
an increase of viscosity in the intestinal tract, leading to a reduced absorption of cholesterol from bile or
In the large intestine and colon, microorganisms degrade pectin and liberate short-chain fatty
acids that have positive influence on health (prebioticeffect)
Pectins, also known as pectic polysaccharides, are rich in galacturonic acid. Several distinct
polysaccharides have been identified and characterised within the pectic group. Homogalacturonans are
linear chains of α-(1–4)-linked D-galacturonic acid.
Substituted galacturonans are characterized by the presence of saccharide appendant residues (such as
D-xylose or D-apiose in the respective cases of xylogalacturonan and apiogalacturonan) branching from a
backbone of D-galacturonic acid residues.
Rhamnogalacturonan I pectins (RG-I) contain a backbone of the repeating disaccharide: 4)-α-D-
galacturonic acid-(1,2)-α-L-rhamnose-(1. From many of the rhamnose residues, sidechains of various
neutral sugars branch off. The neutral sugars are mainly D-galactose, L-arabinose and D-xylose, with the
types and proportions of neutral sugars varying with the origin of pectin.
Another structural type of pectin is rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), which is a less frequent complex,
highly branched polysaccharide.
Rhamnogalacturonan II is classified by some authors within the group
of substituted galacturonans since the rhamnogalacturonan II backbone is made exclusively of D-
galacturonic acid units.
Isolated pectin has a molecular weight of typically 60–130,000 g/mol, varying with origin and extraction
In nature, around 80 percent of carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid are esterified with methanol. This
proportion is decreased to a varying degree during pectin extraction. The ratio of esterified to non-
esterified galacturonic acid determines the behavior of pectin in food applications. This is why pectins are
classified as high- vs. low-ester pectins (short HM vs. LM-pectins), with more or less than half of all the
galacturonic acid esterified.
The non-esterified galacturonic acid units can be either free acids (carboxyl groups) or salts with sodium,
potassium, or calcium. The salts of partially esterified pectins are called pectinates, if the degree of
esterification is below 5 percent the salts are called pectates, the insoluble acid form, pectic acid.
Some plants such as sugar beet, potatoes and pears contain pectins with acetylated galacturonic acid in
addition to methyl esters. Acetylation prevents gel-formation but increases the stabilising and emulsifying
effects of pectin.
Amidated pectin is a modified form of pectin. Here, some of the galacturonic acid is converted
with ammonia to carboxylic acid amide. These pectins are more tolerant of varying calcium
concentrations that occur in use.
To prepare a pectin-gel, the ingredients are heated, dissolving the pectin. Upon cooling below gelling
temperature, a gel starts to form. If gel formation is too strong, syneresis or a granular texture are the
result, whilst weak gelling leads to excessively soft gels. In high-ester pectins at soluble solids content
above 60% and a pH-value between 2.8 and 3.6, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions bind the
individual pectin chains together. These bonds form as water is bound by sugar and forces pectin strands
to stick together. These form a 3-dimensional molecular net that creates the macromolecular gel. The
gelling-mechanism is called a low-water-activity gel or sugar-acid-pectin gel.
In low-ester pectins, ionic bridges are formed between calcium ions and the ionised carboxyl groups of
the galacturonic acid. This is idealised in the so-called “egg box-model”. Low-ester pectins need calcium
to form a gel, but can do so at lower soluble solids and higher pH-values than high-ester pectins.
Amidated pectins behave like low-ester pectins but need less calcium and are more tolerant of excess
calcium. Also, gels from amidated pectin are thermo-reversible; they can be heated and after cooling
solidify again, whereas conventional pectin-gels will afterwards remain liquid.
High-ester pectins set at higher temperatures than low-ester pectins. However, gelling reactions with
calcium increase as the degree of esterification falls. Similarly, lower pH-values or higher soluble solids
(normally sugars) increase gelling speed. Suitable pectins can therefore be selected for jams and for
jellies, or for higher sugar confectionery jellies.
Sources and production
Apples, guavas, quince, plums, gooseberries, oranges and other citrus fruits, contain large amounts of
pectin, while soft fruits like cherries, grapes and strawberries contain small amounts of pectin.
Typical levels of pectin in plants are (fresh weight):
carrots approx. 1.4%
citrus peels, 30%
The main raw-materials for pectin production are dried citrus peel or apple pomace, both by-products of
juice production. Pomace from sugar-beet is also used to a small extent.
From these materials, pectin is extracted by adding hot dilute acid at pH-values from 1.5 – 3.5. During
several hours of extraction, the protopectin loses some of its branching and chain-length and goes into
solution. After filtering, the extract is concentrated in vacuum and the pectin then precipitated by adding
ethanol or isopropanol. An old technique of precipitating pectin with aluminium salts is no longer used
(apart from alcohols and polyvalent cations; pectin also precipitates with proteins and detergents).
Alcohol-precipitated pectin is then separated, washed and dried. Treating the initial pectin with dilute acid
leads to low-esterified pectins. When this process includes ammonium hydroxide, amidated pectins are
obtained. After drying and milling, pectin is usually standardised with sugar and sometimes calcium-salts
or organic acids to have optimum performance in a particular application.
Worldwide, approximately 40,000 metric tons of pectin are produced every year.
The main use for pectin (vegetable agglutinate) is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabilizer in
food. The classical application is giving the jelly-like consistency to jams or marmalades, which would
otherwise be sweet juices. For household use, pectin is an ingredient in gelling sugar (also known as "jam
sugar") where it is diluted to the right concentration with sugar and some citric acid to adjust pH. In some
countries, pectin is also available as a solution or an extract, or as a blended powder, for home jam
making. For conventional jams and marmalades that contain above 60% sugar and soluble fruit solids,
high-ester pectins are used. With low-ester pectins and amidated pectins less sugar is needed, so that
diet products can be made.
Pectin can also be used to stabilize acidic protein drinks, such as drinking yogurt, and as a fat substitute
in baked goods. Typical levels of pectin used as a food additive are between 0.5 and 1.0% – this is about
the same amount of pectin as in fresh fruit.
In medicine, pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool so that it is used
against constipation and diarrhea. Until 2002, it was one of the main ingredients used in Kaopectate a
drug to combat diarrhea, along with kaolinite. Pectin is also used in throat lozenges as a demulcent. In
cosmetic products, pectin acts as stabilizer. Pectin is also used in wound healing preparations and
specialty medical adhesives, such as colostomy devices.
Yablokov et al., writing in Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment,
quote research conducted by the Ukrainian Center of Radiation Medicine and the Belarussian Institute of
Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology with the conclusion that "adding pectin preparations to the food of
inhabitants of the Chernobyl-contaminated regions promotes an effective excretion of
incorporated radionuclides". The authors report on the positive results of using pectin food additive
preparations in a number of clinical studies conducted on children in severely polluted areas, with up to
50% improvement over control groups.
In ruminant nutrition, depending on the extent of lignification of the cell wall, pectin is up to 90% digestible
by bacterial enzymes. Ruminant nutritionists recommend that the digestibility and energy concentration in
forages can be improved by increasing pectin concentration in the forage.
In the cigar industry, pectin is considered an excellent substitute for vegetable glue and many cigar
smokers and collectors will use pectin for repairing damaged tobacco wrapper leaves on their cigars.
Pectin is also used in jellybeans.
At the FAO/WHO joint Expert Committee on Food Additives and in the EU, no numerical acceptable daily
intake (ADI) has been set, as pectin is considered safe.
In the US, pectin is GRAS – generally recognized as safe. In most foods it can be used according to good
manufacturing practices in the levels needed for its application ("quantum satis").
In the International Numbering System (INS), pectin has the number 440. In Europe, pectins are
differentiated into the E numbers E440(i) for non-amidated pectins and E440 (ii) for amidated pectins.
There are specifications in all national and international legislation defining its quality and regulating its
Pectin was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot, though the action of pectin to make
jams and marmalades was known long before. To obtain well set jams from fruits that had little or only
poor quality pectin, pectin-rich fruits or their extracts were mixed into the recipe.
During the industrialization, the makers of fruit preserves soon turned to producers of apple juice to obtain
dried apple pomace that was cooked to extract pectin.
Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, factories were built that commercially extracted pectin from dried apple
pomace and later citrus-peel in regions that produced apple juice in both the USA and in Europe.
At first, pectin was sold as a liquid extract, but nowadays pectin is often used as dried powder that is
easier to store and handle than a liquid
The pectin process from GEA Westfalia Separator provides today’s producers with an extraction process which is as gentle
on the product as it is efficient.
What is pectin?
Extraction of pectin
Process scheme: Extraction of pectin
What is pectin?
Pectin (from the Greek “pektos” = gel) occurs in all higher terrestrial plants. Citrus fruits occupy a special position, as they
have an unusually high concentration of pectin substances in the flavedo and albedo (about 25 percent moist mass of the
whole citrus fruit). The pectin obtained from the citrus peel is used mainly as a setting agent in the food industry, but also for
pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Global production of pure pectin is estimated at approx. 35,000 tons of which 70
percent comes from citrus peel.
Extraction of pectin
Following a special initial treatment of the fresh peel and storage in mechanized silos, the dried peel is milled and fed into
the extraction process. The pectins are extracted by a variety of acids with a pH-value of 1 to 3, at a temperature between
65 ºC and 85 ºC and for an extraction period of 0.5 to 6 hours. Extraction delivers a raw extract with 0.3 to 1 percent pectin.
Separating this viscous solution from the heavily swollen and in some cases disintegrated pomace cake is the key technical
problem in the pectin industry.
Process scheme: Extraction of pectin
In the pectin process from GEA Westfalia Separator shown in the flow chart, this task is managed by combining a number of
decanters and a filter press. The extract then runs through the separator and precoat filtration before the pectin is
precipitated using isopropanol. The excess precipitant is then separated by a gas-tight decanter until only dry pure citrus
pectin with good storage properties remains.
An Economic Alternative to pure pectin
Marseille based Caragum International
Pectin production 35,000 tons a year – Gelling agents in jam, confectionery , bakery fillings ,
stabilizers in yoghurts and milk drinks
Production 75 tons in india and total consumption is 180 tons ….Rs 15 cr
PECTIN FROM CITRUS, LEMON AND ORANGES
Pectin is a naturally occurring substance present in all plant tissue, calcium pectin being present between
the cell walls and serving as a strengthening or building agent. Pectin is a group of complex materials of
very high molecular weight, which are able to form a gel in the presence of correct amounts of acidity and
sugar. It is used in the manufacture of jam, jellies and candies. It is also used in glue and mucilage. It can
be used to increase the foaming power of gases in water and also to glaze candied fruit. The pectin has a
ready market in India at all the time. In India there are only 4-5 manufacturers. Enzo- Chem Laboratories
being the chief producer. This firm is having its installed capacity of 5 tonnes. It is assumed that total
production of pectin in the country is about 70-75 tonnes per year, while the production is little compared
consumption, which is estimated to be around 180 tonnes per year. It will be profitable for the new
entrants to invest in this project.
Plant capacity: 18 MT/Day Plant & machinery: 23 Lakhs
Working capital: - T.C.I: 119 Lakhs
Return: 52.00% Break even: 53.00%
EXTRACTION OF PECTIN FROM CITRUS
Pectin is a naturally occurring substance present in all plant tissue, calcium pectin being present between
the cell walls and serving as a strengthening or building agent. Fruits naturally possessing relatively large
amount of pectin include lemons, bitter oranges, apples, quinees, grooselevvies, currants and plums. It is
less plentiful in fruits such as black berries, raspberries, strawberries and cherries. Pectin is a group of
complex materials of very high molecular weight, which are able to form a gel in the presence of correct
amounts of acidity and sugar. In the presence of fruit juice the gel will usually form when the concentration
of sugar, acid and pectin are 68, 1 and 1 percent respectively. The pectin’s in fruits juices are derived from
proto pectin, an insoluble form of polygalacturomides whose structure is still to be elucidated. The normal
processes of ripening cause the dehydration of insoluble proto pectin into pectin’s (or pectinic acids) and
associated polysaccharides, and many of the physical changes in the structure of fruit and vegetable
tissues coinciding with ripening are due to these changes in the pectin constituents. The pectin eventually
passes into a gelatinous condition slightly soluble in water. It is suggested that pectin fundamentally
comprises long-chain polygalacturomide molecules with only minor hydrogen bonding between chains. High
jelly grade pectin’s are those where minimum chain dehydration has taken place and about half of the
glacturonic acid groups are condensed as methyl esters. Pectin acid is the completely demethylated product
possessing no power of forming sugar acid gels as required in the preserving industry. Citrus pectin is
usually sold in a finely powdered condition. Pectin is available commercially in both liquid and powdered
form. It has generally been extracted from either apples or citrus fruits. Pectin’s are graded for the food
industry. Grading is done according to sugar-carrying power. The field of uses and applications of pectin
show that there is vast consumption scope of pectin. It is very widely used in food and food processing
industries. These are important ingredient and basic raw material for a large number of food products. For
example, it is used in preparation of jam, jelly, sauces, pickles, ice cream, confectionery, drinks and a
number of various food products. The market potential can be analyzed on the basis of the growth
prospects of its users industries. The food processing units have been mushrooming at a rapid pace. Apart
from the indigenous consumption, there is a demand of pectin in export market. This industry may prove to
be a good foreign exchange earner. The supply is always lagging far behind its production. Its demand is
increasing tremendously and the major requirement is being fulfilled through import. There is a good scope
to venture into this field for new entrepreneurs.
Plant capacity: 100500 Kg/Annum Plant & machinery: 52 Lakhs
Working capital: - T.C.I: 232 Lakhs
Return: 45.00% Break even: 47.00%
THE MARKET OF FOOD PECTINS-RUSSIA
The research of company “Agency of Special Research”
Pectins are natural compounds obtained from various source materials of vegetative origin.
They are mainly used to produce marshmallows, marmalade, jellies, jams, sausage, fruit
juice and some other food products, as well as pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products. The
most sought-after pectins are those obtained from apples and citrus fruits. High-density
pectins are used in the confectionery industry; medium and low-density pectins are used in
yogurt and fruit juice.
Despite the abundance of domestic raw materials, Russia does not produce jellying or health
pectins domestically. The size of this market and its demand level can only be assessed by
customs import records.
The National Customs Committee of Russia reports that, between January 1999 and July
2002, Russia imported 3.2 million kg of food pectins to a total of nearly US $9 million.
Annual import dynamics indicate market growth since 2000.
Quarterly dynamics show rocketing growth starting the 3rd
quarter of 2001, when imports
soared more than 100% from the same period in 2000.
At the same time, financial indicators for the market did not show any increase until 2002.
The reason is that customs records do not accurately reflect import volumes in financial
figures as they fail to take into account the very substantial difference between actual and
invoice prices quoted for pectins imported into Russia. In a bid to minimize customs duties,
Russian importers vastly understate the invoice prices of imported pectins. To achieve this,
they will implant an intermediary firm in between the overseas producer and the end user.
The intermediary is usually controlled by the Russian importer. Shipments are processed
through the intermediary, which helps minimize tax liability and, necessarily, the price of
pectins. Customs records indicate that the bulk of Russia’s pectin imports originate from
In terms of pectin import weight by source country, the leaders have remained the same
throughout the period reviewed: Germany, the Czech Republic and Denmark. While, in
1999, there was no pronounced leader (these nations exported nearly equal shares of
pectins to Russia), Germany has emerged as by far the leading exporter since 2001. France
joined the top three in 2001, pushing the UK down to No. 4.
In terms of price, Germany, the Czech Republic and Denmark are, again, far ahead of other
pectin producing nations.
The prices of the same pectin product may be a hundred times apart with different
importers. As has already been mentioned, the bulk of imports goes through intermediaries,
which usually offer pectins for cheaper than producers or their dealers. While the real
market price of pectins ranges from US $6 to 13 per kg depending on type and brand,
imports come at a vastly lower price of between US $0.5–2 per kg. In fact, pectin producers
occasionally slash their invoice prices themselves.
Judging by the prices quoted by the three leading pectin producers, Germany, the Czech
Republic and Denmark, the obvious trend is for cheaper pectin exports to Russia to
increase. In more than 90% of pectin import deals signed with Germany in 1999, pectins
were sold at a price exceeding US $7 per kg. In 2000, the number of such deals was down
to 60%; in 2001, to 40%; and in the 1st
quarter of 2002, to 35% of the total. At the same
time, pectin imports at less than US $1 per kg have increased dramatically since 2001.
The destinations for the bulk of pectin shipments are Moscow, St. Petersburg and the
Moscow Region. The shipment geography is determined by the location of producers’ rep
offices or dealers, most of whom are based in Moscow and St. Petersburg. The end-users,
i.e. confectionery and juice producers, rarely, if at all, do business directly with overseas
The data for the first seven months of 2002 indicates that over 60% of the market is held
by five companies: Soyuzsnab, G.K. Han & Co. AG, Elitbusinessconsult, Kwik Auto and
Valencia Tour. The former two have been around for many years, while the rest of them
arrived in 2002.
Food pectins are mainly used in the confectionery industry, as well as yogurt and juice
production. Together, these industries absorb up to 95% of all pectins coming into the
country. Ultimately, the market for pectins is driven by consumption in the confectionery
According to import records, the market slump for pectins, which began in 2000, continued
until mid-2001. Industry-focused shipment records for that period reveal a considerable
drop in pectin shipments for the confectionery and other industries.* However, pectin
supplies to the dairy industry dropped very slightly during that period.
The market looks good for pectins these days as pectin-consuming industries are on the
grow. Yogurt producer Wimm-Bill-Dann estimates that annual per capita yogurt
consumption currently stands at 1 kg. By 2005, Wimm-Bill-Dann analysts predict a rise in
yogurt consumption to 1.25 kg per person annually.
The juice market has been swelling at a break-neck pace. ACNielsen Russia has found out
that market growth for juice has been a steady 35% a year on average since 2000.
Although the growth pace is bound to slow down, Wimm-Bill-Dann analysts predict a market
growth of 50% in 2005 over 2002.
The confectionery industry has been growing at an average of 7% to 9% annually since
2001, and industry watchers forecast the same growth tempo until 2005.
The growth in these industries is driven by increasing disposable incomes. According to
Russian government forecasts (the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade), Russia’s
family incomes stand to grow a further 8% or 9% in the next few years. Analysts estimate
that a disposable income growth of 1% a year prompts a 0.5% to 0.6% increase in
confectionery consumption, a 1.2% increase in yogurt consumption, and a 4% increase in
However, according to process engineers, pectin consumption in the confectionery and
dairy industries is not driven solely by rising production, but also by changes in recipes and
formulas, and the resultant new opportunities to use pectins.
It seems likely that if the above conditions remain unchanged, the Russian market for
pectins will keep growing at the same annual rate as in 2002, namely, 30% to 50%. The
market is currently up 50% from 2001, totaling 1,460 tons in 2002. At this growth rate, the
market for pectins may reach 2,000 to 2,500 tons annually or more by 2005.
* Shipments where pectin brand was not indicated were identified as “other pectins”.
1. Project «Pectins» Association “Ukrainian Innovation Companies”
«Ukrainian Center of Commercialization and Technology Transfer» 49000,
Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk, 49000, Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk, K.Marx av., 81
K.Marx av., 81 Website: www.auic.com.ua Website: www.cctt.com.ua E-
mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com Phone / Fax: +38 (0562)
35-00-80 Phone / Fax: +38 (056) 376-10-70
2. Problems of pectin production Using of environmentally High energy
consumption hazardous strong acids A considerable length of Inefficient
binding of in the pectin production in the production (HCI, the production
process radionuclides HNO3, H3PO4, H2SO4) High cost of raw materials
Increased consumption and the problems Low saturation of the of ethanol
associated with its world pectin market (Alcohol) reduction in cost
3. The benefits of innovative technology • The possibility of using dried and
fresh raw materials, which will increase the working time of the plant up to
250 days a year. • Technology has a closed cycle of water supply, it saves
resources. • The technology is implemented on a typical standard
equipment. • The possibility of producing pectin from various types of dried
raw materials reduces the dependence of the producer from the yield and
season duration. Benefits Toxic metals, Binding, % SUBSTANCE
Lanthanum Cerium Yttrium Niobium Plumbum Standard 20 15 18 80 45
pectin Pectin 79 75 69 90 90 (ITE technology)
4. Stages of the project and list of works I stage Volume of investment
Experimental and technological production of pectin and its certification.
Business plan. 12 Development of technology pool for the months 129 000
$ implementation of organizational and pre- work. II stage Drafting of the
plant construction. Solution of land issues. 24 Construction of the first
module of the plant, months 8 271 020 $ capacity of 200 tons of pectin in
the year. III stage Construction and commissioning of for 6 months on
additional modules of the plant with access to each subsequent 141 031
490 $ production cell a given production capacity of 2000 tons.
5. Integral project performance indicators Investment Payback Period
Hurdle rate profitability Planned indicator / Risk indicator Current stage of
the project • Technology of production pectin from pumpkin was tested in
the laboratory and industrial conditions of production. • The presence of
patents, which protecting technology. • The presence of specification on
the production of pectin from pumpkin. • Elements of know-how technology
was proven in industrial conditions at the factories of Spain and India. •
Pumpkin pectin has been clinically tested in the second Children’s Hospital
of Kiev, in the areas of in the areas of Chernobyl contamination (at the
Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NASU) and at the Kiev
Postgraduate Medical Institute.
6. The volume of market and rate of market development Distribution of
pectin market among The distribution of consumption in the world
producers world pectin market (in thousands of tons) The world pectin
market is currently estimated at 319 million U.S. dollars. There is a steady
increase in the consumption of pectin on average 3,0 - 3,5% per year.
World production of pectin - 80 thousand tons per year. Consumption of
pectin in Ukraine - 800 tons per year.
7. Product application areas
8. Consumers Multinationals: Nestle Barilla GlaxoSmithKline Danone
Kellogg’s Unilever Parmalat Ukraine: Confectionery Betteks Foods Trading
house «Griffon and K» Ltd. Corporation JSC «Conti» SE «Hadler» «AVK»
Limited «Palmyra» (Kiev) Roshen (Donetsk) (Kiev) (Donetsk) (Kiev)
(Odessa) (Kiev) Other countries: «Baltic Group» «Soyuzopttorg» «Globar»
OJSC Belkhim OJSC «Bucuria» (Russia) (Russia) (Russia) (Belarus)