Sami antibiotics over view

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Sami antibiotics over view

  1. 1. - Samiullah Auti M-Pharm in Pharmacology
  2. 2.  Defination  Classification  Side effects  References
  3. 3. Antibiotics are the chemical substances produced by a micro organisms which has the capacity to inhibit the growth or kill the other micro organism.
  4. 4.  Identification of organism  Safety of the drug  Site of infection  Patients medical history Usually identified through gram stain or culture Some drugs cross Blood brain barrier whereas others do not Allergies,immune status,renal and hepatic conditions,pregnancy and lactation status
  5. 5.  Beta lactams  Carbapenems  Macrolides  Lincosamides  Aminoglycosides  Fluoroquinolones  Cephalosporins
  6. 6. Cell wall synthesis inhibitors Penicillins,Cycloserine,Cephalosporins,Vancomycin  Protien synthesis inhibitors Chloramphenicol,Clindamycin,Erythromycin,Aminoglycosides  DNA synthesis inhibitors Qninolones,Flouroquinolones,rifampin  Cell memebrane disrupter Polyene antimicrobials like Amphotericicn B
  7. 7. Organisms PENICILLINS Gram -Positive Strep,Group A,B,C,G Strep Pneumonia Staph.aureus(MSSA) L.monocytogenes Penicillin G Penicillin V + + + + 0 0 + 0 Colaxcillin + + + 0 Amox +Clav + + + + Pipercillin + + 0 + Gram-Negative N.Meningitidis H.Influenza Proteus mirabilis Proteus vulgaris + 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 + + + + 0 0 + + Anaerobes Actinomyces Bacteroides Fragilis + - o - o o + + + +
  8. 8. Organisms AMINO GLYCOSIDES Gram-positive Staph.aureus(MSSA) Strep.Pneumonia Gentamicin + 0 Amikacin + 0 Tobramycin + 0 Gram-Negative M.Catarrhalis H.Influenza E.Coli Klebsiella sp Proteus Vulgaris Ps.aeruginosa + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
  9. 9. Organisms FLOUROQUINOLONES Gram-positive Strep.group,A,B Strep.pneumonia Staph.aureus(MSSA Staph.epidermis L.monocytogenes Ciprofloxacin - - + + + Ofloxacin - - + + - Lomefloxacin 0 0 + + - Levofloxacin + + + + - Sparfloxacin + + + + - Gram-negative N.Gonnorhoeae N.Meningitidis H.Influenza E.Coli Klebsiella sp. Enterobacter sp Salmonella sp. + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
  10. 10. Organism CEPHALOSPORINS Gram-positive Strep.group,A,B,C Strep.pneumonia Staph.aureus(MSSA) Viridans streptococcus 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation Cephalexin + + + + Cefuroxime + + + + Cefotaxime + + + + Gram-negative M.Cattarhalis H.Influenza E.Coli Klebsiella sp. Protes mirabilis + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
  11. 11. ANTIBIOTICS ADVERSE EFFECTS PENICILLINS Hypersensitivity reaction, Seizures, Diarrhea, Hemolytic anemia CEPHALOSPORINS Nephrotoxicity,Bronchospasm,Uriticaria,Hypothrombinemia AMINOGLYCOSIDES Ototoxicity,Nephrotoxicity,Neuromascular paralysis,Contact dermatitis. MACROLIDES Epigastric distress,,Cholestatic jaundice,Ototoxicity. TETRACYCLINES Hypoplasia of teeth,Hepatotoxicity,Phtosensitivity,Vestibular reactions,Nausea and Vomitting. CHLORAMPHENICOL Bone marrow suppression,Aplastic anaemia,Gray baby syndrome.
  12. 12. CEFTAROLINE fosamil(Teflaro)Teflaro) oIts an advanced generation cephalosporin antibiotic active against methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and Gram positive bacteria.It retains the activity of later generation cephalosporins having broad spectrum activity against Gram-ve bacteria.Its currently being investigated for community acquired pneumonia and complicated skin and skin structure infections. Ceftaroline is developed by Forest laboratories,USA and received approval on October 29-2010.
  13. 13. FIDAXOMICIN (Dificid) Its the first in a new class of narrow spectrum macrocyclic antibiotic.Its an fermentation product obtained from the actinomycete dactylosporangium aurantiacum subspeices. Its an non-systemic , bactericidal and has demonstarted selective eradication of pathogenic “Clostridium difficile “with minimal disruption to multi speices of bacteria that’s make up the normal healthy Intestinal flora. FIDAXOMICIN is approved by by US FDA on April 10,2011 and is marketed by Optimer Pharmaceuticals by trade name Dificid for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Mechanism of action It works by inhibiting the bacterial enzyme RNA polymerase resulting the death of Clostridium difficile .
  14. 14. 1.Lippincott’s illustrated reveiws,Pharmacology 4th edition, by Richard A.harvey:Pamela C.Champe, published by Wolters Kluwer-2009 .Adis R& D Profiles Fidoximicin OPT 80-:PAR 101(http;//adisoline.com/drugslfulltext/2010/10010/Fidaxomicin_lipiarmycin_OPT_80 _.5 Drugs in R & D(open acess):28th May2010-volume 10-issue1-pp 37-45. .R corey:WilcoxM,talbot GH,et al..CANVAS-1:R andomised , double- blinded, phase 3 study(P903- 06) of the efficacy and safety of Ceftaroline vs vancomycin plus aztreonam complicated skin and skin structure infections;2008,Interscience conference on antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy/Infections diseases society of America conference.

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