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Html part2 (1)


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Html part2 (1)

  1. 1. HTML Part 2
  2. 2. HTML key points <ul><li>HTML is a language for describing a text </li></ul><ul><li>Text manipulation is achieved exclusively with use of tags </li></ul><ul><li>Some tags are required, like <HTML>, <BODY>, some are not. </li></ul>
  3. 3. HTML key points <ul><li>Many tags come in pairs, like <HTML></HTML>. In this case <HTML> is an opening tag, and </HTML> is closing tag, </li></ul><ul><li>Some tags do not require closing tags, e.g. <BR>, <HR> </li></ul>
  4. 4. HTML key points <ul><li>Typical HTML document: </li></ul><ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE> this document is created by (your name here) </li></ul><ul><li></TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY> Some text goes here… </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  5. 5. HTML key points <ul><li>HTML document is a plain text document with extension “.html” or “htm”, </li></ul><ul><li>Each HTML document shall contain following tags <HTML>, <HEAD>, <BODY>, </HTML>, </HEAD>, </BODY>. </li></ul><ul><li>Using these six tags we split document into two parts – “for official use only” and for “recipient use”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. HTML key points <ul><li>We can set text outlook, such as text size, font, color with use of tags. </li></ul><ul><li>We can group phrases in paragraphs (basic layout) using <BR> and <P> tags </li></ul><ul><li>We can place some data in tables </li></ul><ul><li>We can create hyperlinks (<a href…>) </li></ul><ul><li>We can place images in document (<img…> </li></ul>
  7. 7. HTML key points <ul><li>We can nest tags, e.g. <P><HR>some text here</p> </li></ul><ul><li>Or use image in hyperlink: </li></ul><ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li></ul><ul><li><a href=&quot;;><img border=&quot;0&quot; src = </li></ul><ul><li>“ google.gif&quot;></a> </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
  8. 8. HTML key points <ul><li>HTML document may look differently in different browsers. Reason is that HTML is not a language for text layout or publishing. Compare for example HTML document with pdf document). </li></ul><ul><li>HTML is text describing language and thus it cannot guarantee that HTML text look identical in different browsers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. More HTML <ul><li>Topics to be covered: </li></ul><ul><li>More tags </li></ul><ul><li>Display of special symbols in HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Different page encodings </li></ul><ul><li>Meta tags </li></ul><ul><li>Mailto URL </li></ul><ul><li>Anchors </li></ul>
  10. 10. <TITLE> tag <ul><li>Open Notepad application, </li></ul><ul><li>Type following text into it: </li></ul><ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>This is test doc</TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY> Some text here</BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  11. 11. <TITLE> tag <ul><li>Save document: </li></ul>
  12. 12. <TITLE> tag <ul><li>Open saved document Test.html: </li></ul>
  13. 13. <TITLE> tag <ul><li><TITLE> tag gives HTML document a title, i.e. a name. </li></ul><ul><li>When bookmarking HTML page it’s a title which is saved in your list of bookmarks. </li></ul><ul><li>Only one <TITLE> tag is allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Tag <TITLE> must contain only plain text; no nested tags are allowed. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <TITLE> tag <ul><li>Try to give descriptive name to Title. </li></ul><ul><li>Long, non-descriptive names shall be avoided, and most probably, be trimmed by browser. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <TITLE>. Bad examples. <ul><li><TITLE> </TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>Some HTML doc</TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>An Example</TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>Rodriguez, who was also fined an undisclosed amount, was ejected from Thursday's game in the fourth inning for arguing that he was interfered with while trying to throw out a base stealer. </TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>HTML page</TITLE> </li></ul>
  16. 16. <TITLE>. Good examples. <ul><li><TITLE>Introduction to Photography</TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>USA map</TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>VoIP: Installation step 1</TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>Alex Krutoy Blog home</TITLE> </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tags, more tags. <ul><li>Try following code: </li></ul><ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li></ul><ul><li><U>This text is underlined</U><BR> </li></ul><ul><li><S>This text is strikethrough</S><BR> </li></ul><ul><li><I>This text is in Italic</I><BR> </li></ul><ul><li><B>This text is in Bold</B><BR> </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tags, more tags. <ul><li>Tags: </li></ul><ul><li><U></U> For underlined text </li></ul><ul><li><S></S> For strikethrough text </li></ul><ul><li><I></I> For Italic text </li></ul><ul><li><B></B> For Bold text </li></ul>
  19. 19. Quoting text - <BLOCKQUOTE> and <Q> <ul><li>Use <BLOCKQUOTE> tags for quotation. </li></ul><ul><li>Try following code: </li></ul><ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><body><BLOCKQUOTE> </li></ul><ul><li>Quidquid latine dictum sit, altum sonatur</BLOCKQUOTE> Everything said in Latin sounds noble. </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
  20. 20. META element <ul><li>META element is designed for including document information, other than Title or Base. </li></ul>
  21. 21. META element <ul><li>META attributes are HTTP-EQUIV, NAME and CONTENT. </li></ul>
  22. 22. META element. Examples. <ul><li><meta name=&quot;description&quot; content=&quot;It's only one game, but it's a big deal to the Tigers. Detroit catcher Ivan Rodriguez was incredulous and manager Jim Leyland was irate at what both feel is an unjustified one-game suspension issued Saturday by Major League Baseball. Rodriguez was suspended for making contact with an umpire during a game against the Seattle Mariners on Thursday. - Major League Baseball news&quot; /> </li></ul>
  23. 23. META element. Examples. <ul><li><meta name=“multimedia, slideshow, digital photos, DVD, burning, streaming, online photos, digitizing, replication, image safe, storage, digital valve, video clips, online preview, scanning, negatives, music, film development” name=“description”> </li></ul>
  24. 24. META element <ul><li>Why META element is important? </li></ul>
  25. 25. META element <ul><li>The purpose of the meta element is to provide meta-information about the document. </li></ul><ul><li>The meta element is used to provide information that is relevant to browsers or search engines like telling browser about encoding and the content of document. </li></ul>
  26. 26. mailto URL <ul><li>Lets go to out HTML editor/browser at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  27. 27. mailto URL <ul><li>Type in following HTML code: </li></ul><ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>This is test doc</TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY> <ADDRESS> </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Tester <BR> </li></ul><ul><li>123 Test street, #3 <BR> </li></ul><ul><li>Testopulos, 00001, USA <BR> </li></ul><ul><li><a href=&quot; from your blog fan&quot;>Send me a mail</a> </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  28. 28. mailto URL <ul><li>You shall get the following: </li></ul>
  29. 29. mailto URL <ul><li>Clicking on ‘Send me a mail’ link shall </li></ul><ul><li>Activate your default email application </li></ul><ul><li>Open new email template </li></ul><ul><li>Populate ‘MailTo’ and ‘Subject’ fields </li></ul>
  30. 30. mailto URL <ul><ul><li>Simple mailto: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><a href=&quot;;> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple recepients: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><a href=&quot; , &quot;> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailto with subject line: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><a href=&quot; ?subject=Mail from your blog fan &quot;> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail with message body filled: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><a href=&quot; from your blog fan?body=I am having trouble finding information on cooking&quot;> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail with message body filled with multiple lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><a href=&quot; body=The message's first paragraph.%0A%0aSecond paragraph.%0A%0AThird Paragraph.&quot;> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;%0A&quot; for a new line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;%0A%0A&quot; for a new line preceded by a blank line. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Author information and DT stamp <ul><ul><li>It’s a good practice to specify author of the page at the bottom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a good practice to specify date and time (DT stamp) when the document is last modified, like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by John Poe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last modified: July 15, 2007, 12:56:12 PST </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. More HTML <ul><li>Topics covered and to be covered: </li></ul><ul><li>More tags </li></ul><ul><li>Display of special characters in HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Different page encodings </li></ul><ul><li>Meta tags </li></ul><ul><li>Mailto URL </li></ul><ul><li>Anchors </li></ul>
  33. 33. Input elements <ul><li>Create following HTML document </li></ul><ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY><FORM id=&quot;form1&quot; runat=&quot;server&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>< P > </li></ul><ul><li><input id=&quot;Text1&quot; type=&quot;text&quot; /></ P > </li></ul><ul><li>< P > </li></ul><ul><li><input id=&quot;Submit1&quot; type=&quot;submit&quot; value=&quot;submit&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li></ P > </li></ul><ul><li></ FORM > </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  34. 34. Input text example <ul><li>Result: </li></ul>
  35. 35. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>What is a special character in HTML? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>A special character in HTML is ANY symbol, which is NOT a: </li></ul><ul><li>Upper- or lowercase letter, </li></ul><ul><li>Number (0-9), </li></ul><ul><li>One of following symbols $ - _ . + </li></ul>
  37. 37. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>We have to indicate to a browser that there is a special symbol, otherwise browser might try to interpret the symbols itself with unpredictable results. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>For example, we would like to navigate to document “www.somesite.commy directoryLast imagesIndex.html” </li></ul><ul><li>White spaces are special characters in HTML so the URL might not work: </li></ul>
  39. 39. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>Solution . </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate character code in (percent sign plus hexadecimal number). </li></ul><ul><li>Example : %20 – is a space character ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>%3f – question mark (?) </li></ul><ul><li>%2f – slash character (/) </li></ul><ul><li>So, the URL may look like this: </li></ul><ul><li>http://myhost/C/Program%20Files/My%20Web%20site%20Files/Index.html </li></ul>
  40. 40. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>Try . </li></ul><ul><li>Type following in browser address field: </li></ul><ul><li>C:Program Files </li></ul><ul><li>Press ‘Enter’ </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>Case of special symbols, like ©, ®, ¢, ß </li></ul>
  42. 42. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>Microsoft Windows Character Set </li></ul>
  43. 43. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>Use on of the following methods (example for character ± ): </li></ul><ul><li>Insert code which brings to code whose value in decimal is 177, </li></ul><ul><li>Use numeric reference - ± </li></ul><ul><li>Use character named entity (nickname) - &plusmn; </li></ul>
  44. 44. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The Copyright Symbol (©) - &copy; </li></ul><ul><li>The Registered Trademark Symbol (®) - &reg; </li></ul><ul><li>The Trademark Symbol (™) - &trade; </li></ul><ul><li>The Non-breaking Space - &nbsp; </li></ul><ul><li>The Ampersand (&) - &amp; </li></ul><ul><li>Less Than and Greater Than (< , >) - &lt; or &gt; </li></ul><ul><li>French Accent Marks (é ) - &eacute; or &egrave; </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Tilde (ñ): - &ntilde; </li></ul><ul><li>The Cents Symbol (¢) - &cent; </li></ul>
  45. 45. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>When testing HTML take into account that special characters may look different on different platforms! </li></ul>
  46. 46. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>Type following code into the browser/editor: </li></ul><ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The speed of light in vacuum is exactly 299&nbsp;792&nbsp;458&nbsp;m/s&quot; </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
  47. 47. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>The output we see on PC machines (Windows): </li></ul>
  48. 48. Display of special characters in HTML <ul><li>The output we would see on McIntosh machines: </li></ul>
  49. 49. Standard <ul><li>When designing web pages we cannot envisage that web site consumers will use same keyboard, same character encoding etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, there is a need for standardization. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Standard character set <ul><li>International standard for character set ISO 8859-1, also known as ISO Latin-1 is the primary character set for representing Western languages on the Internet. </li></ul>
  51. 51. ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1)
  52. 52. Different character sets <ul><li>More requirements to HTML document. </li></ul><ul><li>Now we need to display document containing non-Latin-1 characters, e.g. text in Kanji or Cyrillic. </li></ul>
  53. 53. How HTML documents are served <ul><li>A request to web-server is made to retrieve particular HTML document </li></ul><ul><li>Server finds the documents, converts it into stream of bits and sends to browser </li></ul><ul><li>Browser reads stream of bits and converts it back to HTML document </li></ul><ul><li>Browser displays HTML document </li></ul>
  54. 54. Encoding <ul><li>By default server and browser assume that character encoding is Latin-1 </li></ul><ul><li>While in majority of cases this might be true (for “English websites”) there is a need to indicate encoding. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Encoding <ul><li>To specify encoding in HTML document we use meta tag attribute, e.g. </li></ul><ul><li><META http-equiv=&quot;Content-Type&quot; content=&quot;text/html; charset=EUC-JP&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>This declaration should appear as early as possible in the <HEAD> element. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Encoding (JP) <ul><li>Visit </li></ul>
  57. 57. Encoding (JP) <ul><li>Observe that following is placed in header part: </li></ul><ul><li><meta content=&quot;text/html; charset=Shift-JIS&quot; http-equiv=Content-Type> </li></ul><ul><li>Observe that both Latin and Kanji characters are displayed on the page. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Encoding (Cyrillic) <ul><li>Общая характеристика </li></ul><ul><li>Баба-Яга живёт в лесу, в избушке на курьих ножках , иногда окружённой частоколом из человеческих костей. Часто в доме Бабы-Яги находится Кот, являющийся охранником и советчиком. Иногда эту функцию выполняет мышь. </li></ul><ul><li>Основной способ передвижения — полёт (или поездка) в ступе , цитаты: «Баба-Яга, костяная нога в ступе едет, пестом погоняет, помелом след заметает». Также, у Пушкина : «Там ступа с Бабою-Ягой идёт-бредёт сама собой» </li></ul><ul><li>Баба-Яга — неоднозначный персонаж, чаще всего она отрицательная героиня, но иногда помогает (даже по доброй воле) положительным героям. Баба-Яга — обладательница огня (сказка «Василиса Прекрасная»), золотых яблок (сказка «Гуси-Лебеди») или знания, помогающего главному герою одолеть своего противника (сказка «Лягушка-Царевна»). </li></ul><ul><li>В 2004 году «родиной Бабы-Яги» было объявлено село Кукобой в Ярославской области . </li></ul>
  59. 59. Encoding (Cyrillic) <ul><li>If incorrect encoding is used previously mentioned text may lok like: </li></ul><ul><li>Баба-РЇРіР° живёт РІ лесу, РІ избушкРµ РЅР° РєСѓСЂСЊРёС … РЅРѕР¶РєР°С … , РёРЅРѕРіРґР° окружённой частоколом РёР· человеческих костей. Часто РІ РґРѕРјРµ Бабы-РЇРіРё находится РљРѕС‚, являющийся охранником Рё советчиком. Иногда эту функцию выполняет мышь. </li></ul><ul><li>РћСЃРЅРѕРІРЅРѕР№ СЃРїРѕСЃРѕР± передвижения — полёт (или поездка) РІ ступРµ , цитаты: «Баба-РЇРіР°, костяная РЅРѕРіР° РІ ступе едет, пестом погоняет, помелом след заметает». Также, Сѓ ПушкинР° : «Там ступа СЃ Бабою-РЇРіРѕР№ идёт-бредёт сама СЃРѕР±РѕР№В» </li></ul><ul><li>Баба-РЇРіР° — неоднозначный персонаж, чаще всего РѕРЅР° отрицательная героиня, РЅРѕ РёРЅРѕРіРґР° помогает (даже РїРѕ РґРѕР±СЂРѕР№ воле) положительным героям. Баба-РЇРіР° — обладательница РѕРіРЅСЏ (сказка «Василиса Прекрасная»), золотых яблок (сказка «Гуси-Лебеди») или знания, помогающего главному герою одолеть своего противника (сказка «Лягушка-Царевна»). </li></ul><ul><li>Р’ 2004 РіРѕРґСѓ «родиной Бабы-РЇРіРёВ» было объявлено село РљСѓРєРѕР±РѕР № РІ ЯрославскоР№ области . </li></ul>
  60. 60. Encoding (Cyrillic) <ul><li>Or even like this: </li></ul><ul><li>п▒п╟п╠п╟-п╞пЁп╟ п╤п╦п╡я▒я┌ п╡ п╩п╣я│я┐, п╡ п╦п╥п╠я┐я┬п╨п ╣ п╫п ╟ п╨я┐я─я▄п╦я ┘ п╫п╬п╤п╨п╟я ┘ , п╦п╫п╬пЁп╢п╟ п╬п╨я─я┐п╤я▒п╫п╫п╬п╧ я┤п╟я│я┌п╬п╨п╬п╩п╬п╪ п╦п╥ я┤п╣п╩п╬п╡п╣я┤п╣я│п╨п╦я┘ п╨п╬я│я┌п╣п╧. п╖п╟я│я┌п╬ п╡ п╢п╬п╪п╣ п▒п╟п╠я▀-п╞пЁп╦ п╫п╟я┘п╬п╢п╦я┌я│я▐ п п╬я┌, я▐п╡п╩я▐я▌я┴п╦п╧я│я▐ п╬я┘я─п╟п╫п╫п╦п╨п╬п╪ п╦ я│п╬п╡п╣я┌я┤п╦п╨п╬п╪. п≤п╫п╬пЁп╢п╟ я█я┌я┐ я└я┐п╫п╨я├п╦я▌ п╡я▀п©п╬п╩п╫я▐п╣я┌ п╪я▀я┬я▄. </li></ul><ul><li>п·я│п╫п╬п╡п╫п╬п╧ я│п©п╬я│п╬п╠ п©п╣я─п╣п╢п╡п╦п╤п╣п╫п╦я▐ Б─■ п©п╬п╩я▒я┌ (п╦п╩п╦ п©п╬п╣п╥п╢п╨п╟) п╡ я│я┌я┐п©п ╣ , я├п╦я┌п╟я┌я▀: б╚п▒п╟п╠п╟-п╞пЁп╟, п╨п╬я│я┌я▐п╫п╟я▐ п╫п╬пЁп╟ п╡ я│я┌я┐п©п╣ п╣п╢п╣я┌, п©п╣я│я┌п╬п ╪ п©п╬пЁп╬п╫я▐п╣я┌, п©п╬п╪п╣п╩п╬п ╪ я│п╩п╣п╢ п╥п╟п╪п╣я┌п╟п╣я┌б╩. п╒п╟п╨п╤п╣, я┐ п÷я┐я┬п╨п╦п╫п ╟ : б╚п╒п╟п╪ я│я┌я┐п©п╟ я│ п▒п╟п╠п╬я▌-п╞пЁп╬п╧ п╦п╢я▒я┌-п╠я─п╣п╢я▒я┌ я│п╟п╪п╟ я│п╬п╠п╬п╧б╩ </li></ul><ul><li>п▒п╟п╠п╟-п╞пЁп╟ Б─■ п╫п╣п╬п╢п╫п╬п╥п╫п╟я┤п╫я▀п╧ п©п╣я─я│п╬п╫п╟п╤, я┤п╟я┴п╣ п╡я│п╣пЁп╬ п╬п╫п╟ п╬я┌я─п╦я├п╟я┌п╣п╩я▄п╫п╟я▐ пЁп╣я─п╬п╦п╫я▐, п╫п╬ п╦п╫п╬пЁп╢п╟ п©п╬п╪п╬пЁп╟п╣я┌ (п╢п╟п╤п╣ п©п╬ п╢п╬п╠я─п╬п╧ п╡п╬п╩п╣) п©п╬п╩п╬п╤п╦я┌п╣п╩я▄п╫я▀п╪ пЁп╣я─п╬я▐п╪. п▒п╟п╠п╟-п╞пЁп╟ Б─■ п╬п╠п╩п╟п╢п╟я┌п╣п╩я▄п╫п╦я├п╟ п╬пЁп╫я▐ (я│п╨п╟п╥п╨п╟ б╚п▓п╟я│п╦п╩п╦я│п╟ п÷я─п╣п╨я─п╟я│п╫п╟я▐б╩), п╥п╬п╩п╬я┌я▀я┘ я▐п╠п╩п╬п╨ (я│п╨п╟п╥п╨п╟ б╚п⌠я┐я│п╦-п⌡п╣п╠п╣п╢п╦б╩) п╦п╩п╦ п╥п╫п╟п╫п╦я▐, п©п╬п╪п╬пЁп╟я▌я┴п╣пЁп╬ пЁп╩п╟п╡п╫п╬п╪я┐ пЁп╣я─п╬я▌ п╬п╢п╬п╩п╣я┌я▄ я│п╡п╬п╣пЁп╬ п©я─п╬я┌п╦п╡п╫п╦п╨п╟ (я│п╨п╟п╥п╨п╟ б╚п⌡я▐пЁя┐я┬п╨п╟-п╕п╟я─п╣п╡п╫п╟б╩). </li></ul><ul><li>п▓ 2004 пЁп╬п╢я┐ б╚я─п╬п╢п╦п╫п╬п╧ п▒п╟п╠я▀-п╞пЁп╦б╩ п╠я▀п╩п╬ п╬п╠я┼я▐п╡п╩п╣п╫п╬ я│п╣п╩п╬ п  я┐п╨п╬п╠п╬п ╧ п╡ п╞я─п╬я│п╩п╟п╡я│п╨п╬п ╧ п╬п╠п╩п╟я│я┌п ╦ . </li></ul>
  61. 61. Encoding (Cyrillic) <ul><li>Site of Pravda newspaper ( ) may contain following elements in the body part: </li></ul><ul><li><div class=&quot;articlelist-toptitle&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><a class=&quot;articlelist-toptitle&quot; href=&quot;;> Ïëàòåæåñïîñîáíîñòü Êèðêîðîâà îêàçàëàñü ïîä âîïðîñîì </a> </li></ul><ul><li></div> </li></ul><ul><li><img width=&quot;100&quot; height=&quot;6&quot; src=&quot;/img/0.gif&quot; border=&quot;0&quot;><br> </li></ul><ul><li><div class=&quot;main-lead&quot; align=&quot;justify&quot;> Âåñíîé íûíåøíåãî ãîäà êîðîëü ðèìåéêîâ íàäóìàë ñâèòü ñåáå çàãîðîäíîå ãíåçäî. Ïðàâäà, óäîâîëüñòâèå ýòî, ïî ïîäñ÷åòàì Ôèëèïïà Êèðêîðîâà, îêàçàëîñü âåñüìà äîðîãîñòîÿùèì. Ïîýòîìó ïåâåö ðåøèë âçÿòü èïîòå÷íûé êðåäèò . </div> </li></ul><ul><li></td> </li></ul><ul><li></tr> </li></ul><ul><li></table> </li></ul>
  62. 62. Encoding (Cyrillic) <ul><li>The reason is that incorrect encoding is specified or texts with different encodings are inserted. </li></ul><ul><li>We have to specify correct encoding /charset in order to view the site (if we desire ;)) </li></ul>
  63. 63. Encoding (Cyrillic) <ul><li>Other encodings are KOI8-R, Cyrillic-ISO, Cyrillic-DOS. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Encoding – specifying the language <ul><li>Besides specification of encoding page language can also be specified. This may be used for rendering control, in situations like: </li></ul><ul><li>Assisting search engines </li></ul><ul><li>Assisting speech synthesizers </li></ul><ul><li>Assisting spell checkers and grammar checkers </li></ul>
  65. 65. Encoding – specifying the language <ul><li>Language attribute can be specified for any HTML element. For example, consider following code (you may type it in your browsereditor): </li></ul><ul><li><HTML><HEAD></HEAD><BODY> </li></ul><ul><li><P><Q lang=“en”>Her superpowers were the result of &gamma;-radiation,</Q> he explained. <P> </li></ul><ul><li></BODY></HTML> </li></ul>
  66. 66. Encoding – specifying the language <ul><li>Format for specifying Language attribute: </li></ul><ul><li>Language-code = primary-code (“-” subcode) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>“ en” – English </li></ul><ul><li>“ en-US” US version of English </li></ul><ul><li>“ i-navajo”: the Navajo language </li></ul>
  67. 67. Encoding – specifying the language <ul><li>Examples continued: </li></ul><ul><li>fr (French), de (German), it (Italian), nl (Dutch), el (Greek), es (Spanish), pt (Portuguese), ar (Arabic), he (Hebrew), ru (Russian), zh (Chinese), ja (Japanese), hi (Hindi), ur (Urdu), and sa (Sanskrit) </li></ul>
  68. 68. Encoding – specifying the language <ul><li><HTML lang=&quot;fr&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><TITLE>Un document multilingue</TITLE> </li></ul><ul><li></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY> ...Interpreted as French... <P lang=&quot;es&quot;> ...Interpreted as Spanish... <P> ...Interpreted as French again... <P> ...French text interrupted by <EM lang=&quot;ja&quot;>some Japanese</EM> French begins here again... </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  69. 69. More HTML <ul><li>Topics covered and to be covered: </li></ul><ul><li>More tags </li></ul><ul><li>Display of special characters in HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Different page encodings </li></ul><ul><li>Meta tags </li></ul><ul><li>Mailto URL </li></ul><ul><li>Anchors </li></ul>
  70. 70. Anchors <ul><li>Hyperlinks are for linking two different documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Anchors are for creating links within same document. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Anchors <ul><li>See examples at </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  72. 72. Anchors <ul><li>How to create an anchor: </li></ul><ul><li>Create a hyperlink: </li></ul><ul><li><A HREF = “#A”>Anchor</A> </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assign name to the element: </li></ul><ul><li><A NAME=“A”>Anchors in nutshell</A> </li></ul>
  73. 73. HTML editors <ul><li>More or less comprehensive list is given at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  74. 74. Testing HTML code and Web site <ul><li>HTML source code verification. </li></ul><ul><li>This might include HTML source code errors and optimization of page performance </li></ul>
  75. 75. Testing HTML code and Web site <ul><li>HTML source code verification. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext link validation </li></ul>
  76. 76. Testing HTML code and Web site <ul><li>HTML source code verification. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext link validation </li></ul><ul><li>Outstanding Web pages. May serve as a good example to follow. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Testing HTML code and Web site <ul><li>HTML source code verification. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext link validation </li></ul><ul><li>Outstanding Web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Get help from developers/webmasters </li></ul>
  78. 78. Testing HTML code and Web site <ul><li>HTML source code validation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use online validators like </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>List of validators: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  79. 79. Testing HTML code and Web site <ul><li>HTML source code validation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use online validators like </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>List of validators: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  80. 80. Style sheets and HTML <ul><li>Problems web developers face with time: </li></ul><ul><li>Using proprietary HTML extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Converting text into images </li></ul><ul><li>Using images for white space control </li></ul><ul><li>Use of tables for page layout </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a program instead of using HTML </li></ul>
  81. 81. Style sheets and HTML <ul><li>To demonstrate use of style sheets please </li></ul><ul><li>Open NotePad </li></ul><ul><li>Type code: </li></ul><ul><li>P.special { </li></ul><ul><li>color : green; border: solid red; </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul>
  82. 82. Style sheets and HTML <ul><li>3. Create a folder C:HTMLClass </li></ul><ul><li>4. Save document as C:HTMLClassspecial.css </li></ul>
  83. 83. Style sheets and HTML <ul><li>Open NotePad, type following HTML code in it and save as C:HTMLClassTest2.html: </li></ul><ul><li><!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN&quot; &quot;;> <HTML> <HEAD> <LINK href=&quot;special.css&quot; rel=&quot;stylesheet&quot; type=&quot;text/css&quot;> </HEAD> <BODY> <P class=&quot;special&quot;>This paragraph should have special green text. </BODY> </HTML> </li></ul>
  84. 84. Style sheets and HTML <ul><li>Open Test2.html and observe how paragraph looks. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Style sheets and HTML <ul><li>Styles can be defined within HTML tags as well, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li><P style=&quot;font-size: 12pt; color: red&quot;>This text shall appear in red </li></ul>
  86. 86. Style Format <ul><li>Property declarations shall be in form “name : value”, properties are separated by semi-colon. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Style Format. Example <ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><STYLE type=&quot;text/css&quot;> H1 {border-width: 1; border: solid; text-align: center} </STYLE> </li></ul><ul><li></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY><H1>Some text here</H1> </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  88. 88. Style Format. Example <ul><li>We can apply setting to specific headers also! Try this code: </li></ul><ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><STYLE type=&quot;text/css&quot;> H1.myclass {border-width: 1; border: solid; text-align: center} </STYLE> </li></ul><ul><li></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY> <H1 class=&quot;myclass&quot;> This H1 is affected by our style </H1> </li></ul><ul><li><H1> This one is not affected by our style </H1> </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  89. 89. Exercise <ul><li> </li></ul>
  90. 90. Frames <ul><li>Frames are independent and ususally scrollable windows tha tile together to break up and organize a display so it is not only more visually appealing but also easier to work with. </li></ul>
  91. 91. Frames. <ul><li>Create following file header.html: </li></ul><ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY> </li></ul><ul><li><H1>This is header</H1> </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  92. 92. Frames. <ul><li>Create following file label.html: </li></ul><ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY> </li></ul><ul><li><H4>This is left part</H4> </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  93. 93. Frames. <ul><li>Create following file info.html: </li></ul><ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY> </li></ul><ul><li><H4>This is some information</H4> </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  94. 94. Frames. <ul><li>Create following file footer.html: </li></ul><ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><BODY> </li></ul><ul><li><I>This is footer</I> </li></ul><ul><li></BODY> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  95. 95. Frames. Part 1 of 2. <ul><li><HTML> </li></ul><ul><li><HEAD></HEAD> </li></ul><ul><li><FRAMESET ROWS = “25%, 50%, 25%”> </li></ul><ul><li><FRAME SRC=“header.html”> </li></ul><ul><li><FRAMESET COLS = “25%, 75%”> </li></ul>
  96. 96. Frames. Part 2 of 2. <ul><li><FRAME SRC=“label.html”> </li></ul><ul><li></FRAMESET> </li></ul><ul><li><FRAME SRC=“info.html”> </li></ul><ul><li></FRAMESET> </li></ul><ul><li><FRAME SRC=“footer.html”> </li></ul><ul><li></FRAMESET> </li></ul><ul><li></HTML> </li></ul>
  97. 97. Frames. <ul><li>For browsers not supporting frames use following syntax: </li></ul><ul><li><NOFRAMES> </li></ul><ul><li>…HTML code here… </li></ul><ul><li></NOFRAMES> </li></ul>
  98. 98. HTML <ul><li></END> </li></ul>
  99. 99. HTML <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  100. 100. Background Image <ul><li> </li></ul>