Patricia GrayPatricia GrayGraves County High SchoolGraves County High SchoolLanguage Arts DepartmentLanguage Arts Department9th Grade9th Grade
Elements of a Short Storyof a Short StoryA short story is a work of fictionA short story is a work of fictionthat can be read in one sitting.that can be read in one sitting.
PlotPlotThe chain of related events that takeThe chain of related events that takeplace in a story.place in a story.Built around conflict, which is a struggleBuilt around conflict, which is a strugglebetween opposing forces.between opposing forces.
Plot at a Glanceclimaxfalling actionrising actionresolutionexposition
Exposition-gives the background of the storyRising Action-introduces complications; builds suspenseClimax-the turning point of the storysuspense reaches its peakFalling Action and Resolutionresolves the conflictusually ties up loose ends
The plot of a short story centersaround conflict. Conflict is astruggle between opposingforces.Complications build thereader’s excitement.
Types of Conflict•External-Man v Man-Man v Nature-Man v Obstacle or Society•Internal-Man v Himself
Methods of CharacterizationMethods of CharacterizationCreating Believable CharactersCreating Believable CharactersIndirectIndirect– physical appearancephysical appearance– speech, thoughts,speech, thoughts,feelings, or actions offeelings, or actions ofthe characterthe character– speech, thoughts,speech, thoughts,feelings, or actions offeelings, or actions ofother charactersother charactersDirectDirect– the narrator’s directthe narrator’s directcomments about acomments about acharactercharacter
Types of Characters•Main or Minor•Protagonist or Antagonist•Round or Flat•Dynamic or Static•*Stereotypes=Stock Characters*
Setting= time and place-puts the reader in the story bygiving the reader the feeling ofbeing in the situation.-creates atmosphere by thepositive or negative feelingsassociated with the place.
Point of View or . . .(Who’s telling this storyanyway?)-the vantage point from which the storyis told.-determines how much we, the readers,know about the characters.
1st Person• Narrator is a character in the story.•Narrator uses first-person pronouns, I,me, my, we, us, our to refer to himself orherself.•Narrator knows the thoughts andfeelings of one character and speaksdirectly to reader.
3rd Person Limited•Narrator does not participate in action ofstory.•Narrator does not refer to himself orherself.•Narrator knows the thoughts and feelingsof one character, but readers are able tomaintain some emotional distance from thecharacter.
3rd Person Omniscient•Narrator does not participate in action ofstory.•Narrator does not refer to himself orherself.•Narrator knows the thoughts and feelingsof all characters; readers get insight intoseveral characters.
A symbol is a person, aplace, an activity, or anobject that stands forsomething beyond itself.
ThemeIn literature, theme is a perception about life orhuman nature that the writer wants to share with thereader.In most cases, the theme is not stated directly butmust be inferred.Themes can be revealed by- a story’s title- key phrases and statements about big ideas- the ways the characters change and thelessons they learn about life.