Objectives• Learn different reading strategies to motivatestudents.• Incorporate different reading strategies in planningclasses.• Motivate students to read.
Student Motivation• Always build on prior knowledge, need to understandwhere your student is academically.• Be sure to praise and recognize ALL efforts andattempts at improving. Give lots of verbal and non-verbal reinforcements.• Provide opportunities for peer mentoring, buddy up,social skill development and cooperative learningwhenever the situation presents itself.• Use graphic organizers to assist the student.
Student Motivation• Give immediate feedback for on task, task completion, solidefforts and demonstrated improvement at every opportunity.• Encourage independence at every opportunity and providepositive feedback when the student is working wellindependently.• ALWAYS focus on the students abilities, NOT disabilities.• Provide opportunities for the student to take risks in newlearning situations.• Give the student the opportunity to provide feedback, let him tellyou why he/she thinks youre happy him or her.
Mastery experience• Albert Bandura (1986) suggests that motivation (or a lack thereof) is theresult of an individuals self-efficacy related to a task. Bandura definesself-efficacy as the beliefs we have about ourselves that cause us tomake choices, put forth effort, and persist in the face of difficulty. Andfor help in the classroom, Bandura notes that one of the most powerfulsources of self-efficacy is mastery experience.• Mastery experience occurs when the student evaluates his or her owncompetence after learning and believes their efforts have beensuccessful. Mastery experiences increases confidence and willingnessto try similar and more challenging tasks. In addition, studies have alsofound that social experiences play a powerful role in the development ofself-efficacy. The beliefs and behaviors held by teachers and peers areimportant in building the self-efficacy of all children in the classroom.
Basic Steps to motivation• Every teacher’s goal should be to guide studentstoward being intrinsically motivated.• Strategies- identify reading goals for students.-make real world connections to text.-have meaningful resources available.-encourage social collaboration.-use appropriate reading incentives.-build on the familiar knowledge
Continue• Applications of strategies-as role model for your students, a teacher who lovesreading is far more motivating than a teacher whodeposits it.-create book (reading) experiences rather than justreading book by book. Allow students the chance tosee the purpose that reading has in the world.• Emphasis on importance-allow students to see their progress in reading andhow it is impacting the rest of their work.-create a classroom atmosphere where studentscan value reading.
Strategies• Researchers have identified a number of factors important toreading motivation including self-concept and value of reading,choice; time spent talking about books, types of text available,and the use incentives.• Have students participate in setting purposes for reading byusing anticipation guide and selecting stories they would liketo read.• After selecting a story for students to read, a make a list of thekey ideas they will encounter. Provide students with a list ofstatements based on list and have them rate their level ofagreement or disagreement before they read. (This guide thenbecomes a powerful tool for assessing learning or changedattitudes after reading and discussion as well).
continue• Offer students the chance to read beyond the textbook. Popular contentarea journals, newspapers, and online resources provide teachers withaccess to reading material that can provide depth, authenticity, andtimeliness that textbooks simply cannot. Work with colleagues whoteach the same course or in your department to establish a library ofthat engages students in the key ideas and information of your content.( Webquest or Bloqs)• Organize the classroom to motivate reading and discussion. Use atechniques such as jigsawing to create an authentic knowledge gap inyour classroom. Have small groups of students read and discuss ahandful of different texts with complementary or contrasting views on aquestion or issue from your content area (differing points of view on theuse of the internet; multiple reviews of a book, film, piece of music orart; sections of a chapter that can be understood independently). Thenreshape the groups to include students who have each read one of thedifferent texts. Students are then challenged to share an overview oftheir reading and synthesize the varying content they collectively read.
Classroom StrategiesRead aloud:A teacher read-aloud is the oral sharing of a book for the purposeof modeling strategic reading behaviors and generatinginstructional conversation. Theories of child developmentsuggest that the socialization of a read-aloud allows teachersand students to collaboratively construct meaning from text.Share the excitement of read-alouds by:• Reading aloud a wide variety of text; includes informationalbooks, newspapers, e-books and magazines in your read-aloud.• Encouraging interaction during the teacher read aloud by invitingdiscussion. This "give and take" conversation around a sharedtext engages students in predicting, inferring, and thinking andreasoning.
continue• Inviting students to choose the teacher read-aloud title from timeto time. Student choice can be managed by offering severalpossible read-aloud titles and allowing students to vote on thestory they would most like to hear the teacher read.• Allowing students to read-aloud. Read-aloud is often usedsynonymously with teacher read-aloud. And though teachersshould read-aloud daily, inviting students to occasionally read-aloud a self-selected text or portion of a text (e.g., book ormagazine article) can be motivating for all. Allowing students toparticipate in the read-aloud will require some planning.Students should rehearse their read-aloud for several days athome or with a classroom buddy before reading aloud to theclass.
StrategiesVocabulary refers to the words that must known in order to communicateeffectively. In relationship to reading, vocabulary plays an importantrole in two major ways.• When learning to read, the students have a much more difficult timelearning to read words that are not already a part of their oralvocabulary.• Vocabulary is very important to reading comprehension. Simply thestudents cannot understand what they are reading without knowing whatmost of the words mean.• The students learn most of their vocabulary indirectly through everydayexperiences but some vocabulary should be taught directly to supportreading comprehension.Vocabulary should be displayed in the classroom weekly. Studentsshould be exposed to vocabulary in as many wayspossible.
StrategiesTitle PredictionsMake predictions about what events might take place in thestory based on the title of the chapter or story. Reinforce allpredictions given. Once the predictions are made, give a briefidea of what the chapter or story is about and ask the studentsto think about what questions they want answered when theyread the chapter. Record these questions on chart paper.These questions help set up a purpose for reading. This waystudents are much more tune in with the story and are betterable to answer questions with detail and enthusiasm.
Strategies Skill Review Various activities that will help students with fluencyand vocabulary.Before the students begin reading aloud in class, have them goover basic sight words from the vocabulary word list. Read thewords together. (Choral reading) It takes about three minutes ofreading time. This helps to practice words such as: like, the, did,we, begin etc. Hearing the words in a list helps them recall themquickly in a passage. This helps their comprehension skills.To challenge all students, teachers can create their own list ofwords from the story (vocabulary) and have students read thelist together and individually before reading the story. Unfamiliarwords will not make students stumble during reading.
StrategiesPattern Puzzles is a reading strategy that challenges students to read a textselection and then organize what they’ve read. Students are challenged to put aseries of cards containing key ideas from the text in order. This is a thinkingactivity that combines physical manipulation of pieces with mental manipulationof concepts. Students can work individually, in pairs, in small groups, or even asa whole class.How to do it:1. Choose a section of text you want your students to read.2. Think of 8-10 key ideas from the text and write each one on an index card. Youcan use direct quotes from the text or write the ideas in your own words. Shufflethe cards and place them in an envelope.3. Distribute the envelopes to students. Challenge them to place the cards in theproper sequence. As they read, they can go back and change the order of theirsentence strips.4. You can also ask students to create a timeline or a Venn diagram.
StrategiesRAP- is a clever and easy to remember strategy that helps studentsactively read, comprehend, and remember text selections.• How to do it: Post these four RAP-Q steps in your classroom and havestudents practice them weekly when they read text selections:• Read a paragraph or a section of text. Do not read long sections; shortsections will be easier for you to understand.• Ask yourself what the main ideas are. Try to find the sentence orsentences that give the most important ideas in the section that youread.• Put the main ideas into your own words. This is called paraphrasing.• Questions: Based on your paraphrasing of the main ideas, write aquestion and an answer on the back of a notecard. Compare thenotecards that you wrote about the main ideas of previous paragraphsor sections so that you can see how the idea of one section is related tothe next.
StrategiesThree Point Review This is a reading review game played by threestudents using a pre-prepared checklist of significant points from thetext.How to do it: To play “Three Point Review” follow these steps:1. Put students into groups of three and have them number themselves “1,2, and 3.”2. Distribute checklists to Students 2 and 3.3. Direct Student 1 to tell Students 2 and 3 everything they rememberabout the reading.4. Direct Students 2 and 3 to mark an “X” on the checklist terms thatStudent 1 shares.5. When Student 1 can no longer recall information, Students 2 and 3 askquestions based on the ideas not checked off their lists. As student 1answers these correctly, Students 2 and 3 will mark an X on thechecklist next to that term.
Three Point Review6. The review for Student 1 is finished when all words on the checklist aremarked or when student 1 can no longer answer questions. Student 2and 3 should give Student 1 the checklists. Now Student 1 knows whatinformation he/she is lacking and what information he/she needs toreview.7. Rotate student numbers and repeat the quizzing with clean copies of thesame checklist. Alternatively, you might wish to move on to a differentsection of reading.8. Repeat steps 2-5.
Reading Activity• With the story, select a reading strategy you would use to teachthe selection to motivate the students to read it.• Presentation of strategy.