Presentation process of reading esl

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Presentation process of reading esl

  1. 1. The Process of Reading in a FirstLanguage Compared to the Process ofReading in a Second Language: TheImpact of Phonemical AwarenessProf. Cristal Vázquez Dávila, 06.28.2012
  2. 2. The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.20123When teaching ESL reading skills to second languagelearners?•The most important concept:to convey is that reading, like writing, is a process.•Whether readers are aware of it or not, they employtechniques like pre-reading and making predictions toconnect the particular text they are presently reading withtexts they have read before.•For ESL students, scaffolding this process into distinctsteps is an effective way to build reading comprehension.
  3. 3. Process of Reading to ESL students•In processing both spoken and written language, the human brainemploys a phonological code to represent linguistic information.•This code is unique for each individual language, as each languagehas its own distinct set of sounds, with very specific rules that governhow those sounds can be combined into syllables and words (Cohn,2003).•It is particularly important to recognize the role that phonologicalawareness plays as children with limited English proficiency (LEP)learn to read, both in their native language (L1) and in their secondlanguage (L2).The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.20124
  4. 4. Phonological Awareness•Phonological awareness is the ability to manipulate language at thephonological level, that is, to "reflect on the component sounds ofspoken words, rather than on their meanings" (Goswami, 2000, p.251).•The ability of phonological awareness skills to transfer from onelanguage to another presents advantages that are readily apparent;however, transfer can also bring disadvantages.•The closer the phonologies of L1 and L2, the greater the likelihoodthat transfer of skills will be positive rather than negative becausechildren are more adept at manipulating the sounds and patterns thatexist in their native language (Bialystok, 2002).The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.20125
  5. 5. The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.20126Assessment in literacy programs•In order to have an accurate picture of a bilingual childsdevelopment, it is important to assess the child in both languages.•Educators must be allowed to be creative and flexible in choosing andinterpreting assessments for children with limited English proficiency.•Assessment in both languages is particularly important in reading.
  6. 6. The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.20127Reading acquisition•Reading acquisition is no longer seen as the sole responsibility of theschool; nor is it viewed as a "lockstep" process that moves from orallanguage development (speaking and listening) to print literacy(reading and writing).•Parents, educators, researchers, and policy-makers constantly lookfor ways to provide all children with access to the world of print,largely because knowing how to read and knowing what to do withinformation gained from reading is thought to be key to a childsfuture well-being.
  7. 7. The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.20128Phonics•Phonics unlike phonemic awareness,which refers to the blending and pullingapart of the various sounds that make upspoken words in an alphabetic language,phonics refers to the sound-symbolcorrespondences in that language.•Phonics is a tool for decoding words; it isnot a reading program. Knowledge ofphonics does not ensure that one willcomprehend printed texts becausereading is a far more complex processthan simply sounding out words.
  8. 8. Develop Automaticity and Understanding•In the initial stages of reading development, learning phoneme awarenessand phonics skills and practicing these skills with texts is critical.•Children must also acquire fluency and automaticity in decoding and wordrecognition.•If beginning readers read the words in a laborious, inefficient manner, theycannot remember what they read.•Good comprehenders link the ideas presented in print to their ownexperiences. They have also developed the necessary vocabulary to makesense of the content being read.• Good comprehenders have a knack for summarizing, predicting, andclarifying what they have read, and many are adept at asking themselvesguide questions to enhance understanding.The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.20129
  9. 9. Programmatic longitudinal research:• Clearly indicates that deficits in the development of phonemeawareness skills not only predict difficulties learning to read, butthey also have a negative effect on reading acquisition. Whereasphoneme awareness is necessary for adequate readingdevelopment, it is not sufficient.• Children must also develop phonics concepts and apply these skillsfluently in text.• Although substantial research supports the importance of phonemeawareness, phonics, and the development of speed andautomaticity in reading, we know less about how children developreading comprehension strategies and semantic and syntacticknowledge.The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.201210
  10. 10. The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.201211• Once children can read the words accurately and fluently, they canbegin to construct meaning at two levels.○ At the first level, literal understanding is achieved.○ Next, they can begin to guide themselves through text by askingquestions.
  11. 11. Scientific research:• We know from research that reading is a language-based activity.• Reading does not develop naturally, and for many children, specificdecoding, word-recognition, and reading comprehension skills mustbe taught directly and systematically.• The evidence suggests strongly that educators can foster readingdevelopment by providing kindergarten children with instructionthat develops print concepts, familiarity with the purposes ofreading and writing, age-appropriate vocabulary and languagecomprehension skills, and familiarity with the language structure.• Substantial evidence shows that many children in the 1st and 2ndgrades and beyond will require explicit instruction to develop thenecessary phoneme awareness, phonics, spelling, and readingcomprehension skills.The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a Second Language: TheImpact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.2012
  12. 12. Move beyond assumptions:• One hopes that scientific research informs beginning readinginstruction, but it is not always so.• As Mary Kennedy (1997) has pointed out, it is difficult for teachersto apply research information when it is of poor quality, lacksauthority, is not easily accessible, is communicated in anincomprehensible manner, and is not practical.• The lack of agreement about reading development and instructionamong education leaders does not bode favorably for increasingtrust.The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.201213
  13. 13. The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.201214• Most great scientific discoveries have come from willingness and anability to be wrong.• Researchers and teachers could serve our children much better ifthey had the courage to set aside assumptions when they are notworking.• The fundamental purpose of science is to test our beliefs andintuitions and to tell us where the truth lies.• The education of our children is too important to be determined byanything but the strongest of objective scientific evidence.
  14. 14. The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.201215
  15. 15. References:• August, D., & Hakuta, K. (Eds.). (1997). Improving schooling forlanguage-minority students: A research agenda. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.• Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2000).Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spellinginstruction (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Prentice-Hall.• Bialystok, E. (2002). Acquisition of literacy in bilingual children: Aframework for research. Language Learning, 52 (1), 159-199.• Brice, A., & Roseberry-McKibbin, C. (2001). Choice of languages ininstruction. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33 (4), 10-16.• Cisero, C. A., & Royer, J. M. (1995). The development and cross-language transfer of phonological awareness. ContemporaryEducational Psychology, 20, 275-303.16 The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.2012
  16. 16. • Cohn, A. (2003). Phonology. In M. Aronoff & J. Rees-Miller (Eds.),The handbook of linguistics (pp. 180-212). Oxford, UK: BlackwellPublishers.• Durgunoglu, A. Y., Nagy, W. E., & Hancin-Bhatt, B. J. (1993).Cross-language transfer of phonological awareness. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 85 (3), 453-465.• Francis, N. (1998). Mezquital, Malintzi y Misión de Chichimecas: Laconsciencia del lenguaje en el desarrollo de la alfabetizaciónbilingüe [Mezquital, Malintzi and Chichimecas Mission: LanguageAwareness in the Development of Bilingual Literacy]. Lectura yvida: Revista latinoamericana de lectura, 19 (2), 21-30.• Goswami, U. (2000). Phonological and lexical processes. In M. L.Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook ofreading research (Vol. III, pp. 251-267). Mahwah, New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.17 The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.2012
  17. 17. • Gottardo, A. (2002). The relationship between language andreading skills in bilingual Spanish-English speakers. Topics inLanguage Disorders, 22 (5), 46-70.• Helman, L. A. (2004). Building on the sound system of Spanish:Insights from the alphabetic spellings of English-language learners.The Reading Teacher, 57 (5), 452-460.• Henderson, E., & Templeton, S. (1986). A developmentalperspective of formal spelling instruction through alphabet, pattern,and meaning. The Elementary School Journal, 86 (3), 304-316.• Kennedy, M.M. (1997). "The Connection Between Research andPractice." Educational Researcher 26, 4_12.• McLaughlin, B., Gesi Blanchard, A., & Osanai, Y. (1995). Assessinglanguage development in bilingual preschool children. Washington,DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.201218
  18. 18. • National Reading Panel (200). Teaching children to Read: AnEvidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature onReading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction. NationalInstitute of Child Health and Human Development.• Peña, E., Bedore, L. M., & Rappazzo, C. (2003). Comparison ofSpanish, English, and bilingual childrens performance acrosssemantic tasks. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services inSchools, 34 (1), 5-16.• Quiroga, T., Lemos-Britton, Z., Mostafapour, E., Abbott, R. D., &Berninger, V. W. (2001). Phonological awareness and beginningreading in Spanish-speaking ESL first graders: Research intopractice. Journal of School Psychology, 40 (1), 85-109.• Tabors, P. O., & Snow, C. E. (2002). Young bilingual children andearly literacy development. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson(Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 159-178). NewYork: The Guilford press.19 The Process of Reading in a First Language Compared to the Process of Reading in a SecondLanguage: The Impact of Phonemical Awareness 6.28.2012
  19. 19. Thank you

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