This is what is essential for the learner to know Knowledge points that are critical What do you choose to leave out?
These are actions on the content Do NOT use words like know, understand, etc.; “Ally go know how to serve the ball” Use skills that incorporate higher levels of thinking (i.e. Bloom’s taxonomy)
Enterra Solutions Hails Volpe Center for Winning Award for Global Maritime Domain Awareness - Executive Vice President Harry Ulrich Recognized for Contribution to Safety and Security Enterra Solutions congratulates the Global Maritime Domain Awareness Program developed by the Department of Transportation’s Volpe Center for winning the 2008 Innovations in American Government Award from the Ash Institute for Democratic Governance and Innovation at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government. Admiral H.G. “Harry” Ulrich III, USN, (Ret.) – now Executive Vice President, International Security Affairs Practice at Enterra Solutions – worked with the Volpe Center of the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Research and Innovative Technology Administration to create the Program.
Speech Notes - Slide 2
Pearson power point_blue esl teachers dr. evelyn lugo moralesfinal version for june28
ESL Instructional Needs: A Practical Approach•Evelyn Lugo Morales, Ed D TESL• Universidad del Este, Carolina Campus• 2012 Puerto Rico TESOL President• June 28, 2012• email@example.com
Pre Discussion"Acquisition requires meaningful interactions in the target language inwhich speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterancesbut with the messages they are conveying and understanding."a) Noam Chomskyb) Stephen Krashenc) Ana Uhl Chamotd) Howard Gardner
Pre DiscussionThe learning strategy I use most often as an adult learner is...____ Listen selectively____ Read selectively____ Take notes____ Cooperate____ Use what I know____ Classify____ Make predictions____ Problem solving
Dr E. Lugo Morales5Contents1. From Theory to Practice– Characteristics of ELLs– L 1 and L2 Usage2. From Teaching to Learning- CALLA- Integrating Strategies3. From Curriculum to Academic Outcomes- Academic Outcomes- Metacognitive Behaviors of ELLs- Essential Questions- Authentic Assessment4. From here to the Global Village– English as a Global Language– Culturally Responsive Teaching
Dr E. Lugo Morales6From Theory to PracticeCharacteristics of ELLsL 1 and L2 Usage1
Characteristics of Young ELLsCharacteristics of Young ELLsAs Chomsky (1969) demonstrated, children between 5 and 10 yearsold are still acquiring the structures of their first language.◦ Older learners have the foundation of a fully developed firstlanguagewhen they begin acquiring a new language,◦ Children are perfectly capable of acquiring two or morelanguagesthere is no evidence that this process produces any negativeconsequences◦ In many parts of the world it is the norm, rather than the exception, forchildren to grow up bilingual or multilingual (De Houwer, 1999) young children do not have a fully developed native language onwhich to base the learning of a second.http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0301coltrane.htmlDr E. Lugo Morales7
Children need to develop their nativelanguage(s) along with English• Because◦ their primary mode of communication with theirparents, extended families, and communitymembers is their native language.• So,◦ they need meaningful interaction opportunities inboth languages, including verbal interaction andengagement with printed materials such as booksand other media.http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0301coltrane.htmlDr E. Lugo Morales11
Learning English as an Additive Processprovides a nurturing, supportive environment forchildren, which can lead to improved self-esteem andhelp foster positive relationships with parents andcommunities◦ children’s native language is a valuable asset to befostered.◦ learning English will not result in the loss of the nativelanguagehttp://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0301coltrane.htmlDr E. Lugo Morales12
Dr E. Lugo Morales13From Teaching to LearningCALLAIntegrating Strategies2
Academic Needs of EnglishLanguage Learners•Develop academic vocabulary•Read to acquire new information•Understand information presentedorally•Participate in classroom discussions•Write to communicate theirknowledge and ideasDr E. Lugo Morales15
My students say….Students in my class say that the best way toimprove English is by :○ listening to the language from different contexts○ reading from different sources○talking about topics that they can relate to○searching for answers to their concerns○reacting to different learning situations from their ownperspective.○sharing with others their talents and interestsDr E. Lugo Morales16
Cognitive Academic LanguageLearning Approach(CALLA)“Shifting the focus from teaching to learning”2/18/2012Dr E. Lugo Morales17
• Developing abilities to worksuccessfully with others in asocial context• Learning through hands-on,inquiry-based, and cooperativelearning tasks• Increasing motivation foracademic learning and confidencein their ability to be successful inschool• Evaluating their own learning andplanning how to become moreeffective and independentlearners• Valuing their own priorknowledge and culturalexperiences• Learning the content knowledgeand the language skills• Developing language awarenessand critical literacy• Selecting and using appropriatelearning strategies and studyskillsCALLAs principal objectives are toassist students in:Dr E. Lugo Morales19
The Cognitive Academic Language LearningApproachCognitive-SocialLearningAuthentic LearningAcademic LanguageLearning StrategiesSocial context andinteractionLinked to student’sprior experientialand culturalknowledgeLanguage developmentthroughcontent across allcurriculum areasDr E. Lugo Morales20
Integrating Content, Language, andLearning StrategiesPREPARATIONPRESENTATIONPRACTICEEVALUATIONEXPANSIONCALLA’S FIVE PHASESDr E. Lugo Morales21
Preparation• Provide overview andobjectives• Elicit students’ priorknowledge• Develop vocabulary• Help students makeconnections• Remind students to usethe learning strategiesthey knowDr E. Lugo Morales22
Presentation• Address different learningpreferences• Model reading and writingprocesses explicitly• Explain learning strategies• Discuss connections tostudents’ prior knowledgeDr E. Lugo Morales23
Practice• Use interactive activities• Use authentic contentand language tasks• Ask students to uselearning strategiesDr E. Lugo Morales24
Evaluation• Studentmetacognition• Self-assessment• Teachers evaluatestudents’achievementDr E. Lugo Morales25
Expansion• Students apply what theyhave learned to their ownlives• Students extend theirunderstanding to othercontent areas• Students relate newinformation to their ownexperienceDr E. Lugo Morales26
Dr E. Lugo Morales27From Curriculum to Academic OutcomesAcademic OutcomesMetacognitive Behaviors of ELLsEssential QuestionsAuthentic Assessment3
“If you don’t know whereyou are going, you’ll end upsomewhere else.”AnonymousDr E. Lugo Morales28
Academic Outcomes The Blue Print Concept: “Lessons without maps are like builders without a plan. Theyhave a bunch of really cool tools but don’t know where to use them!” H.H. Jacobs◦ Teaching: without relating it to student’s schema. memorizing and never teaching the why of the teaching purpose. and testing facts but not evaluating its affects as a learning experience. concepts on paper without using them through authentic language situationsDr E. Lugo Morales29
Content• Content is the subject matter itself; key concepts,facts or events• It’s what you teach• Content is written in noun formDr E. Lugo Morales30
Skills• What skills does a student need in order todemonstrate mastery of the content?• Skills start with action verbs• Can be assessed, measured, or observed• Must support the “big idea”Dr E. Lugo Morales31
Essential Questions•Essential questions are questions that helpstructure a unit or lesson•Structure the unit around 2 to 5 essentialquestions•Use questions as the scope and sequence ofa unit•Embrace the appropriate standardsBased on the research and presentations of Dr. Heidi Hayes JacobsDr E. Lugo Morales34
Develop Essential Questions That:•Focus instruction and organize studentlearning•Push students to higher levels of thinking.•Help students make connections beyondthe content being studied.Based on the research and presentations of Dr. Heidi Hayes JacobsDr E. Lugo Morales35
Teaching the Essential QuestionTeach students the essential questions before you begin the unitEssential Questions are like“Mental Velcro”Students should focus on any & all information that “sticks” to theessential question.Always POST your Essential QuestionsBased on the research and presentations of Dr. Heidi Hayes JacobsDr E. Lugo Morales36
Examples of NOT Getting the“Big Picture”(Incorrect Mapping)Teaching the algebraic substitution method withoutrelating it to graphing.Memorizing the periodic table and never teachingwhy the order of elements exists.Conjugating verbs on paper without ever using themin conversation.Based on the research and presentations of Dr. Heidi Hayes JacobsDr E. Lugo Morales37
Sample Essential QuestionsAthletics/SportsHow can I improve my eye/hand coordination?What skills and techniques are used in basketball?How can I be a successful team player?How can I control my body during games?Based on the research and presentations of Dr. Heidi Hayes JacobsDr E. Lugo Morales38
Sample Essential QuestionsFABLESWhat is the meaning of Folktale?What is the difference between folktales and fables?How do we learn lessons in life through understanding fables?How do we learn lessons in life through fables?What qualities of yourself would you like to share with others?Based on the research and presentations of Dr. Heidi Hayes JacobsDr E. Lugo Morales39
Reasons for Lack of ComprehensionFive reasons for lack of readingcomprehension are listed below (the firstfour are from Twining, 1991).•Failure to understand a word•Failure to understand a sentence•Failure to understand how sentencesrelate to one another•Failure to understand how theinformation fits together in ameaningful way (organization)•Lack of interest or concentrationhttp://www.muskingum.edu/~cal/database/general/reading.html#BGMenuDr E. Lugo Morales41
Metacognitive Behaviors of Good and Poor ReadGOOD OR MATURE READERS POOR OR IMMATURE READERSBEFOREREADING•Activate prior knowledge•Understand task and set purpose•Choose appropriate strategies•Start reading without preparation•Read without knowing why•Read without considering how to approachthe materialAFTERREADING•Reflect on what was read•Feel success is a result of effort•Summarize major ideas•Seek additional information from outsidesources•Stop reading and thinking•Feel success is a result of luckStudents with good versus poor reading skills demonstrate distinct cognitivebehaviors before, during, and after reading an assignment. The following chart fromCook (1989) summarizes these behaviors.Dr E. Lugo Morales43
Metacognitive Behaviors of Good and Poor ReadersGOOD OR MATURE READERS POOR OR IMMATURE READERSDURINGREADING•Focus attention•Anticipate and predict•Use fix-up strategies when lack of understandingoccurs•Use contextual analysis to understand new terms•Use text structure to assist comprehension•Organize and integrate new information•Self-monitor comprehension by ...o knowing comprehension is occurringo knowing what is being understood•Are easily distracted•Read to get done•Do not know what to do when lack ofunderstanding occurs•Do not recognize important vocabulary•Do not see any organization•Add on, rather than integrate, newinformation•Do not realize they do not understandStudents with good versus poor reading skills demonstrate distinct cognitivebehaviors before, during, and after reading an assignment. The following chartfrom Cook (1989) summarizes these behaviors.Dr E. Lugo Morales44
Tips To Help Improve ComprehensionEssential Words• Focus on key words in the text. Emphasize verbs and nouns only.Review and Summarize• Identify the main idea of each paragraph. Develop your own summary ofthe chapter and compare it to the summary presented in the book.Make Reading More Active• Stimulate the auditory sense by reading aloud or listening to taperecordings of the text .• Take notes during or after reading difficult material .Make Reading Interactive• Work with another student. Read to each other, and take turnssummarizing sections or chapters of text.• Relate the material to personal experiences.Dr E. Lugo Morales46
Tips To Help Improve Comprehension• Review Questions– Evaluate understanding of the material by answering thereview questions at the end of the chapter andworkbooks.– Make up your own by converting the section headingsinto questions.• Words and Definitions– Look up the definitions of all unfamiliar words.– Compile a written list of unfamiliar words and definitions.– Record the words and definitions on audio tapes andlisten to them for review. pages– Place a colored paper clip on the glossary for quickaccess.Dr E. Lugo Morales47
LINCS STRATEGYLINCS is a task-specific strategystudent use to learnvocabulary.The strategy is usefulin improving readingcomprehension inthose cases whenvocabulary words areused repeatedly inthe readings.LIST the parts you need to know.Identify a term you need to know.Analyze the definition of the vocabulary word.Identify the most important parts of the definition.List the key parts of the definition you need to remember ona study card.IMAGINE a picture.Create a picture in your mind of the terms meaning.Describe the image using real words.NOTE a reminding "sound-alike" word.Think of a familiar word that sounds like the new term orpart of the new term.CONNECT the terms in a story.Make up a short story about the meaning of the term thatuses the sound-alike word.Create an image of the story in your mind.SELF-test.Dr E. Lugo Morales48
Authentic AssessmentA form of assessment in which students are askedto perform real-world tasks that demonstratemeaningful application of essential knowledgeand skillsActively involves students in a process that joinswhat is taught, how it is taught, and how it isevaluatedDr E. Lugo Morales50
How is Authentic Assessment similarto/different from Traditional Assessment?TRADITIONALASSESSEMENTExample- multiple choicetestsPurpose- to determinewhether students haveobtained the knowledge andskills necessaryGoal- for students to becomeproductive citizensAUTHENTICASSESSMENTExample- performing a taskPurpose- to determinewhether a student is capableof performing meaningfultasks in the real worldGoal- for students to becomeproductive citizensDr E. Lugo Morales51
Authentic Assessment: EnglishTraditional AssessmentWrite a paperdemonstrating thepoint of view ofyour selectedOlympic athleteAuthentic AssessmentStudents conductinterviews ofOlympicparticipants & roleplay the part of theparticipantDr E. Lugo Morales52
Dr E. Lugo Morales53From here to the Global VillageEnglish as a Global LanguageCulturally Responsive Teaching4
http://www.hawaii.edu/hga/GAW97/greeting.htmlGreetings in Different CulturesGREETINGS!Mary Frances Higuchi, 9/95Purpose: The way people greet each other is seen in everyplace, whether its a village, town, city, or country. Greetingsare universal, some being very unique.•Some people wave, others shake hands, bow, or hug eachother.•Some have no distinctions between a friend or someonethey meet for business - they say the same greeting.• Others make that distinction and have different wordingsfor different "levels" of people.• Sometimes, not knowing the etiquette in one culture maybe bad manners in another.Task: Use the greetings as a way to introduce students to avariety of cultures.
Global EnglishGlobal issues have raised the need for people to be ableto communicate effectively in English:•English is spoken as a first language by more than 300million people throughout the world, and used as a secondlanguage by many millions more.•The main regional standards of English areBritish, US and Canadian, Australian and New Zealand,South African, Indian, and West Indian.•Within each of these regional varieties a number of highlydifferentiated local dialects may be found.•Within the next few years the number of people speakingEnglish as a second language will exceed the number ofnative speakers.
The English Language Around The WorldUniversity Campus, India:NO TRESPASSING WITHOUTWRITTEN PERMISSION.Hotel bedroom, India:GUESTS ARE REQUESTED NOT TOSMOKE OR DO OTHER DISGUSTINGBEHAVIOURS IN BED.Doctors surgery, India:SPECIALIST IN WOMEN AND OTHERDISEASES.
Culturally ResponsiveTeachingGeneva Gay, in CulturallyResponsive Teaching – TheoryPractice and Pedagogy (2004),defines culturally responsivepedagogy as the use of culturalknowledge, prior experience,frames of reference, andperformance styles of ethnicallydiverse students to make learningencounters more relevant to andeffective for them.
Goals of Multicultural Education1. Educational Equity2. Development of an informed and inquisitivemulticultural perspective3. Empowerment of students4. Development of a society that values culturalpluralism5. Intercultural/ Interethnic/ Intergroupunderstanding in the classroom, school, andcommunity6. Freedom for individuals and groups7. Expanded Knowledge of various cultural, andethnic groupshttp://www.intime.uni.edu/multiculture/school/school.htm Davidman, L., & Davidman, P.T. (1997). Teaching with a multiculturalperspective: A practical guide (2nd ed.). New York: Longman Publishers.
InterculturalAwarenessThe concept of InterculturalAwareness is not new andhas been receivingparticular attention in theEnglish Language Teaching(ELT) field worldwide.As teachers of English, weneed to bring this diversityinto our classrooms
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGEAROUND THE WORLDTHE LEARNER AS ETHNOGRAPHERIdeas for Teaching about Different Countries and CulturesCULTURAL VALUES AND ATTITUDESTell a Tale: Exploring Common Themes in traditional FolkTales Across CulturesCHALLENGING STEREOTYPESCitizen of the WorldAn Island Like You by Judith Ortiz Cofer
The Additive ApproachContent, concepts, themes, and perspectives areadded to the curriculum without changing itsbasic structure.Incorporates literature by and about peoplefrom diverse cultures into the mainstreamcurriculum without changing the curriculum.For example, examining the perspective of aNative American about Thanksgiving would beadding cultural diversity to the traditional view ofThanksgiving. However, this approach does notnecessarily transform thinking (Banks, 1999).
The Contributions ApproachSelect books and activities that celebrateholidays, heroes, and special events fromvarious cultures.For example, spending time reading about Dr. MartinLuther King in January is a common practice that falls intothis category.In this approach, culturally diverse books and issuesare not specified as part of the curriculum (Banks, 1999).http://www.intime.uni.edu/multiculture/curriculum/curriculum.htm
The Transformation ApproachThis approach actually changes the structure ofthe curriculum and encourages students to viewconcepts, issues, themes, and problems fromseveral ethnic perspectives and points of view.For example, a unit on Thanksgiving wouldbecome an entire unit exploring cultural conflict.This type of instruction involves critical thinkingand involves a consideration of diversity as a basicpremise (Banks, 1999).
The English Language Around TheWorldPoster, USA:ARE YOU AN ADULT THAT CANNOT READ? IF SO,WE CAN HELP.Restaurant, India:OPEN SEVEN DAYS A WEEK, AND WEEKENDSTOO.Automatic hand dryer in public lavatory, USA:DO NOT ACTIVATE WITH WET HANDS.Hotel Lobby in Romania:The lift is being fixed for the next day. During thattime we regret that you will be unbearable.