Future Planning in Power Grid

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Presented at the 10th Electric Power Control Center Conference in Dublin, Ireland, June 17, 2009

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Future Planning in Power Grid

  1. 1. Future System Planning to Meet New Challenges Stephen Lee Senior Technical Executive Power Delivery & Utilization June 17, 2009 10th International Workshop on Electric Power Control Centers Dublin, Ireland
  2. 2. Outline • Holistic Power Supply and Delivery Chain – Foundations for a Smart Grid • Holistic Planning • Raising the Bar on Reliability Standards • Key Messages – Focus on Benefits to Cost Payback – Consider all parts together (Holistic approach) – Remove deficiencies in foundations – Implement new solutions © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. EPRI Report on Holistic Power Supply and Delivery Chain (Report #1018587) • Presented and used in Brainstorming session in support of NASPI (North America Synchro-Phasor Initiative), October 2008 • Presented at Carnegie Mellon Smart Grid Conference, March 2009 • Major building blocks to create real values from the Smart Grid of the future © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
  4. 4. End-to-End Power Delivery Chain Operation & Planning Power Plants Transmission System Distribution System Fuel Supply System Renewable Plants Fuel Source/Storage Energy Storage End-uses & DR Controllers Sensors Data Communication M ZIP Wide Area Control Dynamic Power Plant Models Dynamic Load Models Monitoring, Modeling, Analysis, Coordination & Control © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. Foundations Need Strengthening • End-to-End Situational Awareness • Alarm Management and Real-Time Root- Cause Diagnosis • Dynamic Models of all Generators and Loads • Faster System Restoration • System Integrity Protection Schemes – Faster reflex actions on wide-area problems – Measurement-based safety nets to prevent cascading blackouts, e.g., load shedding, islanding/separation, damping © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. New Solutions Are Needed • Optimal end-to-end commitment and dispatch by ISO/RTO as backstop for system reliability • Virtual Service Aggregators serving as Energy Balancing Authorities – Dispatch and control stochastic renewable generation – Dispatch and control (and own?) large scale energy storage plants – Manage demand response proactively – Manage smart electric vehicle charging • “Virtual” Vertically Integrated Utilities – Own/operate Generation/renewable/storage, some transmission, & Virtual Service Aggregator – Interstate ownership and operation (overcome NIMBY-ism) • National/Continental Backbone Transmission Grid – Holistic transmission planning – Virtual RTO – Transmission toll collection system http://www.energypulse.net/centers/author.cfm?at_id=259 © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
  7. 7. Potential Role of the Virtual Service Aggregator (Virtual Vertically Integrated Utility) Traditional Traditional Central Station Central Station Power Plants Power Plants Loads Transmission Loads Transmission Grid Grid Large-Scale Large-Scale End Uses Renewable Renewable End Uses Resources and Resources and PHEVs Distributed PHEVs Distributed Resources Resources Real Regional Real Regional Large-Scale Control Center Large-Scale Control Center Energy Energy Storage Distributed Storage Distributed Generation Generation & Storage & Storage Financial Settlement of Net Difference Virtual Virtual Power Flow Service Service Aggregator Financial Aggregator Transaction S © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 7
  8. 8. What is Holistic Planning? • Holistic Planning is to develop a whole or a part of the electric power system, with full consideration of the WHOLE, responsive to the public, modeling all reasonably probable scenarios of uncertainties affecting planning as well as future power system operating conditions, with additional tests to assess the robustness of the system when exposed to “unlikely” but potentially devastating disturbances or other events, in order to achieve a system which has: – Economic efficiency – Adequate reliability – Acceptable environmental impacts © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. Optimal Decisions Total Cost = Tier 1 Cost + Tier 2 Cost Tier 1 Costs Tier 2 Costs (Public Good) (Direct Costs) * Best Decision Decision is not optimal if Tier 2 costs are ignored © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
  10. 10. Boundary Conditions Wh Mtc a –p sis D Outside Boundary ow ilo n Ft Conditions n erra ew Po G Load and Load Profile Inside Boundary Conditions Voltage Operating State – “You are here” System Operating Limits Transmission and Generator Connectivity and Topology © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. N-1 criteria enforce possibly uneven reliability N-1 Boundary = N-2 Contingency Criteria © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. Holistic Transmission Planning • White space is the inside of the CAR (community Activity Room) where operation is reliable • Future growth requires operating outside the white space • How do we expand the grid to fit all future Line 2-4 operating conditions (described by the ellipse?) Line 1-4 • CAR gives the holistic answer by moving all necessary walls the right amount (increase capacities of line 1-4 by 2500 MW and 2-4 by 1200 MW) © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. NERC TPL-001-01 (Transmission System Planning Performance Requirements) “Raises the Bar” • Draft 3 posted on 5/26/09 - Comments due 7/9/09 • Loss of Non-Consequential Load or Implications: interruption of firm transfers is no longer allowed for certain events Need to study (effects of cascading outages) cascading outages • May have significant budget, siting, permitting, and construction impacts Need to assure on many Transmission Owners system stability • Submit standard(s) to NERC Board – with sufficient 1Q2010 confidence • Submit to regulatory authorities for approval – 1Q2010 © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. Concept of an MRI of Power System Reliability Metrics • Transmission Planners need a scanner of the entire power grid to identify the state of health of the whole power system • Even seasoned planners lack a tool for an overview of the study results from the large volume of power flow study cases involving large number of planning scenarios and contingencies • Very difficult to digest and analyze • A MRI-like tool can be investigated conceptually in combination with visualization tools, using power flow cases as the input data © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. EPRI Research Projects Helpful for Meeting TPL-001-01 • Prediction and Online Risk Monitoring of Potential Cascading Modes Unlikely events with unacceptable Likely events with unacceptable More Unacceptable consequences consequences – ConEd, NYPA, Entergy, ISO New England, Exelon, AEP, Risk FirstEnergy, TriState G&T Unlikely events with Likely events with – Phase II acceptable consequences acceptable consequences • Fast Fault Screening for Transient Stability More Likely – Entergy, NYSERDA – Phase II on system-wide stability screening © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. Concept of Online Risk Monitor Risk of Contingencies 8000 Tier 3 Cascade PRI = 200 MW 7000 PRI = 150 MW Overload / Load Shed (MW) 6000 Tier 2 Cascade 5000 Unacceptable= Risk PRI 90 MW 4000 Tier 1 Cascade PRI = 50 MW 3000 PRI = 25 MW Acceptable Risk 2000 Initiating Event 1000 0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 Probability of Contingency Normal Weather Risk Exposure to One Cascading Mode With 1 Line on Maintenance Outage & System (6750 MW Load) Not Compliant with N-1
  17. 17. Concept of Online Risk Monitor Risk of Contingencies 8000 PRI = 200 MW Tier 3 Cascade 7000 PRI = 150 MW Overload / Load Shed (MW) 6000 5000 Unacceptable= Risk PRI 90 MW Tier 2 Cascade 4000 Tier 1 Cascade PRI = 50 MW 3000 PRI = 25 MW Acceptable Risk 2000 Initiating Event 1000 0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 Probability of Contingency Storm Increases Risk Exposure to One Cascading Mode With 1 Line on Maintenance Outage & System (6750 MW Load) Not Compliant with N-1
  18. 18. Conclusions • Holistic Planning – works for central planning, free markets or mixed environment • What is the optimal level of reliability? • Key Messages for Smart Grid: – Focus on Benefits to Cost Payback – Consider all parts together (Holistic approach) – Remove deficiencies in foundations – Implement new solutions THANK YOU! slee@epri.com © 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 18

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