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Final national greencentrewater

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Final national greencentrewater

  1. 1. Life blood of the ‘Green’ industry
  2. 2. Water Dr. Ted Bilderback – NC State Univ. Water Quality :Managing the Chemistry in your Irrigation Water Supply Dr. Jim Owen – Oregon State Univ. Dr. Stu Warren – Kansas State Univ.
  3. 3. Water <ul><li>Dr. Ted Bilderback – NC State Univ. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jim Owen – Oregon State Univ. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat the small stuff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. Stu Warren – Kansas State Univ. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Water Dr. Ted Bilderback – NC State Univ. Dr. Jim Owen – Oregon State Univ. Dr. Stu Warren – Kansas State Univ. Getting more plant per gallon
  5. 7. The Container System FERTILIZER SUBSTRATE IRRIGATION Container
  6. 8. Substrates <ul><li>2 Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Substrates <ul><li>Re-wet substrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large pores (air) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small pores (water) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Let the waters flow
  9. 11. Irrigation <ul><ul><li>Traditional irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe PM cool down </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much to apply – inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-dawn/early morning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit interference with crew </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum wind </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize loss to evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Two things changed our thinking <ul><li>Water only means everything to everything </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T.E. Bilderback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Water- oil of the 21 st Century </li></ul>
  11. 13. Water is the oil of the 21 st century <ul><li>The United Nations has predicted by 2020, water and not oil will be a source of conflicts in the world </li></ul><ul><li>American Farm Bureau Federation </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources Could Be The Next Energy Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>By Stewart Truelsen </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fb.org/views/focus/index.html </li></ul>
  12. 14. Mark Twain said it best <ul><li>Whiskey for drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Water for fighting </li></ul>
  13. 15. The Container System FERTILIZER SUBSTRATE IRRIGATION Container
  14. 16. Irrigation – Getting more plant per gallon
  15. 17. Irrigation <ul><li>To increase water efficiency while maintaining rate of growth? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much applied stays in container? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much does it take to rewet substrate? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time of irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it make a difference when we irrigate? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Irrigation application efficiency <ul><li>Re-wet substrate </li></ul>
  17. 19. Pathways of water through a container Channel along edge Follow large pores Held in small pores
  18. 20. Water application efficiency
  19. 21. Water application efficiency <ul><li>‘ Pulse’ irrigation – applying water in a series of cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El Modena Gardens increased water retention by 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Whitesides, 1989) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Cyclic irrigation
  21. 23. Cyclic Irrigation
  22. 24. Water application efficiency <ul><li>% increase over </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate single application </li></ul><ul><li>3 PB : 1 P 34% (Fare et al., 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>8 PB : 1 S 27% (Groves et al., 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>8 PB : 1 S 27% (Ruter, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>8 PB : 1 S 38% (Tyler et al., 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Average 32% </li></ul>
  23. 25. Substrates <ul><li>Re-wet substrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large pores (air) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small pores (water) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Cyclic irrigation and water movement in containers 1st irrigation cycle 2nd irrigation cycle 3rd irrigation cycle
  25. 27. Cyclic Irrigation <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to apply less water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased pump run time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease leachate / Decreased runoff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires automated Controllers & Valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Irrigation volume How much to apply? Traditional: inches of water Does that tell you if the substrate is rehydrated?
  27. 30. Leaching Fraction Leaching Fraction = Volume Leached / Volume Applied Leaching Fraction ~ 0.15 – 0.20 Total Water Applied for container diameter area is measured as “total volume” to calculate leaching fraction
  28. 31. Plastic bags work for leaching fractions Water Applied Water Leached
  29. 32. Leaching fraction 7 gal per container Owen. 2006
  30. 33. Leaching fraction 7 gal per container 90,000 gallons of water saved per growing acre while maintaining growth Owen. 2006
  31. 34. Leaching fraction <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on plant need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize water applied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize pump run time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management time </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. Less than uniform irrigation distribution? Think Leaching Fraction
  33. 36. Group by: Water needs Container size Substrate
  34. 37. <ul><li>Does the architecture of a plant’s canopy affect water application? </li></ul>
  35. 39. Umbrella Architecture
  36. 40. Vase Architecture
  37. 41. Canopy Capture Williamson et al. 2005. SNA 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 33 50 72 92 105 Days Percentage irrigation capture Cotoneaster Gardenia Cotoneaster dammeri ‘ Skogholm Gardenia augusta ‘Chuck Hayes’
  38. 42. Irrigation volume to maintain 0.2 LF 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 22 29 32 40 47 49 54 66 73 82 92 99 105 Days After Initiation Daily volume applied (ml) Cotoneaster Vitex Williamson et al. 2005. SNA Cotoneaster dammeri ‘Skogholm Vitex trifolia ‘Variegata’
  39. 44. Best Management Practices <ul><li>BMPs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting more plant per gallon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclic application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2 leaching fraction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation timing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predawn to early morning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 45. <ul><li>Does it matter when you irrigate? </li></ul>
  41. 46. Irrigation timing <ul><li>What time of day to irrigate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-dawn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All day </li></ul></ul>
  42. 47. <ul><li>Irrigation timing treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2 leaching fraction for each timing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0200, 0400, and 0600 HR (predawn) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0600, 0900, and 1200 HR (AM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1200, 1500, and 1800 HR (PM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0600, 1200, and 1800 HR (all day) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 48. Dry weight of Cotoneaster dammeri 'Skogholm' Dry weight (g) b a a a c b a b d c a b
  44. 49. Rainfall Weeks After Initiation Rainfall (mm)
  45. 50. <ul><li>Repeated study </li></ul>
  46. 51. Rainfall Weeks After Initiation Rainfall (mm)
  47. 52. Dry weight of Cotoneaster dammeri 'Skogholm' Dry weight (g) b a a a c b a b d c a b
  48. 53. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis
  49. 54. Monitoring Water Use
  50. 55. Monitoring Water Use Water gain
  51. 56. Monitoring Water Use Water gain Plant water use Daylight hrs
  52. 57. Monitoring Water Use
  53. 58. Automated Control
  54. 59. Automated Control
  55. 60. Monitoring Water Use
  56. 61. Irrigation timing - overhead Williamson et al. 2005. SNA Substrate Temperature (C) Aug 26 Aug 27
  57. 62. Irrigation timing - overhead Williamson et al. 2005. SNA Substrate Temperature (C) Aug 26 Aug 27 12:00 3:00 6:00 Pre-Dawn
  58. 63. Irrigation timing - overhead Williamson et al. 2005. SNA Substrate Temperature (C) Aug 26 Aug 27 3:00 AM 9:00 PM
  59. 64. Irrigation timing <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases plant growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate substrate temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Controllers & Valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfere with workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul>
  60. 65. Irrigation Decisions <ul><li>Cyclic irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase application efficiency- 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How much? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaching fraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.1 to 0.2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of Day </li></ul></ul>
  61. 66. Questions

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