Towards a web of sensors built with linked data and REST


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The technological advances in hardware and software communication technologies are speeding up the path towards the actualization of the Internet of Things. Nonetheless, novel requirements are emerging for the effective and efficient usage of the huge amount of available sensor information and functional capabilities. Several approaches have been proposed for leveraging the Web to this purpose (i.e. Web of Things). In this work, we propose an information-centric approach to enable a Web of Sensors. We combine the principles of Linked Data and Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style to represent sensors as graphs of URI-addressable information nodes, which can be easily combined and reused for developing novel applications and creating software-based sensors (Virtual Sensors). Our approach relies on the adoption of a web-oriented middleware and information model, called InterDataNet.

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Towards a web of sensors built with linked data and REST

  1. 1. Towards a Web of Sensors built with Linked Data and REST S. Turchi, L. Bianchi, F. Paganelli, F. Pirri, D. Giuli, “Towards a web of sensors built with linked data and REST”, 2013 IEEE 14th International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, WoWMoM 2013, art. no. 6583491, Madrid, Spain, 4-7 June 2013, 10.1109/WoWMoM.2013.6583491 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 1
  2. 2. References • S. Turchi, L. Bianchi, F. Paganelli, F. Pirri, D. Giuli, “Towards a Web of Sensors built with Linked Data and REST”, 2nd IEEE WoWMoM Workshop on the Internet of Things: Smart Objects and Services (IoT-SoS 2013, colocated with 14th IEEE Int. Symp. on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM 2013), Madrid, Spain 4-7 June. • F. Paganelli, S. Turchi, L. Bianchi, L. Ciofi, M.C. Pettenati, F. Pirri, and D. Giuli, "An information-centric and REST-based approach for EPC Information Services, Journal of Communications Software and Systems, vol. 9, no. 1, March 2013 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 2
  3. 3. Outline • Context and Motivation • Our approach towards a Web of Sensors • Information-centric model • Web APIs • Middleware services • Ongoing experiment within the SmartSantander EU project • Conclusions 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 3
  4. 4. Context • Web of Things • Ease the end-user interaction with sensors and smart objects by leveraging the Web • Functionalities for publishing the sensors’ representation and make them accessible on the Web 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 4
  5. 5. Motivation State of the art in the Web of Things/Web of Sensors (WoS): • SensorWeb OGC specifications • Several research and implementation proposals • Web APIs (REST) • Semantic annotations and links (Linked Data) Current limitation • Poor support to the development of web applications in the WoS • A limitation to access, reuse and compose sensor data • i.e. the WoS objective! 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 5
  6. 6. Our Proposal • A graph-based representation of sensors • Original combination of REST and Linked Data principles • WoT as a browsable graph of resource nodes • Uniform Web Interface • Creation and Execution environment • Middleware implementing discovery, search, brokering capabilities • Design tools (GUI and JavaScript libraries) 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 6
  7. 7. Why REST and Linked Data? • Leverage the Web’s grounding principles and best practices 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 7 What it is… Useful for… REST • Architectural style • Uniform Interface (HTTP verbs) • It is based on the principles that make the web scalable • Lowering entry barriers for web developers • Offering lightweight and uniform API for accessing data Linked Data • A set of best practices for publishing and connecting data and their semantics on the Web • Standard technologies (HTTP, RDF, XML, …) • Global browsable information space, interlinking data coming from different information sources • Shared representation of interlinked data REST and Linked Data complement each other!
  8. 8. IDN Information Model • Node: an information element, made by data (content) and metadata • URI-addressable • Relations • Aggregation • Reference • Document: a collection of IDN Nodes (1..n) exposed as a web resource • Uniform REST interface 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 8 attribute1 attributeN attribute2 …/{nodeId} attribute attribute ../../{nodeid} ../ …/{nodeId} attribute ../{nodeId} 1 1 aggregation link ../{nodeId} reference link
  9. 9. Sensor Information Model Sensor object representation • GET URI information retrieval • PUTcreation/update • DELETE deletion 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 9 Different design choices are allowed! nodeId type battery sensor/{nodeId} longitude latitude ../location ../data_production date ../{physical_quantity} value measurement_unit 1 1 1..n aggregation link
  10. 10. Exploiting the Model - 1 Virtual sensor • software-based sensor whose value derives from physical sensor ones • Advantages: • Geographical coverage • New sensor type 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 10
  11. 11. Exploiting the Model – 2 Interlinking sensor information • more complex graphs can be built 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 11 sensor/{nodeId} sensor/{nodeId} sensor/{nodeId}
  12. 12. InterDataNet Architecture 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 12 IDN Adapter IDN Service Platform Information-centric REST APIsIDNSearch IDNStudio Sensing Infrastructures Information repositories REST and Web Services
  13. 13. Experiment in SmartSantander 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 13 IDN Adapter IDN Service Platform Information-centric REST APIs IDNSearch IDNStudio Web Applications Users
  14. 14. Apparent Temp. (AT) Web App • VSs for AT in locations like schools, public gardens, hospitals • AT = + 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 14 Benefits • End users • Quality of Life • Alerts • Developers • Fast development process • Reduced programming skills
  15. 15. Conclusions • Approach for easing the building of a Web of Sensors • Connection to sensors and existing sensor middleware through a dedicated adapter • Representation of objects through a graph of URI-addressable data units • Thanks to the adoption of REST and Linked Data principles • Interoperability and scalability • Tools easing the development of web of sensors applications • Ongoing work • Experiment in SmartSantander • Semantic-enabled search capabilities • Security Framework 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 15
  16. 16. 06/03/2013SmartSantanderKickOffMeeting 16