How To Fish N Plants Breathe


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How To Fish N Plants Breathe

  1. 1. - How do they breathe?
  2. 2. <ul><li>Just like animals, plants need to breathe too… </li></ul><ul><li>Do plants have lungs? </li></ul><ul><li>Do plants have gills? </li></ul><ul><li>Then how do they breathe? </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do Plants breathe? <ul><li>Gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide enter or leave a plant through tiny holes called stomata (singular – stoma). </li></ul><ul><li>They are mostly found on the underside of its leaves and on its stems. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stomata
  5. 5. <ul><li>There are about 20-1000 stomata per mm 2 of the leaf, depending on the type of plants. </li></ul><ul><li>The highest number of stomata is found on the leaves of the Spanish oak tree. There are around 1200 stomata per mm 2 . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>During the day, the stomata are usually open so that carbon dioxide which is needed to make food, can enter the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, excess oxygen produced by the plant also leaves the plant through its stomata. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>At night, when the plant is not making food, oxygen enters and carbon dioxide leaves the plant through its stomata. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember… </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen is needed at all times for respiration, even when the plant is making food! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cross-sectional view of the leaf
  9. 9. Open stoma Closed stoma
  10. 10. <ul><li>The roots of a plant also need oxygen which they obtain from the air spaces in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know… </li></ul><ul><li>If you give too much water to a plant in a pot you could kill the roots by drowning them! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mangrove Plants <ul><li>In order to breathe in mud, mangrove trees snorkel for air. They develop air-breathing roots which take in air aboveground. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>These roots have special tiny pores on their surface to take in air. Only air can enter these pores, not water or salts. </li></ul>The roots also contain large air spaces that can store air. During high tide, when the roots are below water, there is still a ready supply of oxygen.
  13. 13. - How do fish breathe?
  14. 14. <ul><li>Animals living in underwater have no problem in removing carbon dioxide because it dissolves very easily in water. Their problem is how to obtain enough oxygen . </li></ul>The amount of oxygen dissolved in the water depends upon the water temperature but, in general, if the water is at 15°C there is 30 times more oxygen in the air than in water.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Fish breathe by using GILLS . </li></ul><ul><li>Gills are found on either side of its heads. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gills <ul><li>The gill is made up of tiny flaps that are rich in blood. </li></ul><ul><li>These flaps increase the surface area of the gills. </li></ul><ul><li>The large surface area and the many blood vessels enable the fish to absorb more oxygen from the water. </li></ul>- A Fresh Gill
  17. 17. - A Spoiled Gill
  18. 18. <ul><li>oxygen present in the water is absorbed into the blood vessels through the gills. </li></ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide is removed from the blood vessels through the gills. </li></ul>As water passes over the gills of a fish,
  19. 19. <ul><li>The water that enters the mouth of a fish has more oxygen than the water leaving the fish. </li></ul><ul><li>The water that flows out of the gills of a fish has more carbon dioxide than the water entering the fish. </li></ul>
  20. 20. How Do Mudskippers Breathe? <ul><li>In water , mudskipper breathe through gills like other fishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of water , mudskippers can hold water in enlarged gill chambers which lock shut on land. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>When the oxygen in the water runs out, they have to replenish the used water in their gill chambers with fresh water, so they cannot stay far from water. </li></ul><ul><li>Mudskippers also absorb air through their skin which is rich with blood vessels, so long as the skin remains moist . </li></ul>