Ob slides hold - motivation

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  • That really depends upon what I wantHow long I haveWhat you want
  • When compared to Maslow’s there is no evidence to support a correlation with lower needs
  • Ob slides hold - motivation

    1. 1. Determinants of performance• Function of capacity to perform– Skills– Abilities– Knowledge– Experiences• Function of opportunity to perform– Poor equipment– Outdated technology– Poor decisions– Outdated attitudes• Function of willingness to perform– Desires– Willingness to exert effort1
    2. 2. Can I make you do what I wantyou to do?
    3. 3. Did You Know?• 76% of organizations say flextime boostsemployee morale.• 75% of Gen Y workers say they expect to workfor 2 to 5 employers during their lifetime• 42% of administrative professionals preferverbal forms of recognition• 40% of workers cited “lack of recognition” as akey reason for leaving a job.3
    4. 4. Did You Know? -- 2• 22% of US workers say they “live to work”rather than “work to live.”• 16% of French workers say they “live to work.”• 15% of German and U.K. workers say they“live to work.”• #1 reason why people leave a company is abad relationship with their boss.4
    5. 5. Define Motivation?• Is a willingness to do something – conditionedby the “something”’s ability to satisfy someneed.• A process to energize, direct and persist• What is a “Need?”• Physiological or psychological deficiency where anoutcome is attractive5
    6. 6. Can you create a model of the BasicMotivation Process?• Unsatisfied Need• Tension• Drives• Search Behavior• Satisfied Need• Reduction of Tension6
    7. 7. Components• Direction – what a person chooses to do whenpresented with possible alternatives.• Intensity – strength of the response once thedirection is made• Persistence – the staying power of behavior7
    8. 8. Describe Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Physiological• Safety• Social• Esteem• Self-actualization8
    9. 9. What is the difference betweentheories X & Y• Douglas McGregor• X – Negative view• Y – Positive view• Does one of these assume lower level needsdominate?• Theory X– Please note – no evidence to support theseassumptions• X or Y may be appropriate in particular situations.9
    10. 10. What do high achievers need?• David McClelland– Need for Achievement– To excel, to achieve in relation to a standard, to strive to succeed– Need for Power– Make others behave in ways they would not have otherwise– Need for Affiliation– Desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships11
    11. 11. What is the difference between GoalSetting and Reinforcement• Goal Setting• Intentions – expressed as goals – can be a source ofmotivation• Specific hard goals better than “do your best”• Feedback helps• Cognitive approach, individual’s purposes direct actions• Reinforcement theory• Reinforcement conditions behavior12
    12. 12. Equity Theory• Employees weigh what they put into a jobsituation against what they get from it andcompare their input-output ration againstrelevant others• Employees attempt to correct inequities13
    13. 13. Expectancy Theory?• EE– An explanation of Expectancy Theory– Take 10 minutes in groups of 3– Takeways• Model• Explanation14
    14. 14. Expectancy Theory?• Effort-performance linkage (Expectancy)• Probability perceived by the individual that exerting agiven amount will lead to performance• Performance-reward linkage (Instrumentality)• Degree to which the individual believes that performingwill lead to attainment of a desired outcome• Attractiveness (Valence)• Importance the individual places on the potentialoutcome16
    15. 15. Organizational Justice• Perceptions of fairness of org. procedures anddecisions– Distributive Justice: fairness about distribution ofresources and rewards– Procedural Justice: fairness about the processesused to arrive at decisions (raises, bonus, etc…)– Interpersonal Justice: fairness of treatment ofemployees by authorities– Informational Justice: fairness of communicationprovided to employees17
    16. 16. Are motivational theories culturebound?• YES!18
    17. 17. • Implications for managers• 1. Recognize individual difference• 2. Match people to jobs• 3. Use goals• 4. It must be oblivious the goals are attainable• 5. Jobs should offer– Skill variety– Task identity and significance– Autonomy– Feedback• 6. Individualize rewards• 7. Tie rewards to performance• 8. ensure equity– All in North America – naturally!19
    18. 18. #3 Use Goals• Goal statement contains four (4)elements:–1. An action or accomplishment verb.–2. A single and measurable result.» Model of control works well here–3. A date of completion.–4. A cost in terms of effort, resources, ormoney, or some combination of thesefactors.20
    19. 19. #3 Use Goals• Should be short• Only “what” and “when” – not“how” or “why”• Is challenging and attainable• Is meaningful and important• Acceptable to you21

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