Ethics and Values
• Define “Ethics”– This is about what we think we “Should”• Definition: ?• Define “Values”– This is about what we “Actuall...
Ethics• What is this really?– Take a look – a pretty good look at ….. Ethics fromSanta Clara• http://www.scu.edu/ethics/pr...
But knowing what it is doesn’t explaine “Why to HumanBeings Do What They Do?”• To Start to Understand ….– We begin with ps...
• Attitudes, Perceptions, and Learning fit into adifferent part of our understanding ….…but Values are well worth exploring!
Values• Define Values?• Basic convictions – one mode of conduct is preferableto another• Judgmental element carrying indiv...
What are Value Systems?• They prioritize individual values– The weight assigned to values such as:• Freedom• Pleasure• Sel...
Kohlberg (researcher)Stages of Moral Development as a Basis for Moral Education• Level One – Self Centered• Obedience and ...
Kohlberg2Stages of Moral Development as a Basis for Moral Education• Level Three – Principled– Social Contract – Individua...
Ethical FrameworksBelow are the most modest descriptors of the Frameworks• Take a moment with a search engine and expand t...
Does a person’s generational standing or otheridentifier make a difference in values?• You saw the generational chart earl...
Again, another look at Dominant Values inToday’s workforceRobbins• Veterans» 65+ Hardworking, conservative,• Loyal to orga...
Is there a logical line ofthinking that might help toexplain or answer thequestion?:Has there been a decline inBusiness Et...
Possible Partial explanation• Vets leave Loyalty to employer• Best for the organization• Boomers take over Loyalty to care...
So… can other values issues be explained as well (or possiblyexplained)?• How about values around the world?– Do different...
Geert HofstedeNot his son, Gert• Google him – take a quick look at Wikipedia(I know it isn’t what I recommend but really…....
• Power – distance• Acceptance of distribution of power• Individualism/collectivism• Prefer to act ……• Achievement/Nurturi...
Finally …Here are some steps to Ethical Decision Making:• Define the problem accurately• Define the problem from the other...
Attitudes• Attitude is a hypothetical construct – it is made up• Cannot be directly observed – we look at what people doan...
THREE COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES• Cognitive Component – The opinion or beliefsegment of an attitude.• Affective Component – T...
CHANGING ATTITUDES• Barriers to changing attitudes:1. Prior commitment2. Insufficient information• Methods to overcome bar...
Attitudes(just briefly)• Are evaluative statements• They reflect how we feel about something» Objects, people, events• OB ...
Determinants of Job Satisfaction• Mentally challenging work• Equitable rewards• Supportive working conditions• Supportive ...
• The following slide is a simple model of theinterrelatedness of Values, Attitudes and otherfactors and how they impact a...
ValuesAttitudesPersonalityAbilityMotivationPerceptionLearningIndividualBehavior
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Ob slides hold - ethics and values(2)

303 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
303
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ob slides hold - ethics and values(2)

  1. 1. Ethics and Values
  2. 2. • Define “Ethics”– This is about what we think we “Should”• Definition: ?• Define “Values”– This is about what we “Actually” embrace• Definition: ?
  3. 3. Ethics• What is this really?– Take a look – a pretty good look at ….. Ethics fromSanta Clara• http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/whatisethics.html
  4. 4. But knowing what it is doesn’t explaine “Why to HumanBeings Do What They Do?”• To Start to Understand ….– We begin with psychological contributions• There are 4 areas of contribution– 1. Values– 2. Attitudes– 3. Perception– 4. Learning
  5. 5. • Attitudes, Perceptions, and Learning fit into adifferent part of our understanding ….…but Values are well worth exploring!
  6. 6. Values• Define Values?• Basic convictions – one mode of conduct is preferableto another• Judgmental element carrying individual’s ideas aboutright, good, or desirable (and the opposites)
  7. 7. What are Value Systems?• They prioritize individual values– The weight assigned to values such as:• Freedom• Pleasure• Self-respect• Honesty• Obedience• Equality– Or the rank ordering you did earlier with the 34items.
  8. 8. Kohlberg (researcher)Stages of Moral Development as a Basis for Moral Education• Level One – Self Centered• Obedience and Punishment orientation• Avoid physical punishment• Instrumental Purpose and Exchange –• Following rules when in my interest• Level Two – Conformity• Interpersonal Accord – Mutual Expectations• Good behavior -- peers and those close to you• Social Accord & System Maintenance• Fulfilling duties -- contributing
  9. 9. Kohlberg2Stages of Moral Development as a Basis for Moral Education• Level Three – Principled– Social Contract – Individual Rights• Aware people hold a variety of values• Relative to the group– Universal Ethical Principles• Following self-chosen ethical principles of justice andrights• Law vs. principles – act in accordance with principles
  10. 10. Ethical FrameworksBelow are the most modest descriptors of the Frameworks• Take a moment with a search engine and expand thedescriptors….• Utilitarianism – greatest good• Individual Rights – personal entitlements• Justice Principle – fairness, equity, impartiality• Caring Principle – well being of others• Environmentalism – person–land relationships
  11. 11. Does a person’s generational standing or otheridentifier make a difference in values?• You saw the generational chart earlier…• Now group people by some broad brushstrokes………. And ask ourselves about• Age?• Nationality?• Region of upbringing? (south, east, midwest, west,…)• Politics?• Education?
  12. 12. Again, another look at Dominant Values inToday’s workforceRobbins• Veterans» 65+ Hardworking, conservative,• Loyal to organization• Boomers» 40’s – 60’s Success, achievement, ambition, dislike authority• Loyal to career• Xers» 30’s – 40’s Work/life balance, teams, dislike rules• Loyal to relationships• Nexters» Under 30 Confident, $ success, self-reliant ,• Loyal to both self and relationships
  13. 13. Is there a logical line ofthinking that might help toexplain or answer thequestion?:Has there been a decline inBusiness Ethics? (because it seems like it)
  14. 14. Possible Partial explanation• Vets leave Loyalty to employer• Best for the organization• Boomers take over Loyalty to career• Best for #1• Xers coming up Loyalty to relationships• Implications of actions
  15. 15. So… can other values issues be explained as well (or possiblyexplained)?• How about values around the world?– Do different cultures have different values?• Well, yes! (I think …. Don’t I?)– How would you find out? (easy way is look it up on the internet – but I want you to thinkabout how you would find out? Not what someone thinks, but what we know because we havetested it out)
  16. 16. Geert HofstedeNot his son, Gert• Google him – take a quick look at Wikipedia(I know it isn’t what I recommend but really….)• So the big study he did …– IBM employees– 116,000– 40 countries– Produced 5 dimensions• What are they? Look it up
  17. 17. • Power – distance• Acceptance of distribution of power• Individualism/collectivism• Prefer to act ……• Achievement/Nurturing• Uncertainty avoidance• Structure vs. unstructured• Long Term / Short Term
  18. 18. Finally …Here are some steps to Ethical Decision Making:• Define the problem accurately• Define the problem from the other side• State the historical background to events• Consider where are your loyalties• What do you want to accomplish– Compare intention with probable results• Whom could get injured(multiple definitions)• Can you discuss with parties involved• Valid over long time frame• Can you disclose• Exceptions?Nash – Ethics without the sermon -- HBR
  19. 19. Attitudes• Attitude is a hypothetical construct – it is made up• Cannot be directly observed – we look at what people doand infer what their attitude is – (think of an ice berg, we onlysee 10% of what is actually there)• Attitude directs Behaviour• Attitudes are persistent – until something changes them• Attitudes range from very favourable to very unfavourable.
  20. 20. THREE COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES• Cognitive Component – The opinion or beliefsegment of an attitude.• Affective Component – The emotional or feelingsegment of an attitude.• Behavioral Component – An intention to behave ina certain way towards someone or something.20OrganizationalBehavior
  21. 21. CHANGING ATTITUDES• Barriers to changing attitudes:1. Prior commitment2. Insufficient information• Methods to overcome barriers and change attitudes:1. Providing new information2. Use of fear3. Resolving Discrepancies4. Influence of friends and peers5. The co-opting approach21OrganizationalBehavior
  22. 22. Attitudes(just briefly)• Are evaluative statements• They reflect how we feel about something» Objects, people, events• OB focuses on job-related attitudes– Job involvement – how involved are people and why– Organizational commitment – how committed arepeople to the organization –– Job satisfaction – how satisfied are people with theirjob.» Most attention is placed on Job Satisfaction
  23. 23. Determinants of Job Satisfaction• Mentally challenging work• Equitable rewards• Supportive working conditions• Supportive colleagues
  24. 24. • The following slide is a simple model of theinterrelatedness of Values, Attitudes and otherfactors and how they impact an individualsbehavior.
  25. 25. ValuesAttitudesPersonalityAbilityMotivationPerceptionLearningIndividualBehavior

×