1. Difference between IHRM and HRM
The features of the IHRM include the management of the additional activities such as expatriate
management, cross cultural training. On the other hand the features of the HRM include
manpower management, personnel management, organizational management and industrial
One of the primary differences between HRM and IHRM is that HRM is done at national level
whereas IHRM is done at the international level.
HRM is not affected by external factors whereas the functioning of IHRM is sometimes affected
by external factors.
HRM is more concerned about managing employees belonging to one nation. On the other hand
the International Human Resource Management is concerned with managing employees
belonging to many nations.
IHRM vs Domestic HRM
“HRM” stands for “human resource management ” of which there are two
primary types: the International HRM or IHRM, and the Domestic HRM or plainly
HRM. So how do these two management systems differ?
By the name itself, you should already have an idea that IHRMs work
internationally or beyond national borders, whereas its domestic counterpart
works within the set, local, national borders. In this connection, it is also expected
that the IHRMs follow not just more rules and regulations but also more stringent
international policies like those related to taxation at the international location of
work, employment protocols, language requirements, and special work permits.
For local HRMs, the rules and regulations to be followed are just regarding local
taxation and ordinary employment-related issues.
IHRMs have a broader perspective because international organizations cater to
three different employee types or categories: HCNs, PCNs and TCNs. HCNs, or
host country nationals, are employees who are still citizens of the nation where
the foreign auxiliary branch of the organizationis currently based. PCNs, or parent
country nationals, are the expatriates who work in another nation aside from
their original country. Lastly, TCNs, or third country nationals, are mostly those
who are government or military contracted personnel. The contracted personnel
are neither representing the contractor (the government) nor the host nation.
Because IHRMs frequently deal with expatriates, the IHRM manager should advise
the latter to engage in special socio-cultural immersion sessions and training that
will help them adapt to the alien country. This is contrary to the traditional HRM
setting where this type of training is no longer required. The expatriot may also be
given more attention like schooling for his or her children as well as special job
opportunities for the spouse.
There are also more risks involved in IHRM because there are more external
factors involved. The management needs to be ready to face the consequences if
the expatriot is underperforming. Other factors like diplomatic ties between the
country of origin and thehost country may also affect the working conditions. The
benefits of the PCNs and TCNs may also be under fire if the currency exchange
rates become suddenly unfavorable.
2. Whom among the following do you prefer for International assignment?
3. BRING OUT THE BENEFITS OF CCT?
To increase the knowledge and skills of international assignees to
help them operate effectively in to the unfamiliar host culture.
It may enhance the learning process of the international assignee
and thus facilitate effective cross-cultural interactions and cross-
To understand the systematic approach to designing cross-cultural
A good cross-cultural training program has its strength in focusing on
cultural issues only, and the cross-cultural communication skills will
be taught during the training process to help participants with
interpersonal communication across cultures.
According to Payne (2004), a cross-cultural training program should
reach the following ten benefits:
1) People learn about themselves
2) Encourage confidence
3) Break barriers
4) Build trust
6) Open horizons
7) Develop interpersonal skills
8) Develop listening skills
9) People use common ground
10) Career development
4. WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR THE LOW PRESENCE OF WOMEN AMONG
The role as mother and head of the household presents a unique set of challenges
for expat women (as wellas those men who step into that role). The work of caring
for children, learning how to do the food shopping, and keep the household
humming along are undervalued enough, but when the stress of culture shock is
thrown in, the pile of work that is never done can easily grow from molehill to
Surveys show that expat women find it more difficult to adjust to a foreign culture
than men do.
Women were lesswell adjusted cross-culturally than men in countrieswith
low female work force participation and low percentages of female
First,women were simply not available (Izraeli&Zeira, 1993), since
expatriates were picked from amongst the ranks of senior management and
there were too few women at this level to choose from.
Second, women on international assignments were found to suffer
discrimination at the hands of their male counterparts and peers, rather than
by natives of the host country (Stone, 1991).
Women were still deemed unsuit able: they were thought to be sidetracking
their career for a family life were of the “wrong age” (too young) for overseas