Type 2 Diabetes and Associated Genes     Konstantine and Nate
Type 2 Basics <ul><ul><li>It is the most common form of diabetes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two possibilities:  </li></ul...
Type 2 Terms- What's involved? <ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in digestion </li></ul></ul></...
Why is insulin so important? <ul><ul><li>When a person eats food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars/ Carbs from food ar...
Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>If there is a shortage of glucose in the cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate response: the ce...
Treatment <ul><ul><li>Meal planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise and weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thi...
Type 2 vs. Type 1 <ul><ul><li>In Type 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The body produces no insulin </li></ul></ul></ul><u...
Article-Recap <ul><li>ELA (Ensemble Learning Approach) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can detect SNPs, or &quot;nucleotide polyporp...
Article-Recap, continued 2 <ul><li>Another Method to analyzing genes:  </li></ul><ul><li>TTFP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exami...
Socratic Seminar Questions <ul><li>1.    Why do you think that Type 2 diabetes is most prevalent in races such as African ...
Works Cited:  <ul><ul><li>Michigan Technological University. &quot;Eleven Genetic Variations Linked To Type 2 Diabetes.&qu...
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Type 2 Diabetes

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Type 2 Diabetes

  1. 1. Type 2 Diabetes and Associated Genes    Konstantine and Nate
  2. 2. Type 2 Basics <ul><ul><li>It is the most common form of diabetes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two possibilities:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The body does not produce enough insulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The body cells ignore the insulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>image from </li></ul><ul><li>savvyhealthfitness.com </li></ul>
  3. 3. Type 2 Terms- What's involved? <ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in digestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates Insulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hormone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein secreted by islet cells in the Pancreas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Necessary for the body to use glucose for energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why is insulin so important? <ul><ul><li>When a person eats food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars/ Carbs from food are broken down into glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose::Fuel, ATP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin carries glucose into cells to provide Energy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a person with Type 2... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The glucose does not enter the cells (refer to slide 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This leads to... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>image from www.biochem.arizona.edu </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>If there is a shortage of glucose in the cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate response: the cells will become starved for energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the form of ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person with Type 2 will feel tired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over time: high blood glucose levels may hurt the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes, kidneys, nerves, or heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Treatment <ul><ul><li>Meal planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise and weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This may not lead to effective lowering of glucose levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pills are available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is a variety of pills available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pills help in lowering blood glucose levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Meglitinides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are pills that increase insulin production </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, blood glucose levels indirectly decrease </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore more glucose is available for cells to use  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Type 2 vs. Type 1 <ul><ul><li>In Type 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The body produces no insulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constant insulin injections are required  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually diagnosed at young age  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our blog article discusses Type 2 and genetic variations linked to the disorder  </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Article-Recap <ul><li>ELA (Ensemble Learning Approach) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can detect SNPs, or &quot;nucleotide polyporphisms,&quot; a.k.a. genes that may code for disease-related genes.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 SNPs are associated with Type 2 diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many genes involved, like Parkinson's and ALS (Lou Gehrig's) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic function of the ELA:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrows &quot;field of potentially dangerous genes&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applies &quot;statistical methods to determine which SNPs act on their own and which act in combination&quot;. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Article-Recap, continued 2 <ul><li>Another Method to analyzing genes:  </li></ul><ul><li>TTFP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>examines genotypes of family members going back generations.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socratic Seminar : </li></ul><ul><li>Outer circle please use chatzy </li></ul><ul><li>Inner circle please talk a lot--voice what you think </li></ul>
  10. 10. Socratic Seminar Questions <ul><li>1.    Why do you think that Type 2 diabetes is most prevalent in races such as African American, Hispanic/ Latino, American Indian, and Asian American?   </li></ul><ul><li>2.    If scientists are now able to identify 11 genetic variations that are linked to Type 2 diabetes, how do you think this will affect possible treatments in the future for diabetes and disease in general?   </li></ul><ul><li>3.    Do you believe that with enough research and testing with ELAs that these nervous system disorders can ever be treated or cured?   </li></ul><ul><li>4.    Do you find any moral/ ethical issues in testing human’s DNA for genes about a disease that may be to no avail or possibly help cure that disease?   </li></ul><ul><li>5.    If you think that ELAs are helpful to possibly find cures for diseases, do you believe that one’s DNA should be subject to governmental use and/ or experimentation to locate genes associated with diseases? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Works Cited: <ul><ul><li>Michigan Technological University. &quot;Eleven Genetic Variations Linked To Type 2 Diabetes.&quot; ScienceDaily 19 October 2009. 19 October 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com­/releases/2009/10/091006121115.htm>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  savvyhealthfitness.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  www.biochem.arizona.edu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  http://www.diabetes.org/type-2-diabetes.jsp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rPDa2ACtog  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/DM/PUBS/statistics/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>

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