Subordination 1

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Syntax: LANE 334

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Subordination 1

  1. 1. Subordination <br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  2. 2.  <br /> <br />It is possible to have more than one S node <br />in a sentence. The example , <br />the cat which is lying on the mat loves dogs, <br />consists of a<br />MAIN CLAUSE (S1) (the cat loves dogs)<br /> and a SUBORDINATE CLAUSE (S2) (which is lying on the mat ) <br />A clause may exists alone or it may join up with other clauses as in the example: <br />(the cat which is lying on the mat loves dogs) <br /> <br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  3. 3. Subordination <br /> <br />Most of our example sentences consisted of one clause.<br /> (1) Kate hugged the baby.<br />(2)The dog found a bone.<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  4. 4. We can, of course, take the same subject and say different things about it in different sentences.<br /> <br />(3) The cat is mad. <br />(4) The cat loves dogs.<br /> <br />Alternatively we can join the clauses together to form one sentence . By subordinating one clause to another<br /> <br />(5) The cat that is mad loves dogs.<br /> <br /> <br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  5. 5. In example (5) the cat loves dogs becomes the main clause; that is mad is the subordinate clause introduced by a Subordinator, the relative pronoun that. These two clauses do not carry equal weight or importance: the subordinate clause is often less important than the main clause. <br />Alternatively we could subordinate the cat is mad. <br />toThe cat loves dogs . <br />The cat that loves dogs is mad <br /> <br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  6. 6. The cat that loves dogs is mad.<br />In this example, the assertion the cat loves dogs has become less important than the assertion the cat is mad. In other words, the cat is mad, <br />has become the main clause and the cat loves dogshas become the subordinate clause. <br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  7. 7.  <br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  8. 8. - Relative clause<br />The cat that loves dogs is mad<br />- A Relative clause modifies the head noun of a noun phrase.<br />- The whole unit (the cat that loves dog) is a noun phrase, Functioning as one constituent by substituting the pronoun it .<br />Function :<br />The cat that loves dogs ismad<br />S psC<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  9. 9. - Subordinate clause (that loves the dog) is Embedded in the main clause (the cat is mad)<br /> S1<br /> NP VP<br />DET N1 V NP<br /> N S2 N<br />The cat that is mad loves dogs<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  10. 10. Another way of showing embedding is by the use of square brackets.1- {s1 the cat{s2 that is mad} loves dogs<br />Function:<br />{The cat that is mad } lovesdogs<br />SPdO<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  11. 11. Adverbial clause<br /> Subordinate adverbial clauses add information in relation to manner , time , place and so on.<br /> For example: (15) I will give you the next cluewhenyou are ready .<br /> All adverbial clauses begin with a subordinator . In example (15)the subordinator is when. <br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  12. 12. Adverbial clause<br />Another example:<br />(16)We must be careful becausethere is a ghost. In this example the adverbial clause begin with a subordinator because.<br />There is no option to omit the subordinator in adverbial clauses .<br />The function of subordinate adverbial clauses is adverbial. <br />Iwill give youthe next clue when you are ready <br />S Pi O d O A<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  13. 13. Noun clause<br />In some cases it is possible for clauses rather than phrases to function as subjects or objects. These types of clause are called noun clauses. For example:<br />How he deals with the deficit is grossly important<br />The subordinate clause is the subject,<br />How he deals with the deficit isgrossly important<br />SPSC<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  14. 14. (2) I know (that) they like me<br />the subordinate clause is the direct object of a transitive verb,<br />Iknowthey like me<br />SPdO<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  15. 15. Complement Clause<br />Subject complement<br />A subordinate clause can also appear with an intensive verb and function as the subject complement. For example:<br /> The most important thingisthat you’re happy<br />SPsC<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  16. 16. Non-finite verbs <br />Finite Clauses: that is clause where the verbs carry tense.There are occasions when NON- FINITE or untensed verb can appear in subordinate clauses. The form of non – finite verbs is either:to+ infinitivefor example  (40)She wants to hold the baby.<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  17. 17. Bare infinitive (that is infinitive without to) <br />For example  (41)She made him hold the baby.<br />Or the –ing participle<br />For example  (42)<br />She left him holding the baby.<br />And –en participle : for exampleBored by the baby, she left<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  18. 18. Post-modifier<br />Like relative clauses, non-finite clauses can function as post-modifiers to head nouns. <br />For example:<br />[ The letter [ for you to type ] is on your desk ]<br />The form of this non-finite verb is to + infinitive (to type) and by post-modifying letter, it forms part of the subject NP.<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  19. 19. We can analyse this as follows:<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  20. 20. As with the other noun post-modifiers (pp and relative clause) we are arguing that letter for you to type is an constituent.<br />Head nouns can also be post-modifiers by the -ing and –en participles. For example:<br />The cat lying on the doorstep is asleep<br />Those books scattered over the floor are yours <br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  21. 21. Adverbial<br />Non-finite clauses can also function as adverbials. For example, -ing participle:<br />S1<br />VPNPS2<br />NP VgpPRO<br />[trans]<br /> AUX V DET N<br />TENSE<br />Whistling cheerfully he (past) typed the letters<br /> Whistling cheerfully he typed the letters<br />AS PdO<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  22. 22. Subject <br />Like clauses non-finite clauses can also appear as subject:<br />Going to parties isfun<br />S PsC<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  23. 23. DIRECT OBJECT<br />Non-finite clauses, like noun clauses, can also function as direct objects<br /> Shewantsto hold the baby<br />SPdO<br />Nora Alharbi<br />
  24. 24. Thank you<br />Nora Amer Alharbi<br />Nora Alharbi<br />

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