In grammar, voice is divided in to: Passive voice Active voice the cat eats the meat The meat is eaten by the cat
Use of the Passive Voice : We use the passive when: <ul><li>we want to make the object more important . </li></ul><ul><li>The car was repaired by Sam. </li></ul><ul><li>we do not know the subject . </li></ul><ul><li>He was killed with a gun. </li></ul>
SIMPLE PRESENT, SIMPLE PAST and SIMPLE FUTURE The active object becomes the passive subject. am/is/are + past participle was/were + past participle Will going to + be + past participle Passive: Simple Present I am fascinated by the movie. Jack is bored by the movie. They are surprised by the movie. Active: Simple Present The movie fascinates me. The movie bores Jack. The movie surprises them . Passive: Simple Past I was bored by the movie. Jack was fascinated by the movie. They were surprised by the movie. Active: Simple Past The movie bored me. The movie fascinated Jack. The movie surprised them. Passive: Simple Future The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. Active: Simple Future Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM. Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) Passive form: am/is/are + being + past participle was/were + being + past participle Will going to+ be + being + past participle Active: Present Continuous I am helping Shannon. June is helping Su and Ling. Active: Past Continuous The cat was eating the meat They were eating the apple . Susan was eating the fruit and vegetable. Passive: Present Continuous Shannon is being helped by me. Su and Ling are being helped by June. Passive: Past Continuous The meat was being eaten by the cat The apple was being eaten by them. The fruit and vegetable were being eaten by Susan. Passive :Future Continuous At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John. At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John Active: Future Continuous At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes. At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT and FUTURE PERFECT Passive form : have/has been + past participle had been + past participle Will going to + have been+ past participle Passive: Present Perfect The gift has been mailed by me. The gifts have been mailed by Jack. Active: Present Perfect I have mailed the gift. Jack has mailed the gift s . Passive: Past Perfect The movie had been directed by Steven Spielberg. The movies had been directed by Penny Marshall. Active: Past Perfect Steven Spielberg had directed the movie. Penny Marshall had directed those movies. Passive: Future Perfect The project will have been finished by next month. The projects will have been finished before then. Active: Future Perfect John will have finished the project next month. They will have finished the projects before then.
passive Voice with MODAL AUXIARIES modal + be + past participle Passive: WILL / WON'T Tom will be invited to the party by Sharon. Jeff won't be invited to the party by Sharon. Active: WILL / WON'T Sharon will invite Tom to the party. Sharon won't invite Jeff to the party. Passive: CAN / CAN'T (CAN NOT) The cake can be made by Mai. The future can't be foretold by Terry. Active: CAN / CAN'T (CAN NOT) Mai can make the cake . Terry can't foretell the future. Passive: MAY / MAY NOT Katya may be given a new office by her company. The homework may not be done by the lazy students. MIGHT / MIGHT NOT Katya might be given a new office by her company. The homework might not be done by the lazy students. Active: MAY / MAY NOT Her company may give Katya a new office. The lazy students may not do the homework. MIGHT / MIGHT NOT Her company might give Katya a new office. The lazy students might not do the homework. Passive: SHOULD / SHOULDN'T English verbs should be memorized by students. Cigarettes shouldn't be smoked by children. Active: SHOULD / SHOULDN'T Students should memorize English verbs. Children shouldn't smoke cigarettes. Passive: OUGHT TO English verbs ought to be memorized by students. Active: OUGHT TO Students ought to learn English verbs.
<ul><li>Note </li></ul>we always use by to introduce the passive object: Fish are eaten by cats BUT When can we use by? <ul><li>Include by+ agent only if the subject of the active voice sentence is important. </li></ul><ul><li>If the subject is obvious or unimportant, omit it. Many passive sentence do not Include by+ agent . </li></ul>Focus on doer Focus on event Galileo first used the telescope in astronomy Active the telescope was first used in astronomy by Galileo. Passive Somebody killed him with a gun . Active <ul><li>He was killed with a gun. </li></ul>Passive