ISES 2013 - Day 3 - Stephen Roosa (Association of Energy Engineers) - The Transition


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The very last plenary session will highlight the challenges related to the transition in the energy sector: the big challenge on how to bridge the gap will be the main focus. A wide range of perspectives will be represented and the challenges we are facing as well as the solutions to these will be put on the table.

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  • And then there are Concentrating Solar PV installations like the Alamosa plant in Colorado. READ SLIDE What makes these plants interesting is the remarkable capacity factor achieved because of the concentrating technology and the sophisticated tracking system. (500) dual-axis, pedestal mounted tracker assemblies, which each generate around 60 kW of electricity. Each tracker is 70 feet wide by 50 feet high and contains 7,560 Fresnel lenses. The multi-junction solar cells are nearly 40% efficient, which is about double that of more traditional PV panels, making CPV technology advantageous in areas with high solar insolation values. HOW ARE THESE PROJECTS BEING INCENTIVIZED?
  • And some silicon PV projects… READ SLIDE…
  • READ SLIDE Other CSP + MSES projects of note: Solana Solar Energy Generating Station: Upon completion in 2013, Abengoa Solar’s 280 MW Solana Generating Station in Arizona will be the world’s largest parabolic trough solar CSP power plant and the United State’s first utility-scale solar CSP power plant to combine parabolic trough solar CSP with molten salt energy storage (MSES) technology; able to store 6 hours worth of solar thermal energy and boosting plant capacity to 41%. Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project: When completed in 2013, SolarReserve’s 110 MW Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project in Nevada will be the world’s largest central tower receiver solar CSP plant with fully integrated molten salt energy storage (MSES); able to store 10 hours worth of solar thermal energy and boosting plant capacity to 52%. Gemasolar Thermosolar Plant: Torresol’s 19.9 MW Gemasolar Thermosolar Plant in Spain is the world’s first commercial-scale CSP plant to combine central tower receiver technology with MSES energy storing technology. 15 hours of thermal storage, plant capacity of 63.1%.
  • READ SLIDE Other lithium-ion battery installations of note: Shenzhen Baoqing Battery Energy Storage Station: Completed in 2011, the 12 MW Shenzhen Baoqing Battery Energy Storage Station in China is one of the largest battery energy storage facilities (of any type) in the world.
  • READ SLIDE In these locations hybrid renewable energy systems, while costly, can be more economical (and reliable) than conventional fossil-fuel power generation.  Examples will frequently include a mix locally available renewable intermittent generation (wind or solar), reliable baseload generation (diesel or biodiesel generation), and storage (batteries, fuel cells, pumped hydro).
  • READ SLIDE The 140 MW Pacific Wind component began construction in February 2012. Phase 1 of the 130 MW Catalina Solar project is slated to start construction in April 2012. Similar to the Grand Ridge Energy Center in Illinois currently in construction: 210 MW wind and 23 MW solar PV.
  • Types of Zero Energy buildings... Net-Zero Energy (or more commonly now, Zero Net Energy) Construction is becoming a big deal (and will, by definition, require energy generation). It is mandated in California, by the Public Utility Commission that “By 2020, all new residential construction in California will be zero net energy (ZNE). The regulators defined zero net energy as a project that ‘employs a combination of energy efficiency design features, efficient appliances, clean distributed generation, and advanced energy management systems to result in no net purchases of energy from the grid.’ By 2030, all new commercial construction will meet the same goal.” This is remarkable: Remember that nationwide our built stock consumed 65% of all electricity, 36% of all energy, and generates 30% of all GHG. In CA these ZNE buildings will contribute nothing to that consumption. Example…
  • Unlike LEED certification, ZEB is focused on energy consumption, efficiency, and renewablity. AND…
  • ISES 2013 - Day 3 - Stephen Roosa (Association of Energy Engineers) - The Transition

    1. 1. 1 Stephen A. Roosa, Ph.D., CEM, REP, CSDPStephen A. Roosa, Ph.D., CEM, REP, CSDP Trondeim, NorwayTrondeim, Norway 15 June 201315 June 2013 International Student Energy SummitInternational Student Energy Summit Policies, Programs and Technologies
    2. 2. 2 What is BeingWhat is Being Presented ?Presented ? Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development Types of EnergyTypes of Energy Mega-SolutionsMega-Solutions Renewable TechnologiesRenewable Technologies Net Zero BuildingsNet Zero Buildings Information ApplicationsInformation Applications Investments in RenewablesInvestments in Renewables Time for your questions!Time for your questions!
    3. 3. Sustainable Policies and Programs Polices and programs are local, regional, national and international. • Policies – strategies and goals developed by governmental or management structures. • Programs – activities and incentives developed to achieve the goals of the policies. • Technologies – means of implementing the programs (e.g., equipment, hardware, software, material, resources, etc.). Most solutions are local or regional.
    4. 4. 4 Origins traced to the 1987 – Brundtland Report from the World Commission on Environment and Development Development as “development that meets needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (Holland et al., 2000:10). Overarching Policy of the Future:Overarching Policy of the Future: Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development
    5. 5. 5 “ Energy is at the heart of some of the principle environmental problems we face. The unprecedented economic growth that has occurred mainly in industrialized countries in this century has depended to a very great extent on availability of low- cost energy, principally in the form of fossil fuels.” [5] [5] United Nations (1993). Global partnerships for environment and development: a guide to Agenda 21. Geneva: United Nations. What is Relationship of Energy to SustainableWhat is Relationship of Energy to Sustainable Development?Development?
    6. 6. 6 Categories of EnergyCategories of Energy Fossil Fuels: Forms of energy formed from deposits of compressed and heated organic matter that consist primarily of carbon and hydrogen bonds. • Coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are derived from and replaced rapidly by natural processes. • Solar thermal and photovoltaic, wind power, hydropower, tidal power, biomass, geothermal energy, etc. Alternative Energy: Substituting one form of energy for another. • Using natural gas rather than coal. • Using solar generated electricity rather electricity generated from nuclear power or coal.
    7. 7. 7 Worldwide Energy Usage by Fuel Type
    8. 8. 8 Energy - A Primary Sustainability Issue • Projected demand for energy to increase globally to 2030. • Access to energy provides the means of improving national economies. • Human-based carbon emissions are contributing to significant climate changes due mainly to growth in the energy supply and transportation sectors. Key Problem: How do we cost-effectively reduce energy-related emissions of greenhouse gases to stabilize the climate while meeting the world’s increasing demand for energy.
    9. 9. 9 Linkages Between Renewable Energy and Reducing Carbon Emissions Energy, how it is extracted, concentrated, transported and converted is directly linked to atmospheric carbon and other greenhouse emissions. • Fossil Fuels: Generate comparatively high levels of greenhouse gases, especially carbon in their processing, transportation and combustion. Use of these fuels increases carbon emissions. • Alternative Fuels: When high carbon fuels are substituted for lower carbon fuels or renewables, carbon emissions decline. • Renewable Fuels: Generate little if any greenhouse gases. Use of renewable fuels can reduce carbon emissions.
    10. 10. 10 Environmental Impact of Greenhouse GasesEnvironmental Impact of Greenhouse Gases In 2013, CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere will hit 400 ppm, the highest concentration in 3 million years.
    11. 11. 11 Energy Conservation –incremental improvements to reduce or eliminate consumption of targeted fuels by using less energy while satisfying needs and criterion. Energy Efficiency – refers to the concept of replacing less efficient energy consuming equipment with equipment of greater efficiency. Fuel Substitution – selecting different types of energy with greater differential benefits. Renewable Energy – energy from rapidly regenerating sources (e.g., solar, wind). Technologies That Reduce CO2 Emissions
    12. 12. 12 Economics of Technological Solutions
    13. 13. 13 Mega-Solutions • Sustainable Development as a adopted policy • New efficiency and renewable Technologies • New energy production and delivery technologies • Buildings: Net Zero Energy, Zero- Carbon • Information Technologies – Digital communications, web based monitoring and measurement systems
    14. 14. 14 WorldWorld’s Largest Hydro Power Plant’s Largest Hydro Power Plant Three Gorges DamThree Gorges Dam It contains 38 main generators, each with a capacity of 700 MW. The total electric generating capacity of the dam will eventually reach 22,500 MW. Other types of hydropower: •Micro-turbines •Low-head hydro applications •Tidal Power •Seawater air conditioning (SWAC) •Wave power
    15. 15. 15 Geothermal EnergyGeothermal Energy
    16. 16. Large Scale Utility Systems
    17. 17. World’s Largest Land Based Wind Farm Based on Rated Output - Tehachapi Pass, CA Wind development in the Tehachapi Pass began in the early 1980s. The area hosts a multitude of wind farms, with over a dozen participating companies. The area has multiple generations of wind turbine technology installed including modern three blade horizontal axis design. There are 5,600 installed Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs). Some of the newer turbines generate up to 3 megawatts. Total site production is 800 Million kWh/yr.
    18. 18. 18 Solar Energy Systems Thermal and Photovoltaic
    19. 19. The 30 MW Alamosa Solar Generating Plant is the world’s largest silicon solar concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power plant, surpassing the 5 MW Hatch CPV project in New Mexico and the 7.8 MW Parques Solares plant in Spain. Uses Amonix dual-axis tracking silicon CPV technology. • Alamosa, Colorado • Completed in 2012 • Carbon Offset: 43,000 tons/Yr • Cost: $140 to $150 million • Generate 88 GWH/Yr. Solar PV Power | Projects Alamosa Solar Generating Plant| 30 MW Silicon Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV)
    20. 20. With a mix of polycrystalline and moncrystalline silicon photovoltaic solar panels and commissioned in 2011, the 105.56 MW Perovo Solar Power Station was, as of mid- 2012, the world’s largest utility-scale silicon photovoltaic solar power plant. •The facility will generate 132.5 GWh annually and will have a capacity factor of 15.1%. • Crimea, Ukraine • Completed in 2011 • Carbon Offset: 109,918 tons/ year • $387 million project cost Solar PV Power | Projects Perovo Solar Power Station | 100 MW Silicon Photovoltaic
    21. 21. Built in (3) equal 50 MW phases, Solar Millenium’s Andasol Solar Power Station is the world’s largest and first commercial-scale solar Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) power plant to combine parabolic trough solar CSP with molten salt energy storage (MSES) technology. • Able to store 7.5 hours worth of solar thermal energy. • CSP plant capacity: 38.8%. • Aldeire y La Calahorra, Spain • Project completion: 2011 • Energy Storage Efficiency: 95% • $1.235 billion Energy StorageEnergy Storage | Projects Andasol Solar Power Station | 150 MW Parabolic Trough CSP + Molten Salt Energy Storage (CSP + MSES)
    22. 22. As of completion in 2011, the Zhangbei National Wind and PV Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project is the world’s first utility-scale hybrid renewable energy plant to integrate utility-scale wind and solar PV generation with large scale lithium-ion battery energy storage. • 100 MW wind energy generation. • 40 MW solar PV generation. • 20 MW battery storage (to be expanded to 36 MW). • Zhangbei County, China • Project completion: 2011 • $1.88 billion Energy StorageEnergy Storage | Projects Zhangbei National Wind and PV Project | 216 MW Hybrid Wind and Solar PV Generation + Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage
    23. 23. Remote locations, islands, and off-grid locations are traditional sites for hybrid power generation.  The cost of extending the conventional electrical grid to these locations is typically cost-prohibitive, allowing HRES’s to achieve parity. Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES)
    24. 24. When completed, the consolidated enXco 140 MW Pacific Wind and 130 MW Catalina Solar generating plant will be perhaps the largest integrated wind + solar PV hybrid generation plant in the U.S. •Currently under construction. •Originally conceived separately but are almost immediately adjacent to one another, leading the installations to share a transmission gen-tie and facilities at the point of interconnection. • Kern County, California, U.S. • Projected completion: 2013 Hybrid Renewable Energy SystemsHybrid Renewable Energy Systems | Projects Pacific Wind and Catalina Solar Project | 270 MW Hybrid Wind Power + Solar PV
    25. 25. 25 Atlantic City, NJ WWTP Grid interconnected powerGrid interconnected power Electric vehiclesElectric vehicles 7.5 MW Wind7.5 MW Wind 500 KW Solar PV500 KW Solar PV
    26. 26. 26 Algae Fuels Biomass to Bio-Oil Bio FuelsBio Fuels Ethanol Algae Farms Bio-Fuel Facility
    27. 27. 27 Hydrogen Gas VehiclesHydrogen Gas Vehicles • Offers promise if derived in a sustainable manner. • Renewable hydrogen can be generated by using solar-hydrogen production technologies. • Combustion process is similar to using gasoline. • Produce little pollution.
    28. 28. Net Positive Energy Buildings •Those buildings generate energy that is sold back to the utility. They are normally interconnected with local power grids. Net Zero Energy •Those buildings that generate energy equal to what they consume over a period of time (typically per year). Carbon Neutral Construction •Buildings that use no energy from the external power grid are carbon neutral. Zero Energy ApplicationsZero Energy Applications
    29. 29. 29 Net Zero Middle SchoolNet Zero Middle School Kentucky, USAKentucky, USA Turkey Foot Middle Schools •Solar PV •Geothermal HVAC •Natural lighting systems
    30. 30. 30 Aldo Leopold Legacy CenterAldo Leopold Legacy Center Wisconsin, USAWisconsin, USA Carbon NeutralCarbon Neutral The Leopold Center is a net zero energy building, meeting all of its energy needs on site. Despite the contrasts of Wisconsin’s four-season climate, the Leopold Center uses 70 percent less energy than a building built just to code, and the center’s roof- mounted solar array is projected to meet 110 percent of the building’s energy needs on an annual basis.
    31. 31. 31 • Automated data acquisition • Greater use of wireless control and remote monitoring systems. • Database management and statistical analysis • Distributed Generation – Producing electrical energy at the point of use and managing it using digital control systems. • Web based control, monitoring and measurement systems controlled by handheld communication devices. • Automated smart meters, even smarter grids, micro-grids • Interconnecting transportation systems with utility grid. What is the Future of Information Technologies?What is the Future of Information Technologies?
    32. 32. 32 Integrated BuildingsIntegrated Buildings Twenhofel Middle SchoolTwenhofel Middle School Kentucky, USAKentucky, USA
    33. 33. 33 Increasing Investments in Renewable Energy Worldwide Investments in Renewables in 2010 • Total - $211 billion compared to $219 billion in coal, oil and natural gas • Increase of 32% over 2009 • Renewables accounted for 30% of all new electrical generating capacity Investment by Leading Countries in 2010 • China - $49.8 billion, up 28% • Germany - $41.0 billion, up 100% • U.S. - $29.6 billion, up 56% • Italy - $13.8 billion, up 136% • Brazil - $6.9 billion, down 5% • Canada - $5.2 billion, up 52% • Spain - $4.9 billion, up 53%
    34. 34. 34 Carbon Reduction – Policies, Strategies and Technologies Reductions of local, regional, national and international greenhouse gas emissions in homes, businesses, industries and communities has become an international priority. This book describes in clear, concise, and understandable terms the nature and scope of the climate change problem. The authors propose a defined road map which can be implemented to help control and abate the alarming increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions.