ENERGY-SMART FOODENERGY-SMART FOOD
forfor
People and ClimatePeople and Climate
EEnergy =nergy = mmeals xeals x cclimatelim...
New ZealandNew Zealand
The Correct Map of the WorldThe Correct Map of the World
New ZealandNew Zealand
1.57 t CO1.57 t CO2...
What is the FOOD-ENERGYWhat is the FOOD-ENERGY
problem?problem?• The global agri-food supply chain (fromThe global agri-fo...
Food prices have recently becomeFood prices have recently become
strongly linked with oil/gas prices.strongly linked with ...
http://www.fao.org/docrep/01
Issue paper at
Shares of energy in Agri-food supply chainShares of energy in Agri-food supply chain
Around 32% of the total global end-us...
Shares of greenhouse gas emissionsShares of greenhouse gas emissions
Around 22% of total global GHG emissionsAround 22% of...
Global food losses and food wasteGlobal food losses and food waste
We fail to consumeWe fail to consume
around one third o...
Why is the energy problemWhy is the energy problem
complex?complex?
• All agri-food systems depend upon energyAll agri-foo...
AA low inputlow input agri-food /energy systemagri-food /energy system
A low input agri-food /energy system
AA low inputlow input food /energy systemfood /energy system
AA high inputhigh input food / energy systemfood / energy system
A high input agri-food/energy system
Energy efficiency opportunitiesEnergy efficiency opportunities
are widespread throughout theare widespread throughout the
...
Energy efficiencyEnergy efficiency
opportunities are widespreadopportunities are widespread
throughout the agri-foodthroug...
IPCC - Special Report on RenewableIPCC - Special Report on Renewable
Energy and Climate ChangeEnergy and Climate Change
Mi...
RE costs are often higher than current energyRE costs are often higher than current energy
prices but can be competitive i...
Launched 2 days ago!Launched 2 days ago!
World invested $244 billion in renewableWorld invested $244 billion in renewable...
REN21 Global Status Report 2013
Biomass use breakdown 2012Biomass use breakdown 2012
Biofuel trends 2000 -2012
REN21 Global Status Report 2013
GHG emission reduction is but oneGHG emission reduction is but one
indicator for the best use of theindicator for the best...
Aim:
To provide an
update of recent
scientific
findings to
assist GEF
formulate its
strategies and
priorities for
GEF-6, a...
“Smart agriculture aims to reduce
fossil fuel, chemicals and water
inputs, as well as GHG emissions,
without compromising ...
What is the solution?What is the solution?
““Energy-Smart is Climate-Energy-Smart is Climate-
SmartSmart””
So Energy-Smart food:So Energy-Smart food:
• improves access to modern energy services forimproves access to modern energy...
In summaryIn summary The global agri-food supply chain can beThe global agri-food supply chain can be
decoupled from its ...
Future integration of the agri-food and energyFuture integration of the agri-food and energy
sectors in a landscape perspe...
ISES 2013  - Day 3 - Professor Ralph Sims (Professor, Massey University) - Food vs. Fuel
ISES 2013  - Day 3 - Professor Ralph Sims (Professor, Massey University) - Food vs. Fuel
ISES 2013  - Day 3 - Professor Ralph Sims (Professor, Massey University) - Food vs. Fuel
ISES 2013  - Day 3 - Professor Ralph Sims (Professor, Massey University) - Food vs. Fuel
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ISES 2013 - Day 3 - Professor Ralph Sims (Professor, Massey University) - Food vs. Fuel

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The session will highlight the food versus fuel dilemma. Biofuels are used to fuel our cars in a green way, thus reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, roughly 40 % of US corn is projected to be used to make fuel. How much farmland can be used for the production of biofuel when one billion people go hungry?

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ISES 2013 - Day 3 - Professor Ralph Sims (Professor, Massey University) - Food vs. Fuel

  1. 1. ENERGY-SMART FOODENERGY-SMART FOOD forfor People and ClimatePeople and Climate EEnergy =nergy = mmeals xeals x cclimatelimate cchangehange ISES 2013ISES 2013 ““Food versus Fuel”Food versus Fuel” Trondheim, 15 June, 2013Trondheim, 15 June, 2013 Professor Ralph Sims,Professor Ralph Sims, Massey University New ZealandMassey University New Zealand R.E.Sims@massey.ac.nzR.E.Sims@massey.ac.nz
  2. 2. New ZealandNew Zealand The Correct Map of the WorldThe Correct Map of the World New ZealandNew Zealand 1.57 t CO1.57 t CO22 emissions!!emissions!! TrondheimTrondheim
  3. 3. What is the FOOD-ENERGYWhat is the FOOD-ENERGY problem?problem?• The global agri-food supply chain (fromThe global agri-food supply chain (from ““paddock-paddock- to-plateto-plate””) is heavily dependent on fossil fuel inputs –) is heavily dependent on fossil fuel inputs – both direct and indirect.both direct and indirect. • The post-warThe post-war ““Green RevolutionGreen Revolution”” for OECDfor OECD countries was largely based upon abundant suppliescountries was largely based upon abundant supplies of cheap energy.of cheap energy. • Current concerns are mounting over oil/gas/coalCurrent concerns are mounting over oil/gas/coal reserves and related greenhouse gas emissions.reserves and related greenhouse gas emissions. • Modernizing food systems in developing countriesModernizing food systems in developing countries today simply by increasing fossil fuel inputs may notoday simply by increasing fossil fuel inputs may no longer be feasible.longer be feasible. • So can renewable energy and energy efficiencySo can renewable energy and energy efficiency improve global food supply systems and provideimprove global food supply systems and provide future water and food security in all countries?future water and food security in all countries?
  4. 4. Food prices have recently becomeFood prices have recently become strongly linked with oil/gas prices.strongly linked with oil/gas prices.
  5. 5. http://www.fao.org/docrep/01 Issue paper at
  6. 6. Shares of energy in Agri-food supply chainShares of energy in Agri-food supply chain Around 32% of the total global end-use energyAround 32% of the total global end-use energy demand of ~300 EJ/yr is used for providing food.demand of ~300 EJ/yr is used for providing food. High-GDP countriesHigh-GDP countries ~ 35 GJ/capita/yr.~ 35 GJ/capita/yr. Low-GDP countriesLow-GDP countries ~ 8 GJ/capita/yr~ 8 GJ/capita/yr.
  7. 7. Shares of greenhouse gas emissionsShares of greenhouse gas emissions Around 22% of total global GHG emissionsAround 22% of total global GHG emissions (~45 Gt CO /yr) arise from the agri-food chain.(~45 Gt CO /yr) arise from the agri-food chain.2-equiv2-equiv High-GDP countries ~2.20 t CO /capita /yr Low-GDP countries ~1.16 t CO /capita/yr 2eq2eq 2eq2eq
  8. 8. Global food losses and food wasteGlobal food losses and food waste We fail to consumeWe fail to consume around one third of allaround one third of all food produced.food produced. This wastes scarceThis wastes scarce land, water and energyland, water and energy resources.resources. If we reduced half ofIf we reduced half of this waste, could wethis waste, could we use more land foruse more land for biomass production?biomass production?
  9. 9. Why is the energy problemWhy is the energy problem complex?complex? • All agri-food systems depend upon energyAll agri-food systems depend upon energy inputs regardless of scale.inputs regardless of scale. • Scales of an agri-food system range fromScales of an agri-food system range from subsistence farmers growing food or fishingsubsistence farmers growing food or fishing for their own consumption,for their own consumption, family units supplying local markets,family units supplying local markets, small businesses employing a few staff,small businesses employing a few staff, large corporate companies supplying hugelarge corporate companies supplying huge supermarket chains across the world.supermarket chains across the world. • They each have different energy use inputThey each have different energy use input levels, but all can use energy more wiselylevels, but all can use energy more wisely and utilize more local renewable energy.and utilize more local renewable energy.
  10. 10. AA low inputlow input agri-food /energy systemagri-food /energy system
  11. 11. A low input agri-food /energy system
  12. 12. AA low inputlow input food /energy systemfood /energy system
  13. 13. AA high inputhigh input food / energy systemfood / energy system
  14. 14. A high input agri-food/energy system
  15. 15. Energy efficiency opportunitiesEnergy efficiency opportunities are widespread throughout theare widespread throughout the agri-food supply chainagri-food supply chain
  16. 16. Energy efficiencyEnergy efficiency opportunities are widespreadopportunities are widespread throughout the agri-foodthroughout the agri-food supply chainsupply chain
  17. 17. IPCC - Special Report on RenewableIPCC - Special Report on Renewable Energy and Climate ChangeEnergy and Climate Change Mitigation July, 2011.Mitigation July, 2011. • can enhance access to reliable,can enhance access to reliable, affordable and clean modern energyaffordable and clean modern energy services;services; • is particularly well-suited for remoteis particularly well-suited for remote rural populations; andrural populations; and • in many instances can provide thein many instances can provide the lowest cost option for energy access.lowest cost option for energy access. RENEWABLE ENERGY:RENEWABLE ENERGY:
  18. 18. RE costs are often higher than current energyRE costs are often higher than current energy prices but can be competitive in various settings.prices but can be competitive in various settings. 22
  19. 19. Launched 2 days ago!Launched 2 days ago! World invested $244 billion in renewableWorld invested $244 billion in renewable energy in 2012.energy in 2012. Shift of investment to developingShift of investment to developing countries.countries. Countries, companies and communities areCountries, companies and communities are seizing the linkages between low carbonseizing the linkages between low carbon Green Economies and a future of energyGreen Economies and a future of energy access and security, sustainable livelihoodsaccess and security, sustainable livelihoods and a stabilised climate. and a stabilised climate. 
  20. 20. REN21 Global Status Report 2013 Biomass use breakdown 2012Biomass use breakdown 2012
  21. 21. Biofuel trends 2000 -2012 REN21 Global Status Report 2013
  22. 22. GHG emission reduction is but oneGHG emission reduction is but one indicator for the best use of theindicator for the best use of the limited biomass resource use.limited biomass resource use.
  23. 23. Aim: To provide an update of recent scientific findings to assist GEF formulate its strategies and priorities for GEF-6, and help the world move towards a low- carbon, green economy.
  24. 24. “Smart agriculture aims to reduce fossil fuel, chemicals and water inputs, as well as GHG emissions, without compromising food security. A sustainable land, energy and water management approach can bring about complementarities between food security, ecosystem resilience, climate change adaptation and mitigation, and management of green chemicals. “
  25. 25. What is the solution?What is the solution? ““Energy-Smart is Climate-Energy-Smart is Climate- SmartSmart””
  26. 26. So Energy-Smart food:So Energy-Smart food: • improves access to modern energy services forimproves access to modern energy services for energy-poor subsistence farmers and fishers toenergy-poor subsistence farmers and fishers to provide increased food supply and security;provide increased food supply and security; • ensures energy inputs, from whatever sources, areensures energy inputs, from whatever sources, are used more efficiently than at present along the entireused more efficiently than at present along the entire agri-food supply chain;agri-food supply chain; • reduces the energy intensity (MJ / kg of foodreduces the energy intensity (MJ / kg of food product) of both direct and indirect energy inputs;product) of both direct and indirect energy inputs; • captures the renewable energy sources availablecaptures the renewable energy sources available and uses them to displace fossil fuels;and uses them to displace fossil fuels; • simultaneously enhances food security,simultaneously enhances food security, sustainable development, climate change mitigation,sustainable development, climate change mitigation, and helps deliver resilience to climate impacts.and helps deliver resilience to climate impacts.
  27. 27. In summaryIn summary The global agri-food supply chain can beThe global agri-food supply chain can be decoupled from its dependency on fossildecoupled from its dependency on fossil fuels in order to meet future food demands.fuels in order to meet future food demands.  Reducing the energy intensity is technicallyReducing the energy intensity is technically possible at all levels along the food chain.possible at all levels along the food chain.  Renewable energy deployment can helpRenewable energy deployment can help improve energy access, food security, priceimprove energy access, food security, price fluctuations and climate change resilience.fluctuations and climate change resilience.  Policies developed to drive the transition toPolicies developed to drive the transition to Energy and Climate-Smart healthy food needEnergy and Climate-Smart healthy food need to be long term and visionary.to be long term and visionary.  Avoiding food waste should be a high priorityAvoiding food waste should be a high priority to free up land, water and energy inputs.to free up land, water and energy inputs.  But time is running out…….But time is running out…….
  28. 28. Future integration of the agri-food and energyFuture integration of the agri-food and energy sectors in a landscape perspective to give asectors in a landscape perspective to give a sustainable and secure future.sustainable and secure future.

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