APES Ch. 4, part 1


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APES Ch. 4, part 1

  1. 1. Biodiversity and Evolution Ch. 4 Miller and Spoolman, 16th ed.
  2. 2. Overview of this Topic  Ch. 4 – biodiversity and evolution ofCh. 4 – biodiversity and evolution of living thingsliving things  Ch. 5 – species interactionsCh. 5 – species interactions  Ch. 9 – sustaining biodiversity – focusCh. 9 – sustaining biodiversity – focus on specieson species  Ch. 10 – sustaining biodiversity – focusCh. 10 – sustaining biodiversity – focus on ecosystemson ecosystems
  3. 3. Projects and Labs to support this unit  Environmental Law research & presentation  Park lot biodiversity lab  Invasive species most wanted flier/ Endangered species missing flier  Wooly worms lab (outside)  Arthropod diversity lab (out and in)  Also several videos offered after school for extra credit 
  4. 4. Big Idea #1 Biodiversity is essential to life (diversity in genes, organisms, and ecosystems)
  5. 5. Biodiversity The total variety of Earth’s species, their genetic code, and the places they live Species diversity Genetic diversity Ecosystem diversity
  6. 6. Species Diversity How many living things are there? Estimates range from 4 million to 100 million We have classified ~ 1.8 million so far Every year 1000s of new species are identified Smallest snake Smallest sea horse
  7. 7. Bug eating slug frogfish Pitcher plant
  8. 8. Bonaire Banded Box Jelly, 2011 Dive Bombing Parasitic Wasp, 2011 Spongebob Squarepants Mushroom, 2011 Sneezing monkey (or snub-nosed monkey, 2011
  9. 9. Genetic Diversity Differences in genes of same species Allows life to survive changes & adapt over time Earth is dynamic - species must adapt & change with it to survive
  10. 10. Ecosystem Diversity Biomes - home to unique species Tundra - home to polar bears Chapparal - home to road runners Savannah - home to rhinoceroses and giraffes
  11. 11. Why is diversity important? It supplies us with food, wood, fibers, energy, medicines, nutrients, air, water, fertile soil, and waste disposal Foxglove - digitalis MaHuang - ephedra Brevifola - taxol Velvet bean - L-dopa
  12. 12. Quick Think Question  Thinking about the types of biodiversity - what might be some other reasons why protecting diversity is important? Task Generate a list of reasons  At least 1 moral/ethical  At least 1 social/political  At least 1 economic/business  At least 1 personal
  13. 13. Big Idea # 2 Evolution explains how life has changed over time
  14. 14. Evolution Evolution occurs when the genetic makeup of a population changes
  15. 15. A brief history… The concept of evolution - that life changes over time and there are common ancestors between certain species - began with the Greek philosophers and was and has been a common idea Aristotle & Plato
  16. 16. Not until Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace did anyone come up with a credible explanation for how
  17. 17. How they got there 1. Observed the struggle for existence
  18. 18. 2. Observed that those with best traits survive & live long enough to reproduce
  19. 19. So they put it together… Natural selection: some individuals in a population have traits that make them more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass those traits on. Over time, the population changes so that most of them have those traits
  20. 20. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection So much evidence supports this idea that it has been elevated to the status of a theory However…natural selection is not the only way populations evolve
  21. 21. The Modern Synthesis The theory of evolution has been expanded upon & refined over time, leading to the modern synthesis (1950s) Many scientists representing different fields contributed to it
  22. 22. How do populations change? 1. Genetic mutations - leads to new traits
  23. 23. 2. Natural selection - the differential survival and reproductive success of individuals in a population
  24. 24. Summary Genes mutate Individuals are selected Populations evolve that are better suited to the environment
  25. 25. Quick ThinkQUESTIO N  How does Natural Selection tie in with biodiversity? TASK  Create a graphic that helps answer the question (concept map, Venn diagram, etc)
  26. 26. Natural Selection has limits First - the environment is constantly changing So what is best fit now may not be for long Populations must adapt, leave, or die
  27. 27. Populations can only adapt with traits that are already present in their gene pool or mutations of existing traits Many species reproduce slower than the environment changes - can’t adapt fast enough
  28. 28. Quick Think Question  Explain why genetic diversity is so important to the health of a population Task  Develop a fictional case study that illustrates the answer If a population of frogs lacked genetic diversity, then…
  29. 29. Big idea #3 Geologic processes have changed the Earth and created opportunities for the evolution of species
  30. 30. Plate Tectonics The rigid lithospheric plates of the crust of the Earth that move slowly over the Earth’s liquid mantle
  31. 31. Impacts of Plate Tectonics 1. Has changed where land IS, and thus the climate 2. Moving plates help species move into new areas - or separate them
  32. 32. 4 major impacts 1. Earthquakes - create fissures, mountains that separate species 2. Volcanoes - wipe out existing species, make way for new ones 3. Climate change - ice ages, periods of warming- some species go extinct, others flourish 4. Catastrophes -wipe out species and ecosystems
  33. 33. Quick Think QUESTION  How would you summarize what today’s lesson was about? TASK  Choose 1 word that embodies the concepts of this lecture then explain why that word was chosen