Fiji Shark Awareness and Conservation Program
Sharks   <ul><li>Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores:  Predators, Filter Feeders and Scavengers   </li></ul><ul><li>Cartil...
Taxonomy <ul><li>Vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrichthyes   </li></ul><ul><li>Sharks </li></ul><ul><li>among many: </l...
Morphology
Physiology <ul><li>Senses </li></ul><ul><li>-  Smell </li></ul><ul><li>- Vision </li></ul><ul><li>- Electroreception </li>...
Reproduction <ul><li>Internal Fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Birth </li></ul><ul><li>- Ovipary </li></ul><ul><li>- Vivipa...
Sharks most likely seen by Divers in Fiji <ul><li>Bull Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Blacktip Reef Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Grey ...
<ul><li>Huge, Ridges, white Spots, homocercal caudal Fin </li></ul>Whale shark   (Rhincodon typus)
Tiger Shark   (Galeocerdo cuvier) <ul><li>Stripes, caudal Keel, pupil “inverted teardrop” </li></ul>
Bull Shark   (Carcharhinus leucas) <ul><li>Wide-shouldered, falcate 1 st  dorsal Fin, small Eyes </li></ul>
Sicklefin Lemon Shark   ( Negaprion acutidens )   <ul><li>Falcate dorsal fins of similar size, swims with open mouth displ...
Silvertip Shark   (Carharhinus albimarginatus) <ul><li>All fins rimmed in bright white </li></ul>
Tawny Nurse Shark   (Nebrius ferrugineus) <ul><li>Equal size of dorsal fins, small lower Lobe of caudal Fin, Barbels </li>...
Zebra Shark   ( Stegostoma fasciatum   ) <ul><li>Ridges, black Spots, no lower lobe of caudal fin </li></ul>
Blacktip Reef Shark  (Carcharhinus melanopterus) <ul><li>1 st  dorsal Fin with black tip and white band underneath </li></ul>
Whitetip Reef Shark   (Triaenodon obesus) <ul><li>White Tips to dorsal and caudal Fins </li></ul>
Hammerhead Sharks <ul><li>Nine Species, among which </li></ul><ul><li>-  Scalloped H.  ( Sphyrna lewini ) </li></ul><ul><l...
Grey Reef Shark  (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) <ul><li>Trailing Edge of caudal Fin black </li></ul>
Ecology <ul><li>Many Ecological Niches </li></ul><ul><li>The Role of predatory Sharks </li></ul><ul><li>-  Essential Threa...
Sharks in Peril <ul><li>IUCN: 79 Species critically imperiled: 80%-99% of oceanic Stocks have been wiped out </li></ul><ul...
What can be done? <ul><li>Abrogating/Replacing Shark Fin Soup </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting Shark Awareness Courses </li></...
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Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of the Shark 2009

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Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of the Shark 2009

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Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of the Shark 2009

  1. 1. Fiji Shark Awareness and Conservation Program
  2. 2. Sharks <ul><li>Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores: Predators, Filter Feeders and Scavengers </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Body compressed laterally </li></ul><ul><li>5-7 lateral Gills </li></ul>
  3. 3. Taxonomy <ul><li>Vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrichthyes </li></ul><ul><li>Sharks </li></ul><ul><li>among many: </li></ul><ul><li>- Carcharhiniformes (Ground Sharks) </li></ul><ul><li>- Orectolobiformes (Carpet Sharks) </li></ul><ul><li>- Lamniformes (Mackerel Sharks) </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 400 Species </li></ul><ul><li>Records </li></ul>
  4. 4. Morphology
  5. 5. Physiology <ul><li>Senses </li></ul><ul><li>- Smell </li></ul><ul><li>- Vision </li></ul><ul><li>- Electroreception </li></ul><ul><li>- Lateral Line </li></ul><ul><li>Osmoregulation </li></ul><ul><li>- Freshwater Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Buoyancy </li></ul><ul><li>Body Temperature </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reproduction <ul><li>Internal Fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Birth </li></ul><ul><li>- Ovipary </li></ul><ul><li>- Vivipary </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aplacental Viviparity (Ovoviviparity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Placental Viviparity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>- Late Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>- Small Litter Size </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sharks most likely seen by Divers in Fiji <ul><li>Bull Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Blacktip Reef Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Grey Reef Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Hammerhead Sharks </li></ul><ul><li>Leopard Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Silvertip Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Sicklefin Lemon Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Tawny Nurse Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Tiger Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Whale Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Whitetip Reef Shark </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Huge, Ridges, white Spots, homocercal caudal Fin </li></ul>Whale shark (Rhincodon typus)
  9. 9. Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) <ul><li>Stripes, caudal Keel, pupil “inverted teardrop” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bull Shark (Carcharhinus leucas) <ul><li>Wide-shouldered, falcate 1 st dorsal Fin, small Eyes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sicklefin Lemon Shark ( Negaprion acutidens ) <ul><li>Falcate dorsal fins of similar size, swims with open mouth displaying teeth </li></ul>
  12. 12. Silvertip Shark (Carharhinus albimarginatus) <ul><li>All fins rimmed in bright white </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tawny Nurse Shark (Nebrius ferrugineus) <ul><li>Equal size of dorsal fins, small lower Lobe of caudal Fin, Barbels </li></ul>
  14. 14. Zebra Shark ( Stegostoma fasciatum ) <ul><li>Ridges, black Spots, no lower lobe of caudal fin </li></ul>
  15. 15. Blacktip Reef Shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) <ul><li>1 st dorsal Fin with black tip and white band underneath </li></ul>
  16. 16. Whitetip Reef Shark (Triaenodon obesus) <ul><li>White Tips to dorsal and caudal Fins </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hammerhead Sharks <ul><li>Nine Species, among which </li></ul><ul><li>- Scalloped H. ( Sphyrna lewini ) </li></ul><ul><li>. edge of Hammer wavy </li></ul><ul><li>. Often in Schools </li></ul><ul><li>- Great H. ( Sphyrna mokarran ) </li></ul><ul><li>. Edge of Hammer straight </li></ul><ul><li>. Huge, falcate 1 st dorsal Fin </li></ul>
  18. 18. Grey Reef Shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) <ul><li>Trailing Edge of caudal Fin black </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ecology <ul><li>Many Ecological Niches </li></ul><ul><li>The Role of predatory Sharks </li></ul><ul><li>- Essential Thread in Web of their Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>- Often, Apex Predators </li></ul><ul><li>- Maintain Health & Structure of Marine Ecosystems, by: </li></ul><ul><li>- weeding out the Sick and the Weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- controlling the Population Size of their Prey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Value of Sharks </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sharks in Peril <ul><li>IUCN: 79 Species critically imperiled: 80%-99% of oceanic Stocks have been wiped out </li></ul><ul><li>Main Threats </li></ul><ul><li>- Habitat Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>- Overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>. 80-100 Million Sharks are killed each Year </li></ul><ul><li>. Shark Fin Soup </li></ul><ul><li>- Bycatch </li></ul><ul><li>Devastating Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>- Longlines </li></ul><ul><li>- Driftnets </li></ul><ul><li>- Shark Net and Drumlines </li></ul><ul><li>- Finning </li></ul>
  21. 21. What can be done? <ul><li>Abrogating/Replacing Shark Fin Soup </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting Shark Awareness Courses </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining Protection for threatened species </li></ul><ul><li>Solving the problem of the Drumlines and Shark Nets </li></ul><ul><li>Total Allowable Catch (TAC) – no more BC </li></ul><ul><li>Promote Marine Protected Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Tag and Release </li></ul>

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