G325 l2


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  • http://amy-mcdermott-a2-g325.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/research-theory.html
  • http://amy-mcdermott-a2-g325.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/research-theory.html
  • http://amy-mcdermott-a2-g325.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/research-theory.html
  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/sep/02/youth-bad-news-stories/print
  • http://www.ymresourcer.com/model/subcult1.htm
  • G325 l2

    1. 1. A2 MEDIA STUDIES G325 Section B: COLLECTIVE IDENTITY Lesson 1
    2. 2. Urban Dictionary • Do you understand the following terms? • • • • • • • ah nam Bare Buff Butters cotch down Dash fudge • • • • Grimy Munter Skeen Standard
    3. 3. Lesson Topics • Lesson 1: Introduction to the Topic/What is Identity • Lesson 2: Key Theorists and Theories • Lesson 3: Historical Context • Lesson 4: Representation of Teenagers in Film • Lesson 5: Representation of Teenagers in Film • Lesson 6: Representation of Teenagers in Film • Lesson 7: Representation of Teenagers in Film • Lesson 8: Summary of Term 1
    5. 5. What Makes You, You? • Get into pairs and share your Identity Box • Discuss: – What items are in the box – Why you chose them – What is YOUR identity • Does your partner agree with your choices?
    6. 6. Academic Reading Reading • Read the essay extract • Highlight and Annotate any key points • What questions does it raise?
    7. 7. David Buckingham • Institute of Education, University of London, Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media • Well respected authority on Digital Media and Identity
    8. 8. “A focus on Identity requires us to pay closer attention to the ways in which media and technologies are used in everyday life and their consequences for social groups” -David Buckingham
    9. 9. David Buckingham • “our identity is something we uniquely possess: it is what distinguishes us from other people. Yet on the other hand, identity also implies a relationship with a broader collective or social group of some kind. When we talk about national identity, cultural identity, or gender identity, for example, we imply that our identity is partly a matter of what we share with other people.” (Buckingham, 2008)
    10. 10. What is Youth Identity? • Draw a typical teenager and write adjectives • Discuss Stereotypes
    11. 11. Collective Identity • ‘A collective identity may have been first constructed by outsiders who may still enforce it, but depends on some acceptance by those to whom it is applied. Collective identities are expressed in cultural materials – names, narratives, symbols, verbal styles, rituals, clothing.’
Francesca Poletta, James M Jasper, Collective Identity and Social Movements • ‘Although there is no consensual definition of collective identity, discussions of the concept invariably suggest that its essence resides in a shared sense of ‘one-ness’ or ‘we-ness’ anchored in real or imagined shared attributes and experiences among those who comprise the collectivity and in relation or contrast to one or more actual imagined sets of ‘others’.
David Snow, Collective Identity and Expressive Form
    12. 12. Self-Identity and Social Identity • Self-identity refers to how we define ourselves. Self-identity forms the basis of our self-esteem. In adolescence, the way we see ourselves changes in response to peers, family, and school, among other social environments. Our self-identities shape our perceptions of belonging.
 • Social identity is constructed by others, and may differ from self-identity. Typically, people categorize individuals according to broad, sociallydefined labels. For example, if you have dark skin, you may be labelled "black" by others even though you may not have adopted that identity for yourself. • A positive self-identity is correlated with positive self-esteem [5, 6]. All identities are not equally valued by society, so some adolescents may especially need reinforcement to help them construct a positive sense of self.
    13. 13. Tafjal & Turner Concept • Social Identity Theory Explanation • In the Social Identity Theory, a person has not one, “personal self”, but rather several selves that correspond to widening circles of group membership. Different social contexts may trigger an individual to think, feel and act on basis of his personal, family or national “level of self” • Apart from the “level of self”, an individual has multiple “social identities”. Social identity is the individual’s selfconcept derived from perceived membership of social groups
    14. 14. How is Youth Identity Constructed? Shared Experiences:
 • Adolescence – physically and emotionally maturing
 • School/ Education
 • Finding work - Choosing a career
 • Finding love/friendship/acceptance
 • Creating an identity that isn’t created by school/parents/authority
 • Experimentation – drugs, culture, crime
 • Leaving home
 CAN YOU ADD TO THE LIST? Shared attributes: • • • • • • • Innocence
    15. 15. Identity Construction Quotes • Sheldon Stryker
We interact with others to create an identity, this is called identity negotiation. This develops a consistent set of behaviours that reinforce the identity of the person or group. This behaviour then become social expectations.
This is particularly relevant for collective identities (especially sub-cultures) that develop a specific way of relating to each other (attitude, language, ideas) that goes some way to helping construct our identity. • Mikhail Bakhtin
The Russian philosopher Bakhtin believed that individual people cannot be finalized, completely understood, known or labeled. He saw identity as the unfinalised self meaning a person is never fully revealed or known.
This ties in with the idea that identity is a fluid concept, a life-long project that is never complete.
    16. 16. Identity Construction Quotes • Quotes from David Gauntlett (Media, Gender and Identity) • 'It is the case that the construction of identity has become a known requirement. Modern Western societies does not leave individuals in any doubt that they need to make choices of identity and lifestyle - even if their preferred options are rather obvious and conventional ones, or are limited due to lack of financial (or cultural) resources. As the sociologist Ulrich Beck has noted - everyone wants to 'live their own life,' but this is, at the same time 'an experimental life'.' • Today we're bombarded with ideas about - being yourself, standing out or finding your place - we're encourage to define our existence in terms of what buy, do, earn money from or enjoy. Obviously finding an 'identity' is problematic especially when so many existing identities and roles are uncertain - think gender roles, career stability, upward mobility in class. So Beck is saying that we experiment with 'identities' to see what fits, works and is comfortable. And Guantlett continues:
    17. 17. How is Youth Identity Constructed? • ‘A period of ‘storm and stress’ characterised by intergenerational conflicts, mood swings and an enthusiasm for risky behaviour.’
G. Stanley Hall (1906)
    18. 18. How is Youth Identity Constructed?
    19. 19. How is Youth Identity Constructed?
    20. 20. Henry Giroux Concepts • Youth as empty category • Explanation Giroux's theory addresses the media's influence on youths. He believes that youths act as a sort vessel open to influences of adult culture and how the media chooses to represent them, therefore shaping the youths cultural contexts.
    21. 21. Henry Giroux Concepts • Youth as empty category • Explanation The media chooses the way they represent race, class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality, occupation, age and so on, therefore leaving an influence on the youths that are not necessarily true. The media acts upon what it's audience wants. When appealing to a adult audience, the media will reflect fears and anxieties that adults may find entertaining, therefore giving an unrealistic view on youths. Giroux suggests that the media influences them in a certain way as youths are so impressionable, for example, if they are represented as loud and abusive in films, they will act on this because they are being told to act in such a way.
    22. 22. Henry Giroux Concepts • Youth as empty category • Quote “Youth as a complex, shifting, and contradictory category is rarely narrated in the dominant public sphere through the diverse voices of the young. Prohibited from speaking as moral and political agents, youth become an empty category inhabited by the desires, fantasies, and interests of the adult world. This is not to suggest that youth don't speak, they are simply restricted from speaking in those spheres where public conversation shapes social policy and refused the power to make knowledge consequential with respect to their own individual and collective needs.” (Giroux, 1998)
    23. 23. • http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/09/l ondon-riots-kids-parents-police • http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/new s/2233878/Dad-at-13-Boy-Alfie-Patten-13becomes-father-of-baby-girl-Maisie-withgirlfriend-Chantelle-Steadman-15.html
    24. 24. • ‘A collective identity may have been first constructed by outsiders who may still enforce it, but depends on some acceptance by those to whom it is applied.’ • The adult dominant culture (or hegemony) that no longer sees ‘Youth’ as children but has yet to recognise them as adults. • Marketers/Mass Media who realise that the teen market is a lucrative one to exploit/sell to.
    25. 25. Antonio Gramsci Concepts • Cultural hegemony Explanation • Gramsci developed the idea of "cultural hegemony". As I mentioned before, this is the idea that one social class within a culture dominates society, therefore making their views and values acceptable and "normal" behaviour. • Gramsci believes hegemony is constantly causing problems within societies arguing what is actually a "normal" way of life. For example, this arguing is shown through negative and positive representation of youths from different classes, most commonly underclass
    26. 26. Antonio Gramsci Concepts • Cultural hegemony Quote • So one could say that each one of us changes himself, modifies himself to the extent that he changes the complex relations of which he is the hub... If one's own individuality means to acquire consciousness of them and to modify one's own personality means to modify the ensemble of these relations. (Gramsci)
    27. 27. How is Youth Identity Constructed? • Find 3 examples of Youth Identity in the Media • Explain the Denotation and Connotation in each image • Is the representation Positive or Negative? • Why do you think this is?
    28. 28. Youth vs Adults • Ali G and Education • Youth Programming is often a contentious issue. • Most Films, TV Shows and TV Channels are produced by Adults for example;
    29. 29. The Inbetweeners • Created by: • Damon Beesley (42) • Iain Morris (38) • • • • • Stars: Simon Bird (24) Joe Thomas (25) James Buckley (21) Blake Harrison (23)
    30. 30. Coming of Age • Created by: • Tim Dawson (23) • Starring: • Abigail Barnston (16) • Tony Bignell (18) • Hannah Job (22) • Ceri Phillips (20)
    31. 31. Skins • Created by: • Brian Elsley (47) • Jamie Brittain (23) • • • • • Stars: Kaya Scodelario (15) Jack O’Connell (18) Lily Loveless (18) Kat Prescott (18)
    32. 32. Youth Oriented Programming • BBC Three and E4 are aimed specifically for a teenage market • How can you tell this from their; – Programme Schedule – Website – Ratings
    33. 33. Subcultures • Teen Tribes • What Sub Cultures exist now?
    34. 34. Subcultures
    35. 35. Subcultures “Subcultures try to compensate for the failure of the larger culture to provide adequate status, acceptance and identity. In the youth subculture, youth find their age-related needs met.” (Tittley, p.2).
    36. 36. Subculutres • Youth are no longer children but they are also not yet adults, i.e. they are too old to sit in with Mum and Dad on a Saturday night watching Casualty, but they are not old enough to get into bars, pubs and clubs etc. They do not have a fixed identity at this point so they form these subcultures to forge their own as a collective.
    37. 37. Subcultures • Thrasher (1927) studied gangs in the jails and on the streets of Chicago. He found various reasons for young people joining gangs, including: 1. A sense of family – mostly from broken homes so desired a group of people to feel part of. 2. Guidance – again, because of lack of family guidance they seek someone to teach them and to help structure their belief system. 3. Solidarity – giving them the self-esteem and security that they longed for. • Gangs were forming in Chicago as a result of urban neglect. These young people represented the “inner cracks of identity that occur in the turbulent years of adolescence”.
    38. 38. Subcultures • Jordaan & Jordaan (1993) gathered information from lots of other studies of youth subcultures and found, among other things, the following special characteristics which the collection of people share, including: – An awareness of membership/a sense of belonging, i.e. shared interests etc. – A reason for being in the group/an internal motive, i.e. hippies spreading the message of peace and love and punks spreading anarchy. – Pressure to conform, i.e. Jimmy not wanting to talk to his old friend who is now a rocker.
    39. 39. Subcultures • A group of people within a larger culture who differentiate themselves from that culture. • Ken Gelder’s provides 6 key ways to identify a Subculture: 1. often negative relations to work (as 'idle', 'parasitic', at play or at leisure, etc.); 2. negative or ambivalent relation to class (since subcultures are not 'class-conscious' and don't conform to traditional class definitions); 3. association with territory (the 'street', the 'hood', the club, etc.), rather than property; 4. movement out of the home and into non-domestic forms of belonging (i.e. social groups other than the family); 5. stylistic ties to excess and exaggeration (with some exceptions); 6. refusal of the banalities of ordinary life and massification
    40. 40. Subcultures • In pairs you are going to research a Subculture • Try and find; – What differentiates that Subculture – History of the Subculture – Examples of the Subculture in different Media
    41. 41. Subcultures • Use the link emailed to you by Mr Coppard to upload your research to the group Prezi • This is a resource for you all so don’t leave off any details!