The Rays of HopeAn Introduction to the Old TestamentRev. Dn. K.A. George(Book 3)
Lesson 1 – Greek Religion• Greek culture influenced Judaism. Thisinfluence is called Hellenism orHellenization• Second Temple Judaism (515 BCE to 70CE) 515 reconstruction of Temple & 70destruction of Temple by Romans.• (sometimes known as IntertestamentalPeriod)
Lesson 1 – Greek Religion• Philip the Macedon and Alexander theGreat (whose tutor was Aristotle)• 356-323 B.C – Alexander‟s Conquest issaid to have visited Jerusalem.• After Alexander Palestine ruled byPtolemaic (Egyptian) and Seleucid(Syrian)• Antiochus Epiphanes (Seleucid Ruler)tried extreme Hellenization.Maccabees(Hasmoneans) revolt (167 –165 BCE)
Lesson 1 – Greek Religion• Jewish Diaspora within a rising GreekCulture – Hellenistic Judaism• Alexandria in Egypt – Septaugint (LXX)• Despite several centuries of GreekInfluence the Semitic mode of reasoningdominated.
Lesson 2 – Chief Divisions in thesecond Temple Period• Maccabees-organized rebellion against AntiochusEpiphanes. Rejection of Hellneization• Scribes-Soferim – strict interpretation of Torah• Pharisees-special group of scribes-oral tradition (unwritten Torah) –Mishnah; Letter & Spirit of Torah
• Sadducees-wealthy conservative; Letter of Torah Alone• Basic distinction between Pharisees and Sadduceesis how to interpret Jewish law for contemporary life.• Sanhedrin – Jewish court ; majority were Pharisees• EssenesAscetic community (pre-monasticism); retreatedinto desert; believed end was imminent. John the Baptist• ZealotsOpposed Greek and then later RomanOccupationLesson 2 – Chief Divisions in thesecond Temple Period
Two Individualsfrom 2nd Temple Period• Philo (15 bc – ad 50) Alexandrian Jew.Synthesize faith and philosophy• “And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to becalled a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to beadorned according to his first-born Logos, the eldest of hisangels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called,the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and manaccording to God‟s image, and he who sees Israel.”• Josephus (ad 37-100)-Jewish Historian
Lesson 3 – Dead Sea Scrolls• Discovered in 1947. Role of Syrian Bishop
Lesson 3 Dead Sea Scrolls• Useful:– History of Palestine– Emergence of Xianity– Ancient Biblical Manuscripts• Ex. Aleppo Codex & DS 1000 years apartbut both texts match.
Lesson 4 - Apocrypha• Literally Hidden• Aka as “Intertestamental Literature” or“Deuterocanonical Books”• Tobit – Maccabees Group• Peshitta includes Tobit-Maccabees• Different from N.T Apocrypha• Best Resource OSB or NRSV Bible• Available in Malayalam Bibles – CatholicEditions
Lesson 4 - Apocrypha• Wisdom of Solomon“wisdom 9:1-9:29„O God of my ancestors and Lord of mercy,who have made all things by your word,2 and by your wisdom have formedhumankindto have dominion over the creatures youhave made,”Important in development of Theology ofLogos & Trinitarian Theology