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SEHS Topic 4.3 Continued – The
Fundamentals of biomechanics – Part II
FORCE
Principles of Force
• A force is a push or a pull.
• A force acts on an object.
• A force is a vector (magnitude and direc...
Force
• A force is a push or a pull.
• A force acts on an object.
– Pushes and pulls are applied to something.
– From the ...
Principles of Force
• A force is a vector.
– To quantify a push or pull, we need to specify
both magnitude and a direction...
• Contact forces are forces that act on an
object by touching it at a point of contact.
– The bat must touch the ball to h...
Motion in Force
• Forces can cause three different types of
motion in an object
1.
2.
3.
Spring Force
• A spring can either push (when compressed) or pull(when
stretched)
• Not all springs are metal coils.
• Whe...
Tension Force
• When a string or rope or wire pulls
on an object, it exerts a contact
force called the tension force.
• Th...
Normal
• When an object sits on a table,
the table surface exerts an upward
contact force on the object.
• This pushing fo...
Friction
• When an object slides along
a surface, the surface can
exert a contact force which
opposes the motion.
• This i...
Drag
• Kinetic friction is a resistive
force, which opposes or
resists motion.
• Resistive forces are also
experienced by ...
Thrust
• A jet airplane or a rocket has a thrust force pushing
it forward during takeoff.
• Thrust occurs when an engine e...
Gravity
• The pull of a planet on an
object near the surface is
called the gravitational force.
• The agent for the gravit...
Mass and Weight
• The amount of material
in a body or object
• Measured in kilograms
(2.2kilos/pound)
• Mass does not chan...
Group Activity: Identify the forces
in each of these activities
CENTER OF MASS
Centre of Mass
Point at which the
mass and weight of
an object are
balanced in all
directions..
Centre
Of
Mass
As the mass of
the arms move
up so will the
centre of mass
Centre
Of
Mass
• The Base of Support is the location on a body or object where
most of the weight is supported.
• The larger the area the...
• The line of gravity is an imaginary
vertical line passing through the
center of gravity down to a point in
the base of s...
Line of
gravity
Line of
gravity
Centre of
gravity
Centre of
gravity
STABLE UNSTABLE
Line of gravity
Line of gravity
Top of body moves
towards LOG
Direction of
movement
Base of
support
Leg pushes
against the
ground
Remember Centre Of Mass doesn’t always need tobe inside the body
Group Thought: Can you list some examples of when centre ...
The Fosbury Flop
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RaGUW1
d0w8g
Stability
Stability is
dependant
on the
Centre of
Mass being
directly
above the
Base of
Support
Centre
Of
Mass
Base of
Sup...
STABLE
Base of
Support
Stability is
dependant
on the
Centre of
Mass being
directly
above the
Base of
Support
Stability
Stability
Stability is
dependant
on the
Centre of
Mass being
directly
above the
Base of
Support
UNSTABLE
Where the line of
gravity is
Mass of the
Athlete
Size of the base
of support
Position of the
centre of mass
Stability is d...
NFL Sport Science
• https://www.nbclearn.com/portal/site/learn/
science-of-nfl-football
Factors affecting the location of the total body COG
Age:
Since body segments differ in proportion to total height from bi...
Cont’d
Sex:
• Since the distribution of body mass differ from
males to females the COG will be located higher in
males tha...
COG Cont’d
Subtraction of weight, e.g. amputation of one limb will move the COG
upwards and towards the sound side.
1. Bod...
COG Cont’d: Explain that a change in body position during sporting
activities can change the position of the C.O.M./C.O.G
...
Additional Images – COG: Where is it?
LEVERS
Distinguish between first, second and third
class levers
• First off…..What are levers?
• Definitions
– Lever: Rigid bar t...
Distinguish between first, second and third
class levers Cont’d
Label anatomical representations of levers
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Sehs 4.3– biomechanics ii (4.3.3, force, com)

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Sehs 4.3– biomechanics ii (4.3.3, force, com)

  1. 1. SEHS Topic 4.3 Continued – The Fundamentals of biomechanics – Part II
  2. 2. FORCE
  3. 3. Principles of Force • A force is a push or a pull. • A force acts on an object. • A force is a vector (magnitude and direction) • A force can be a contact force or a long-range force.
  4. 4. Force • A force is a push or a pull. • A force acts on an object. – Pushes and pulls are applied to something. – From the object’s perspective, it has a force exerted on it.
  5. 5. Principles of Force • A force is a vector. – To quantify a push or pull, we need to specify both magnitude and a direction. – A force has direction AND size/value • Force can be contact or long range – Force requires an agent, something that acts or exerts power. – If you throw a ball, your hand is the agent or cause of the force exerted on the ball.
  6. 6. • Contact forces are forces that act on an object by touching it at a point of contact. – The bat must touch the ball to hit it. • Long-range forces are forces that act on an object without physical contact. – A javelin released from your hand is pulled to the earth by the long- range force of gravity.
  7. 7. Motion in Force • Forces can cause three different types of motion in an object 1. 2. 3.
  8. 8. Spring Force • A spring can either push (when compressed) or pull(when stretched) • Not all springs are metal coils. • Whenever an elastic object is flexed or deformed in some way, and then “springs” back to its original shape when you let it go, this is a spring force.
  9. 9. Tension Force • When a string or rope or wire pulls on an object, it exerts a contact force called the tension force. • The tension force is in the direction of the string or rope.
  10. 10. Normal • When an object sits on a table, the table surface exerts an upward contact force on the object. • This pushing force is directed perpendicular to the surface, and thus is called the normal force.
  11. 11. Friction • When an object slides along a surface, the surface can exert a contact force which opposes the motion. • This is called sliding friction or kinetic friction • The kinetic friction force is directed tangent to the surface, and opposite to the velocity of the object relative to the surface. • Kinetic friction tends to slow down the sliding motion of an object in contact with a surface.
  12. 12. Drag • Kinetic friction is a resistive force, which opposes or resists motion. • Resistive forces are also experienced by objects moving through fluids. • The resistive force of a fluid is called drag. • Drag points opposite the direction of motion. • For heavy and compact objects in air, drag force is fairly small.
  13. 13. Thrust • A jet airplane or a rocket has a thrust force pushing it forward during takeoff. • Thrust occurs when an engine expels gas molecules at high speed. • This exhaust gas exerts a contact force on the engine. • The direction of thrust is opposite the direction in which the exhaust gas is expelled.
  14. 14. Gravity • The pull of a planet on an object near the surface is called the gravitational force. • The agent for the gravitational force is the entire planet. • Gravity acts on all objects, whether moving or at rest. • The gravitational force vector always points vertically downward.
  15. 15. Mass and Weight • The amount of material in a body or object • Measured in kilograms (2.2kilos/pound) • Mass does not change with location (same mass on moon as on earth) • Weight is the effect of the force of gravity on mass. • Weight DOES change based on location
  16. 16. Group Activity: Identify the forces in each of these activities
  17. 17. CENTER OF MASS
  18. 18. Centre of Mass Point at which the mass and weight of an object are balanced in all directions.. Centre Of Mass
  19. 19. As the mass of the arms move up so will the centre of mass Centre Of Mass
  20. 20. • The Base of Support is the location on a body or object where most of the weight is supported. • The larger the area the base of support covers, the morestable an object will be. Wide BOS BOS Narrow BOS BOS
  21. 21. • The line of gravity is an imaginary vertical line passing through the center of gravity down to a point in the base of support. • If the line of gravity falls within the object’s base of support (i.e. its contact with the ground), the object is relatively stable. • If the line of gravity falls outside the object’s base of support (i.e. its contact with the ground), the object is relatively unstable.
  22. 22. Line of gravity Line of gravity Centre of gravity Centre of gravity STABLE UNSTABLE Line of gravity
  23. 23. Line of gravity Top of body moves towards LOG Direction of movement Base of support Leg pushes against the ground
  24. 24. Remember Centre Of Mass doesn’t always need tobe inside the body Group Thought: Can you list some examples of when centre of mass is outside the body? Centre of Mass The AVERAGE position of all of your mass!!!
  25. 25. The Fosbury Flop • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RaGUW1 d0w8g
  26. 26. Stability Stability is dependant on the Centre of Mass being directly above the Base of Support Centre Of Mass Base of Support
  27. 27. STABLE Base of Support Stability is dependant on the Centre of Mass being directly above the Base of Support Stability
  28. 28. Stability Stability is dependant on the Centre of Mass being directly above the Base of Support UNSTABLE
  29. 29. Where the line of gravity is Mass of the Athlete Size of the base of support Position of the centre of mass Stability is dependent on 4 things
  30. 30. NFL Sport Science • https://www.nbclearn.com/portal/site/learn/ science-of-nfl-football
  31. 31. Factors affecting the location of the total body COG Age: Since body segments differ in proportion to total height from birth to maturity, the transverse plane of the center of gravity will lie in a different section of the body as age increase, but the proportion of height will be constant. The level of the COG ( Center of Gravity) will gradually decrease till it reaches the level of the second sacral vertebra at adulthood.
  32. 32. Cont’d Sex: • Since the distribution of body mass differ from males to females the COG will be located higher in males than in females. Addition to subtractions of weight in some parts of the body: Addition of weight: carrying weight will move the COG towards the location of load. E.g. carrying a weight above the head will raise it upwards. Carrying a weight behind the trunk will move the COG backwards.
  33. 33. COG Cont’d Subtraction of weight, e.g. amputation of one limb will move the COG upwards and towards the sound side. 1. Body build. 2. Height.
  34. 34. COG Cont’d: Explain that a change in body position during sporting activities can change the position of the C.O.M./C.O.G • The location of the center of gravity can be outside the human body during activities depending on relationship of body segments. • The change in position of limbs from the anatomical position ( when the arrangement of the body shifts), e.g. raising both arms will raise the COG.
  35. 35. Additional Images – COG: Where is it?
  36. 36. LEVERS
  37. 37. Distinguish between first, second and third class levers • First off…..What are levers? • Definitions – Lever: Rigid bar that turns about an axis of rotation or a fulcrum (A) – Motive Force (F): effort or exertion applied to cause movement against resistance or weight (a.k.a. Effort) – Resistive Force (R): opposes motive force (a.k.a. Load) –
  38. 38. Distinguish between first, second and third class levers Cont’d
  39. 39. Label anatomical representations of levers

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