Decongesting New York


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Decongesting New York

  1. 1. Samuel I. Schwartz, P.E. October 11, 2007 Decongesting New York
  2. 2. <ul><li>Reduce Number of Taxis </li></ul><ul><li>Cap Supply of Liveries (Issue Medallions) </li></ul><ul><li>Charge Thru-Trucks $100 </li></ul><ul><li>Curtail “Privileged Parkers” </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion Pricing </li></ul>Daily News Op-Ed Wednesday, September 12, 2007
  3. 3. Vehicles in Motion in Midtown Core By Time of Day <ul><li>One million vehicles enter Manhattan each day. </li></ul><ul><li>Midtown streets carry about 8000 moving vehicles at peak times. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus seemingly small difference in number of vehicles can have large impact on vehicle speeds. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vehicle Miles Traveled vs. Vehicles in Motion 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 y=2.384(10 -8 )x 2 -1.372(10-3)+15.973 VEHICLES IN MOTION SPEED (MPH)
  5. 5. TMT vs. TIM 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 500 1500 2500 3500 4500 5500 6500 7500 8500 9500 10500 TAXIS IN MOTION TAXI MILES TRAVELED
  6. 6. <ul><li>Reduction of Vehicle Miles Traveled </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral parking and traffic impacts to neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Air quality and environmental concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on various economic classes </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Overall economic impact of any proposal </li></ul>Shaw’s Criteria
  7. 7. Free Market Transportation
  8. 9. Lessons from London and Stockholm <ul><li>London introduced Congestion Pricing (CP) on February 17, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholm introduced CP for a six month trial period in January 2006. It was re-introduced August 2007 as a result of a referendum. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Lessons from London and Stockholm Traffic is responsive to pricing at moderate levels. London charges 8£ or about $16 per day (this is $7 more than NYC charges at its Midtown and Battery tunnels).
  10. 11. Lessons from London and Stockholm <ul><li>A modest decrease in traffic volume yields big results; ~ 20% improvement in speeds/reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Motorists will shift to transit in significant numbers if it’s available. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Lessons from London and Stockholm <ul><li>The voters are willing to sign on to pricing. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing transit in preparation for charging is a must. </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses, on whole, don’t suffer. </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial amounts of money can be generated. </li></ul>London’s Ken Livingstone was re-elected 16 months after introducing Congestion Pricing.
  12. 13. Lessons from London and Stockholm <ul><li>Air pollution benefits are significant. </li></ul><ul><li>The infrastructure needed is modest ( compared to road building) and can be implemented in less than a year. Toll plazas are anachronisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic crashes decrease as a result of fewer vehicle miles traveled. </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic on roads adjacent to the CP zones rose modestly. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Lessons from London and Stockholm An extensive public education program is needed to gain support and to teach people how to used congestion charging.
  14. 15. Untangling NYC’s Gridlock
  15. 16. <ul><li>$8 Charge for cars South of 86 th Street </li></ul><ul><li>$21 for trucks </li></ul><ul><li>In effect 6am-6pm Mon-Fri </li></ul><ul><li>50% discount for people within zone </li></ul><ul><li>FDR & West Side Highway free </li></ul><ul><li>No double-dipping (other tolls deducted) </li></ul><ul><li>Taxis, livery, buses & handicapped exempt </li></ul>Mayor Bloomberg’s PlaNYC 2030
  16. 17. <ul><li>Viewed as a tax </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctity of inter-borough travel </li></ul>CONGESTION PRICING: Why has it failed in NYC?
  17. 18. East River Bridges: Tolled Until 1911 Mayor Gaynor: [tolls] inconvenient and irksome…For my part, I see no more reason for tollgates on the bridges than for toll gates on Fifth Avenue or Broadway.
  18. 19. More Recent History <ul><li>1950’s William Vickrey proposes Congestion Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>1973 Clean Air Act includes tolls on East & Harlem River Bridges adopted by Mayor & Governor </li></ul><ul><li>1977 City DOT Study </li></ul><ul><li>1977 Moynihan – Holtzman Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>1980 SOV’s required to use toll facilities </li></ul><ul><li>1987 ‘Draconian’ measures floated </li></ul><ul><li>1991 “Tolling the East River Bridges” </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Congestion Pricing listed in Mayor’s Budget </li></ul><ul><li>2007 Mayor Bloomberg’s 2030 </li></ul>
  19. 20. Current Dysfunctional Pricing Scheme CBD Current Round-trip Cash Rates $9 $9 $9 $9 $6 $6 $6 $6 $6 $4.50 $4.50 $9 $4.50 $9 FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE!
  20. 21. More Dysfunction 4 Agencies control traffic: PA, TBTA, NYC & NYS DOT’s Central Park Queensboro FREE! Queens Midtown $9 Williamsburg FREE! Manhattan FREE! Brooklyn FREE! Brooklyn Battery $9 Holland $6 Lincoln $6 West Side Highway FDR Drive Financial District Midtown
  21. 22. New Jersey “ Trucker’s Special!” Take Manhattan Bridge Save $58 and have fun! Tour Chinatown, Tribeca, and Little Italy via Canal St. ( While supplies last) Even More Dysfunction! The Verrazano Bridge Boondoggle FREE! FREE! $58
  22. 23. Wipe the Slate Clean CBD $9 $9 $9 $9 $6 $6 $6 $6 $6 $4.50 $4.50 $9 $4 $9 FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE!
  23. 25. Apply Congestion Pricing.. Where there’s serious congestion and where there are transit options (i.e. choice riders)
  24. 26. Choice Riders
  25. 27. FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE! CBD $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
  26. 28. The Plan <ul><li>Remove tolls from every interborough </li></ul><ul><li>crossing (except to Manhattan’s CBD) </li></ul><ul><li>E-ZPass East River Bridges or Use a Geographic Pricing Scheme Based on Congestion Levels </li></ul><ul><li>E-ZPass southbound avenues and highways </li></ul><ul><li>at 60th Street, 34 th Street, Canal Street, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>City Residents - 33% Discount </li></ul><ul><li>Thru trucks get socked - $100 !! </li></ul>
  27. 29. The Plan Continued <ul><li>Widen Staten Island Expressway, twin Goethals Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Get trucks off Brooklyn Streets; Rebuild Belt Parkway, with adjacent parks, to allow commercial vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Give city residents 5 free trips/year to use/barter (federal FAIR concept) </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to transit: Reduce bus fares in subway-less neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Crackdown on government abuse of parking </li></ul>
  28. 30. Morning: Prices 6AM – 8AM Free Market Approach to achieve Congestion Relief Pricing Updated Quarterly Varying Pricing by time of day, day of week, season and real-time conditions
  29. 31. Free Market Approach to achieve Congestion Relief Peak Prices: 8AM – 6PM
  30. 32. Free Market Approach to achieve Congestion Relief Evening Prices: 6PM - Midnight
  31. 33. Free Market Approach to achieve Congestion Relief No Charge Overnight: Midnight – 6AM
  32. 34. Pricing Plan for 2015 Pricing Plan for 2015 by vehicle miles traveled and/or vehicle hours traveled and/or vehicles hours parked.
  33. 35. Congestion Pricing is Here $15 $19 $21 $20 $10 $12 $8 Somehow, we accept Congestion Pricing when cars are parked but not when they are moving $38 $51
  34. 36. <ul><li>~ 95% of drivers who generate parking revenue will be unaffected by congestion pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Growth policy will increase dwelling units, and parking demand, within CP zone </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in parking demand expected in outskirts of CP zone </li></ul><ul><li>More pedestrian zones and BRT lanes will lead to reductions in curbside parking allowances </li></ul><ul><li>More government workers seeking parking lots and garages due to tougher monitoring of government parking abuse </li></ul>Est. CP Reduction Weekday Revenue Peak Period Revenue Affected Drivers = 0.07 x 0.8 x 0.8 = 4.5% Impacts on Parking Industry
  35. 37. <ul><li>Background environmental conditions will be lessened meaning getting through the environmental process will be easier </li></ul><ul><li>Proven benefits for retailers in London and other CP cities </li></ul><ul><li>80-90% of Manhattan shoppers already take transit or walk </li></ul><ul><li>9 out of 10 workers in CBD take transit </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates show that 94% of drivers will continue to drive under CP </li></ul><ul><li>Residences within the CP zone will receive a 50% reduction </li></ul>Impacts on Real Estate Industry
  36. 38. <ul><li>Cell Phones </li></ul><ul><li>EZ Pass </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Signature </li></ul><ul><li>License Plate Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Registration Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Body Signals </li></ul>Technologies by 2010
  37. 39. <ul><li>Where the “right” meets the “left” </li></ul><ul><li>A Capitalist Plan </li></ul><ul><li>You pay for “first-class” driving. Higher speeds, less congestion </li></ul><ul><li>A Socialist Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Money shifted from the well-to-do to the masses in transit </li></ul><ul><li>A New York Plan </li></ul><ul><li>No more charging between boroughs </li></ul><ul><li>City residents benefit by lower fees, cleaner air and a safer city </li></ul><ul><li>Walking, bicycling, and transit promoted </li></ul><ul><li>Continued pre-eminence as least “gas-oriented” city </li></ul><ul><li>Who Wins? </li></ul><ul><li>The rich move faster </li></ul><ul><li>The poor get better transit </li></ul><ul><li>We all win with cleaner air and better mobility </li></ul>Congestion Pricing