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ABSTRACT: How do civil society organisations (CSOs) affect microfinance? The aim of this paper is to apply a conceptual as...
Outline<br />Main finding<br />Methodology <br />Different Dimensions (Chart) <br />Defining: Microfinance, Civil Society ...
Main Finding <br />(Question) What is the role of civil society organisations (CSOs) in improving microfinance? <br />*Imp...
Methodology<br />There is little to no research explicitly / directly connecting  microfinance and civil society, or micro...
CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS<br />Dimensions<br />CIVIL SOCIETY AND CSOs<br />Mine-affected region<br />Excluded Borrowers<...
Microfinance in plain-English<br />Microfinance includes products such as micro-insurance, microcredit and microloans but ...
Civil society according to CIVICUS<br />The “space” of civil society includes civil society networks and organisations; tr...
Civil society: CSO or NGO? <br />CSO or NGO? <br />[…] in brief, the term civil society has also a normative aspect (it is...
The global landmine crisis <br />Art installation; shoes in Colombia, the former number one country affected by landmines....
The global landmine crisis <br />There is one landmine for every 48 adults in the world, one for every 16 children (Berhe,...
Map No. 290 Worldmapper (2005)<br />
Findings from literature: The various roles of (CSOs) transferrable to improving microfinance<br />
Findings from emails to practitioners: The various roles of (CSOs) transferrable to improving microfinance<br />
Logic: making connections <br />CSOs provide a voice for marginalized groups. CSOs are capable of influencing policy and r...
Conclusion & Next steps <br />Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) can: <br />Create a better policy environment<br />* Advo...
References<br />Abbey, E. (2007). Constructive regulation of non-government organizations. The Quarterly Review of Economi...
Awareness Raising<br />
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CSOs Improving Microfinance to Disabled Borrowers and Landmine Victims

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ABSTRACT: How do civil society organisations (CSOs) affect microfinance? The aim of this paper is to apply a conceptual assessment of civil society organisations to microfinance. A preliminary literature review demonstrates that civil society organisations (CSOs) work with and sometimes pressure microfinance institutions (MFIs) to expand lending or targeting of excluding groups. MFIs operate in a microfinance sector embedded in a sociopolitical environment, which will include the civil society of a country. All countries have a civil society, but some countries have a strong civil society, while other countries have weak civil societies; for example, Somalia would be a country with a weak civil society. The assumption is that strong civil societies are conducive to microfinance operational stability. However, there is a sparse amount of research that connects civil society to microfinance; conceptual research demonstrates that civil society organisations could improve microfinance through developing a dialogue, voicing concerns, fighting corruption, and promoting financial inclusion of excluded groups of borrowers, notably the physical disabled. In former conflict regions, there are thousands of physically disabled people as a consequence of landmines/UXO. The landmine population is considered an underserved market using microfinance terminology. Unfortunately, there are few active and sustainable microfinance lending initiatives for landmine victims. Civil society organisations have a role to play in socioeconomic reintegration, including areas such as government policy, victim assistance, and information distribution, as well as pressuring MFIs to lend to physically disabled people.

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CSOs Improving Microfinance to Disabled Borrowers and Landmine Victims

  1. 1. ABSTRACT: How do civil society organisations (CSOs) affect microfinance? The aim of this paper is to apply a conceptual assessment of civil society organisations to microfinance. A preliminary literature review demonstrates that civil society organisations (CSOs) work with and sometimes pressure microfinance institutions (MFIs) to expand lending or targeting of excluding groups. MFIs operate in a microfinance sector embedded in a sociopolitical environment, which will include the civil society of a country. All countries have a civil society, but some countries have a strong civil society, while other countries have weak civil societies; for example, Somalia would be a country with a weak civil society. The assumption is that strong civil societies are conducive to microfinance operational stability. However, there is a sparse amount of research that connects civil society to microfinance; conceptual research demonstrates that civil society organisations could improve microfinance through developing a dialogue, voicing concerns, fighting corruption, and promoting financial inclusion of excluded groups of borrowers, notably the physical disabled. In former conflict regions, there are thousands of physically disabled people as a consequence of landmines/UXO. The landmine population is considered an underserved market using microfinance terminology. Unfortunately, there are few active and sustainable microfinance lending initiatives for landmine victims. Civil society organisations have a role to play in socioeconomic reintegration, including areas such as government policy, victim assistance, and information distribution, as well as pressuring MFIs to lend to physically disabled people.<br />Andrew Bacchus | ISES XVI Summer University, Hungary | 8 July 2011 <br />abacchus@uwaterloo.ca <br />(MAES) Candidate Local Economic Development, University of Waterloo<br />Highlighting the role of Civil Society Organisations in Improving Microfinance<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Main finding<br />Methodology <br />Different Dimensions (Chart) <br />Defining: Microfinance, Civil Society Organisations, and Landmines<br />Discussions of Findings: What are the roles of civil society organisations? <br />Conclusion <br />
  3. 3. Main Finding <br />(Question) What is the role of civil society organisations (CSOs) in improving microfinance? <br />*Improving = subjective and somewhat technical term… “improving” can refer to reaching an underserved market) <br />(Answer) After several weeks, my research insight is that CSOs have a role to play in financial inclusion for physically disabled borrowers especially from landmines/ UXO. <br />
  4. 4. Methodology<br />There is little to no research explicitly / directly connecting microfinance and civil society, or microfinance and physically disabled landmine survivors. <br />Literature review of select academic journals using Scholar’s Portal <br />Online research of practitioner data from microfinance institutions and civil society organisations. <br />Participated in a workshop titled “Concept, Relevance and Use of the Civil Society Index” facilitated by PSO with presentations by CIVICUS, the World Alliance for Citizen Participationin The Hague.<br />Email interviews with one -two questions posed to academics from Asian, Australian and North American institutions. (low % response rate; only approx. 40% useful/ applicable responses).<br />* After ISES will post on Slideshare and email more practitioners for feedback <br />Understand civil society<br />Feedback from practitioners<br />
  5. 5. CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS<br />Dimensions<br />CIVIL SOCIETY AND CSOs<br />Mine-affected region<br />Excluded Borrowers<br />GOVERNMENT<br />MICROFINANCE SECTOR <br />
  6. 6. Microfinance in plain-English<br />Microfinance includes products such as micro-insurance, microcredit and microloans but also services like business support and financial education; range from $50 to +$3000<br />Microfinance is an effective mechanism in supporting entrepreneurs and micro-business<br />Microfinance offers financial access in a formal, regulated environment, as opposed to informal money lenders, or unsustainable borrowing from family members<br />Technology and innovation are essential to operational sustainability <br />
  7. 7. Civil society according to CIVICUS<br />The “space” of civil society includes civil society networks and organisations; trade unions; faith-based networks; professional associations; NGO capacity development organisations; philanthropic foundations and other funding bodies. (CIVICUS, 2011) <br />Government <br />Private<br />Sector<br />Family <br />
  8. 8. Civil society: CSO or NGO? <br />CSO or NGO? <br />[…] in brief, the term civil society has also a normative aspect (it is seen as a good thing, contributing to democracy, rule of law, stability, tolerance) while the term NGO can be seen as a descriptive term; civil society denotes a variety of organizations that are not within the market or the state and seek a public good; NGOs tend to denote formalized organizations run by professionals who seek grants and funds to implement programs for the public good; that is civil society has a realm of political affirmation that NGOs need not have. (N. Srinivas, 2011).<br />
  9. 9. The global landmine crisis <br />Art installation; shoes in Colombia, the former number one country affected by landmines.<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. The global landmine crisis <br />There is one landmine for every 48 adults in the world, one for every 16 children (Berhe, 2007:1). <br />At the current rate of cleanup, it will take 1000 years to cleanup landmines and for every landmine cleared, a further 20 are being buried (Sun and Li, 2005). <br />It is believed that there are about 80–120 million landmines spread around 90 countries, with about 230 million landmines waiting to be deployed in 94 countries. Berhe (2007:2) <br />
  12. 12. Map No. 290 Worldmapper (2005)<br />
  13. 13. Findings from literature: The various roles of (CSOs) transferrable to improving microfinance<br />
  14. 14. Findings from emails to practitioners: The various roles of (CSOs) transferrable to improving microfinance<br />
  15. 15. Logic: making connections <br />CSOs provide a voice for marginalized groups. CSOs are capable of influencing policy and regulation. <br />Physically disabled persons are excluded from microfinance. In developing countries, what causes physical disabilities? <br />There is a global landmine crisis, which means that over a lifetime, there will be continual stream of physically disabled people, especially in countries like Colombia, Afghanistan and Cambodia. <br />Physically disabled entrepreneurs can form a market for MFIs, which in the long run expands the market and can ensure business sustainability. <br />
  16. 16. Conclusion & Next steps <br />Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) can: <br />Create a better policy environment<br />* Advocate for financial inclusion. Be the Voice for the excluded landmine-affected entrepreneurs <br />Create a dialogue with MFIs regarding needs and business opportunities <br />Assist in landmine clearance <br />Start a microfinance institution<br />Next Steps<br />Contact MFIs in Afghanistan, Colombia, Pakistan, Myanmar and Cambodia about landmine-affected borrowers <br />Post on SlideShare and ask for feedback and comments from researchers and practitioners <br />Culture Jam & Advocate (see UNICEF slide) <br />
  17. 17. References<br />Abbey, E. (2007). Constructive regulation of non-government organizations. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. 48.<br />Anderlini, S. (2000). “Women at the Peace Table: Making a Difference.” UN Development Fund for Women, New York.<br />Aga Khan Development Fund (AKDF) (2007). Building a Strong Civil Society Sector: The NGO Resource Centre in Zanzibar.<br />Berhe, A. A. (2007). The Contribution of landmines to land degradation. Land Degradation and Development (18)1-15. doi: 10.1002/ldr.754.<br />Bernard, H. et al. (2006). Good practices for the economic inclusion of people with disabilities in developing countries. Handicap International. <br />Brazilian Institute of Consumer Defense (IDEC) (Found on ACCION, 2008). Summary of Client Protection in Brazil. http://www.accion.org/Page.aspx?pid=1758<br />Goldstein, J. (June 2010). A New Financial Access Frontier: People with Disabilities. http://www.centerforfinancialinclusion.org/Document.Doc?id=830<br />Hottentot, E. <email removed> (2011, July 7). RE: Landmines, civil society and microfinance. [Personal email]. <br />Hoxha, T. The process of NGO Law amendment in Kosovo – a brief description of civil society involvement. http://civicus.org/blog/csi/files/2010/10/a-civil-society-success-story-from-kosovo.pdf<br />Interface for Cycling Expertise (IC-E). Bicycle Partnership Program. http://www.bikepartners.nl/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=61&Itemid=158I-CE<br />Kamrang, < email removed> (2011, July 5). RE: Landmines, civil society and microfinance. [Personal email]. 2011, July 7. <br />Martinelli, E. (2006). Twin-tracking to promote increased access of people with disabilities to economic empowerment opportunities. World Bank & LCI side event of PSD Forum 2006. <br />McKague, K. < email removed > (2011, June 30). RE: Landmines, civil society and microfinance. [Personal email]. 2011, July 7. <br />Mweemba, S. < email removed > (2011, June 24). RE: Landmines and microfinance. [Personal email]. 2011, July 7. <br />Naidoo, S. < email removed >(2011, July 06). RE: Landmines, civil society and microfinance. [Personal email]. 2011, July 7. Re: Civil Society and microfinance?<br />Partnership for Transparency Fund. (2011). “About Us.” http://ptfund.org/about/<br />Sun, Y., & Li, J. (2005). Adaptive Learning Approach to Landmine Detection. Ieee Transactions On Aerospace, 41(3), 1-9.<br />World Bank (2011). The World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development<br />Zivkovic, R. <office@stopmines.org>(2011, July 06). RE: Landmines, civil society and microfinance. [Personal email]. 2011, July 7.<br />
  18. 18. Awareness Raising<br />

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