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Exploring Shared Situational Awareness using Serious Gaming in Supply Chain Disruptions

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Shalini Kurapati, Gwendolyn Kolfschoten, Thomas M. Corsi, and Frances Brazier on "Exploring Shared Situational Awareness using Serious Gaming in Supply Chain Disruptions" at ISCRAM 2013 in Baden-Baden.

10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
12-15 May 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany

Published in: Technology, Business
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Exploring Shared Situational Awareness using Serious Gaming in Supply Chain Disruptions

  1. 1. 1Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsExploring Shared Situational Awarenessusing Serious Gaming in Supply ChainDisruptionsShalini Kurapati, TU DelftDr.ir. Gwendolyn Kolfschoten, TU DelftDr.ir. Alexander Verbraeck, TU DelftDr. Thomas M. Corsi, University of MarylandDr. Frances Brazier, TU DelftISCRAM conference, May 2013Baden-Baden, Germany
  2. 2. 2Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsSALOMO – Situational Awareness forLOgistic Multimodal OperationsMission:• Empower the stakeholders in the supply chains by facilitating betterdecisions and planning through increased shared situationalawareness as well as better trained staff able to flexibly deal withdynamic circumstances.• Develop and test 8 tools to improve shared situational awareness inmulti-stakeholder settingsSALOMO Project, Dinalog, Logistics Clusters, 14-12-2012 2
  3. 3. 3Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsSupply Chain DisruptionsThe Huffington Post, 2002usnews.nbc.com, 2012TIB,WaSetsail.com
  4. 4. 4Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsImpact of disruptions: Cascading effects• Affects human lives• Cascading effects/ripple effects• Emergency supplies• Operational delays• Increased training & procedural changes• Temporary labour/ safety risksLong island port strikes: $1 billion/day loss to the USeconomyFor every $1 on insurance, $8-$36 on uninsured costs (HSE, UK& Thomas Miller)Early warning systems, communication and information-sharingamong stakeholders, joint corrective actions can make the SCmore responsive to disruptions
  5. 5. 5Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsShared Situational Awareness (SSA)
  6. 6. 6Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsChallenges in SC disruption management• Impossible to predict all risks• Lack of preparedness to mitigate disruptions• No hierarchy/command and control• Complex and dynamic nature of supply chains offer poor visibility ofeffects• Multiple-stakeholders and the interdependencies• Lack of shared situational awareness on disruptions and effects• Strategic behaviourA garment supply chain network (Dass et al. 2011)
  7. 7. 7Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsDecision making when disruptions strike• Complex, chaotic• Not enough preparedness• Individualistic sense of urgency and action• Lack of Shared Situational Awareness
  8. 8. 8Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsSSA Framework for multi-stakeholder systemsIndividual Group SystemParticipation Flexibility Synergy InnovationPrescription Compliance Coordination NetworkgovernancePerception Goal orientation;FocusTeam goal;OrientationPositioningFrom individual towards participative decision makingSSAMaturityLevels
  9. 9. 9Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsMain research questionsHow can SSA improve the participatory decision making of actors insupply chains, to reduce the impact of disruptions in the network?1. How to improve shared situational awareness (SSA) in multi-actor networks?2. What are key factors that affect SSA in intermodal transport networks?3. How can SSA be assessed in such multi-actor networks?4. What are the methods and techniques to improve and support SSA in these networks?5. What are the guidelines to implement the SSA in practice, for the intermodal transportation networks?
  10. 10. 10Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsGaming to explore SSA• Need to understand the behaviour and decision-making ofstakeholders in a non-hierarchical setting• Too complex to understand real-world „as-is‟• Simulation games are excellent instruments to learn aboutcomplex situationsWhere problems are unfamiliarInformation is inadequateCost of errors is very highThey are experimental, experiential and educationalCan be tested in a safe and controlled environmentSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:6sided_dice.jpg
  11. 11. 11Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsKey objectives of game• Understanding the impact of increased shared situationalawareness on individual, group and system levelperformance.• Setting a foundation to identify measures to increase SSA• Offering a frame of reference to assess SSA in theorganization and network.• To serve as a training tool for disruption management
  12. 12. 13Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsSC disruption management gameSource: hhla.de
  13. 13. 14Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsDisruption management game• An insight into decision making during disruptions• Taking decision to avoid losses• Emphasis on bouncing back to business as usual• Varying levels of information visibility, and communicationoptions• Based on interviews, process manuals, literature studiesRoledescriptionsVesselplannerResourceplannerControltowerSalesYardplanner
  14. 14. 15Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsRole description1. Vessel planner• Plan the unloading and loading of the ship• Plan the mooring slot for ships• Reduce ship waiting timesSource: http://www.hine-consultancy.co.uk/Source: Dai, Lin, Moorthy & Teo (2008)
  15. 15. 16Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsRole description2. Yard planner• Decides the storage positions for the incoming and outboundcontainers in the yard.• Receiving outbound containers of a group for a vessel orunloading of inbound containers.• The yard planner is responsible for sufficient stack capacity tomaintain overall performance.Source: sciencedirect.com
  16. 16. 17Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsRole description3. Control tower• Gives permissions for operations that are outsidethe existing plans.• Control tower keeps track of operations
  17. 17. 18Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsRole description4. Sales• Responsible for the bookings and financial transactionsbetween the clients and the terminal• Arrange alternatives to clients during disruptions of containerflow in and out of the terminal.• They need to keep the customer informed at all time, andresponsible for customer satisfaction.
  18. 18. 19Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsRole Description5. Resource planner• Assign resources to each vessel planned for your terminalresources per shift planned for gangs• Get an overview of all resources demanded for per time slotover the next days or weeks• Equipment allocation• Quay cranes, automated guided vehicles, gantry cranes,reach stackersSource:arl-shipzine.com
  19. 19. 20Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsDisruption mitigation game• Disruption scenarios introduced in the game• Situation deteriorates unless appropriate decisions are taken• Decision making to mitigate the effects of disruptions• Information sharing and communication• Scoring on individual and overall performance indicators
  20. 20. 21Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsIndividual game board example
  21. 21. 22Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsGame pieces• Individual game boards• Overall game boards• Decision cards• Information cards• Joker cards• Pawns• Rolling dice• Stopwatch• Game leader score cards• Communication tokens
  22. 22. 23Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsOverall game board
  23. 23. 24Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsGame rules and set-up• Game leader orchestrates the game• 5 rounds, 1 decision to be made each round• Information cards can be communicated• Communication through phone, e-mail, meetings• Costs and chances of communication• Choose between two decision options or use joker• After every round the game leader announce your scorebased on your decision
  24. 24. 25Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsScoring• Individual and overall KPIs• Individual scores for each role , contribute to overall scores• Team scores based on affiliationsTeam Safe: resource planner and control towerTeam Cheap: vessel planner ,yard planner, salesTeam Happy: vessel planner, salesScores depreciate every round, appropriate decision improvescoresSafetyPerformanceCustomer satisfaction
  25. 25. 26Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsGame play with SC studentsUniversity of Maryland, Feb 2013
  26. 26. 27Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsGame play with practitionersApril 4, DINALOG, Breda
  27. 27. 28Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsData collection and preliminary results• Test with more than 100 participants• Questionnaire based on Nielsen‟s heuristics for playability andusability• Video recordings of game play• Further validation by expert in progressPreliminary observationsLocal optimum and global minimumToo much or too little informationAwareness of interdependencies in higher SSA levelsNegotiations for information exchange
  28. 28. 29Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsThe Game as a Training toolLearning elements for professionals: Increased preparedness• Strategies to mitigate losses• Time pressure and limited resources• Prioritizing and balancing: Safety vs. profits vs. customersatisfaction• Understanding the need for coordination and informationsharing• A mobile application under construction
  29. 29. 30Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsGame as a Research Instrument• SSA measurement• Individual SA measurement• Factors affecting SSA• Control variables: Information visibility and communicationoptions• Dependent variables: Decision quality, Frequency ofcommunication, decision time, KPIs• Limitations• Foundations of SSA for planning and collaboration tools• Other games and tools
  30. 30. 31Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsCollaboration tool for disruptions• Scalable problem solvingprocess that can be used bymultiple stakeholders• Mobile participation possible• Invite of additional experts• Scaling up when problem islarger or risks increase31SALOMO tools
  31. 31. 32Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsMicrogames (InThere)SALOMO tools
  32. 32. 33Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsFuture work• Experimental design• Data collection and analysis• Expert validation• Scalable versions• Validation of SSA theory for multi-stakeholder systems• Planning and decision-making tools based on SSA• Implementation in practice• SALOMO user-group
  33. 33. 34Challenge the futureExploring Shared Situational Awareness in Supply Chain DisruptionsQuestions/Remarks“Information can tell us everything. It has all the answers. Butthey are answers to questions we have not asked, and whichdoubtless don‟t even arise”- Jean Baudrillard, FrenchsemiologistContact me @S.Kurapati@tudelft.nl

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