Context-Based Knowledge Fusion Patterns in Decision Support System for Emergency Response


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Alexander Smirnov, Tatiana Levashova, and Nikolay Shilov
on "Context-Based Knowledge Fusion Patterns in Decision Support System for Emergency Response" at ISCRAM 2013 in Baden-Baden.

10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
12-15 May 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany

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Context-Based Knowledge Fusion Patterns in Decision Support System for Emergency Response

  1. 1. SPIIRASContext-Based Knowledge Fusion Patternsin Decision Support System for Emergency ResponseAlexander Smirnov, Tatiana Levashova, Nikolay ShilovComputer Aided Integrated Systems laboratory (CAIS Lab)St.Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automationof the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPIIRAS)St.Petersburg, RussiaISCRAM 2013
  2. 2. SPIIRASPresentation Outline Introduction Knowledge Fusion Patterns Conclusion2“Every person has a pattern language in his mind” ** Alexander C., The Timeless Way of Building.Oxford University Press, New York, 1979
  3. 3. SPIIRASSt.Petersburg Institute for Informatics andAutomation (SPIIRAS)Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) Founded in 1724 The research umbrella organization of the RussianGovernment 363 units (Research Institutes and Centers) 112,000 personnel: 55,100 Researchers (10,000 D.Sc., and26,000 Ph.D.)St.Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation(SPIIRAS) Founded in 1978 Only 1 Russian Academy of Science Institute operating inNorthwest Russia in Computer Science discipline 161 Researchers (38 D.Sc., and 59 Ph.D., 34 Ph.D. students,1 PostDoc) Grants Ph.D and Dr.Sc. (Technical) degrees
  4. 4. SPIIRASSPIIRAS’ Location
  5. 5. SPIIRASCAIS Laboratory:Financial Support (2007-2013)Russian Academy of Sciences 6 projects 1 grant 3 projects FP6 IST – 1 project (IP) ENPI-Finland - 1 project 2 grants 5 projects 1 grant 1 grantThe Swedish Foundation forInternational Cooperationin Research and HigherEducation 2 grants 10 projects 26 grantsMinistry of Education & Science, RussiaRussian Basic Research FoundationRussian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation
  6. 6. SPIIRASIntroduction: Using Cyberspace to link PhysicalWorld Information to CommunitiesSemanticIntegrationKnowledgePhysical WorldCyber-Physical-SocialSystems (CPSs)Communities /Social NetworksCPS is a tight integration of physical systems and cyber(ICT) systems interacting in real time to decision support.CPSs rely on communication, computation & controlInfrastructures, and Social networks
  7. 7. SPIIRASIntroduction: Conceptual Framework ofInformation Support Correct information and knowledge processed and delivered tothe location and time of need and ability to predict at the level ofunderstanding are neededUnderstandingKnowledgeInformationDataInformationTransformationProcessSource: Anken C.: Information Understanding, 5th AnniversaryInformation Workshop. Rome, NY, 2002
  8. 8. SPIIRASIntroduction: Problem Area• Environments where decision support systems operate– Large volumes of data, information, and knowledge available indifferent sources• Knowledge fusion– Integration of information and knowledge from multiple sources intoa common piece of knowledge that may be used for decision makingand problem solving or may provide a better insight andunderstanding of the situation under consideration. The expectationis that the result of knowledge fusion is a new knowledge that ismore complete, less uncertain, and less conflicting than the originalinputs• Fusion is context-sensitive– A common challenge for fusion systems is adaptation to the contextof usage• Environment heterogeneity– Overcoming the heterogeneity of the environment sources is aprecondition for knowledge fusion
  9. 9. SPIIRASIntroduction: Research Objectives• Analysis and investigation of context-basedknowledge fusion processes in Decision SupportSystem (DSS)• Discovery of context-based knowledge fusionpatterns with regard to– Preservation/change of internal structures ofsources involved in knowledge fusion– Preservation/loss of autonomies of sourcesinvolved in knowledge fusion– Knowledge fusion effect(s)
  10. 10. SPIIRASIntroduction: Main Definitions• Context - any information about the situation in which decisions are made• Context aware DSS - a system that uses context to provide the decisionmaker with a set of decisions that can be made in the current situation• Knowledge source - a source of data, information, or knowledge which canbe explicitly specified• Knowledge source structure – a conceptual structure used in therepresentation of the knowledge source• Autonomous knowledge source – a knowledge source having no relationsto other sources; the changes in the autonomous source do not produceany changes in other sources• Non-autonomous knowledge source – a knowledge source relating to othersources; any changes in a non-autonomous knowledge source are passedto the related sources and reflected in them• Knowledge fusion - knowledge processing resulting in a synergetic effect,i.e. an appearance of new knowledge• Knowledge fusion result / effect – any new knowledge (new knowledgesource, new concept, new property, etc.)
  11. 11. SPIIRASIntroduction: Background• Technology of knowledge logistics– Configuration of knowledge network from heterogeneous sources tosupport decisions on involvement of autonomous resources in jointactivities and on scheduling these activities• Methodology of context management– Two-level situation representation• Abstract context: ontology-based non-instantiated representationof a situation of the given type• Operational context: a set of abstract context instances under theactual settings• Conceptual framework of context-aware decision support• Generic knowledge fusion patterns– Absorption– Extension– Selective fusion– Simple fusion– Flat fusion
  12. 12. SPIIRASIntroduction: Knowledge Fusion Processes Intelligent fusion of massive amounts of heterogeneous data /information from a wide range of distributed sources into a formwhich may be used by systems and humans as the foundation forproblem solving and decision making. Integration of knowledge from various knowledge sources resultingin a completely different type of knowledge or new idea how to solvethe problem. Combining knowledge from different autonomous knowledgesources in different ways in different scenarios, which results indiscovery of new relations between the knowledge from differentsources or/and between the entities this knowledge. Re-configuration of knowledge sources to achieve a newconfiguration with new capabilities or competencies. Knowledge exchange to improve capabilities or competenciesthrough learning, interactions, discussions, and practices. Involving knowledge from various sources in problem solving, whichresults in a solution as a new knowledge.
  13. 13. SPIIRASIntroduction: Synergetic Effects1. New knowledge object created from data/information;2. New knowledge type or knowledge product (service, process,technology, etc.);3. New knowledge source;4. New knowledge about the conceptual scheme (new relations,concepts, properties, etc.);5. New explicit knowledge;6. New capabilities / competencies of a knowledge object (anobject that produces or contains knowledge);7. New problem solving method;8. Solution for a problem
  14. 14. SPIIRASIntroduction: Context-Aware DecisionSupport System2013 Теория и практика системной динамики, Апатиты 14PurposeSupport of decisions on planning emergency response actionsApplication ontology Abstract context Operational contextABC FDEGJIAFDEGI AFDEGIKnowledge sources Contextual knowledgesourcesKnowledge sourcenetworkA set ofalternativesConceptual framework
  15. 15. SPIIRASIntroduction: Context-aware stages of DSS Abstract context building Abstract context refinement Abstract context reuse Knowledge source network configuration Operational context producing Problem solving Decision making Decision implementation Archival knowledge management
  16. 16. SPIIRASKnowledge Fusion Patterns
  17. 17. SPIIRASConcepts of Generalization Knowledge sources Initial knowledge sources are sources that are integrated leading toemergence of a new knowledge (producing some knowledge fusion effect) Target knowledge sources are sources resulting from the knowledge fusionor enclosing the knowledge fusion result Knowledge source autonomy Autonomous Non-autonomous N/a (for non-existing sources) Knowledge source structure Changed Preserved New N/a (for non-existing sources) Knowledge fusion effect Appearing in DSS Ontology-based generalization
  18. 18. SPIIRASPattern LanguageName: a name to refer to the pattern;Problem: a problem the knowledge fusion process solves;Solution: a meaningful description of the knowledge fusion process;Initial knowledge source(s): knowledge sources integration or fusion ofknowledge from which produces the knowledge fusion resultTarget knowledge source(s): knowledge sources that are organized as aresult of knowledge fusion or that enclose such a result;Related pattern (may be omitted): an alternative pattern that can be usedinstead of the described one or in parallel or after termination of the described;Exception (may be omitted): a description of conditions / cases when thepattern is not applicable;Autonomy pre-states: a degree of autonomy of knowledge sources beforethe knowledge fusion process.Effect in DSS: effect of knowledge fusion as it appears in DSSResult in ontology paradigm: ontology-based generalization of the effectproducedPost-states: degrees of knowledge sources’ autonomies and internalstructures preservation after the knowledge fusion process completesSchematic representation: the knowledge fusion process representedschematicallyPhase of DSS functioning: a stage of DSS functioning where the knowledgefusion process takes place
  19. 19. SPIIRASEmergency ResponseAbstract contextApplicationontologyAbstract context Problem solvingknowledge
  20. 20. SPIIRASKnowledge FusionAbstract context buildingApplication ontology Abstract contextA – application ontologyC – abstract contextan, cn – internal units in knowledge sourcerepresentations- relationships in conceptual structures- correspondences between conceptualstructures’ elements- new knowledgea1a5a3a4a2Ac1c3c4c2 CKnowledge fusion effect New knowledge source
  21. 21. SPIIRASSimple FusionName: simple fusionProblem: creation of an abstract ontology-based model of situationSolution: integration of multiple knowledge pieces from anontology that represents knowledge to describe situationsInitial knowledge source: application ontologyTarget knowledge source: abstract contextAutonomy pre-states: initial KS target KSautonomous n/aEffect in DSS: a new knowledge source of a type coinciding withthe type of the initial knowledge sourceEffect in ontology paradigm: new ontologyPost-states: initial KS target KSStructure: preserved newAutonomy: autonomous autonomousPhase of DSS functioning: abstract context buildingKS - knowledge source
  22. 22. SPIIRASKnowledge FusionAbstract context refinementResourceActingMobileTransportationdeviceis-aass.EmergencyresponseRoutecomputationpart-ofMob_Location TDev_Location Mob_LocationRoute computation = F3(TDev_Location)F1(Mob_Loaction)= F2(TDev_Location)Inferred relationship:Route computation = F4(Mob_Loaction)
  23. 23. SPIIRASKnowledge Fusion23 New relationshipKnowledge fusion effectAbstract context refinementc1c3c4c2Abstract contextc1c3c4c2Abstract context
  24. 24. SPIIRASExtensionName: extensionProblem: introducing new knowledge into a knowledge sourceSolution: inference, reconfiguration of knowledge source networkInitial knowledge source: abstract contextTarget knowledge source: abstract contextAutonomy pre-states: initial KS target KSautonomous autonomousEffect in DSS: extension of the knowledge source with newknowledgeEffect in ontology paradigm: new ontology representation itemPost-states: initial KS target KSStructure: preserved changedAutonomy: autonomous autonomousPhase of DSS functioning: abstract context refinement and reuse
  25. 25. SPIIRASKnowledge FusionMedicalCareSuggestionsConversionOrganizationHospitalRequiredService (I)ListOfServices (O)Sug_Address (O)Address (I)Map_Location (O)ContextualknowledgesourcesA BKnowledge sourcenetworkA BAddressDomain knowledgeRoutingGetLocationSensor_ID (I)Map_Point (O)AlternativeProblem solving knowledgeAbstract context reuse
  26. 26. SPIIRASKnowledge fusion New (alternative) problem-solving methodAbstract context reusec1c3c4c2Abstract contextc1c3c4c2Abstract contextKS1KS2KS1KS3KS4c5 c6KS – knowledge sourcereference to instantiated conceptexecution sequence of knowledgesourcesKnowledge fusion effect
  27. 27. SPIIRASConfigured FusionName: configured fusionProblem: knowledge sources are not intended to be used in the currentsituationSolution: configuration of available knowledge sources for the currentpurposesInitial knowledge source: abstract contextTarget knowledge source: abstract contextRelated pattern: extensionException: when alternative sources are not introduced in theabstract context the pattern is inapplicableAutonomy pre-states: initial KS target KSautonomous autonomousEffect in DSS: new (alternative) knowledge sourceEffect in ontology paradigm : new ontology representation itemsPost-states: : initial KS target KSStructure changed changedAutonomy autonomous autonomousPhase of DSS functioning: abstract context reuse
  28. 28. SPIIRASEmergency ResponseEmergencylocationOperational context
  29. 29. SPIIRASKnowledge FusionAbstract contextOperational contextc1c3c4c2Abstract contextc1c3c4c2c11c31c41c32Knowledge fusion effectOperational context producing• New (dynamic) knowledgetype• New knowledge source• New knowledge createdfrom data / informationcmn – instance nof concept mKS1KS2KS3relation between knowledge sourceand concept being instantiatedOperational context
  30. 30. SPIIRASInstantiated FusionName: instantiated fusionProblem: instantiation of a non-instantiated knowledge sourceSolution: semantic fusion of values from multiple knowledgesources within the structure of the non-instantiated knowledgesourceInitial knowledge source: abstract contextTarget knowledge source: operational contextAutonomy pre-states: initial KS target KSautonomous n/aEffect in DSS: a new knowledge source of a new typeEffect in ontology paradigm: a new dynamic ontologyPost-states: initial KS target KSStructure: preserved newAutonomy: autonomous non-autonomousPhase of DSS functioning: operational context producing
  31. 31. SPIIRASEmergency ResponseProblem solvingProblem: to plan joint emergency response actions
  32. 32. SPIIRASKnowledge FusionProblem solvingc1c3c4c2Operational contextc11c31c41c32KS1KS2KS3c1c3c4c2New knowledgec11c31c41c32d1 d2KS1KS2KS3d – solutionKnowledge fusion effect• A problem solution
  33. 33. SPIIRASFlat FusionName: flat fusionProblem: providing the decision maker with a set of alternativedecisionsSolution: solving the problems, to which the decision maker has tofind solutions in the current situation, as a constraint satisfactionproblemInitial knowledge source: operational contextTarget knowledge source: knowledge source fusing operationalcontext and the set of alternativesAutonomy pre-states: initial KS target KSnon-autonomous n/aEffect in DSS: a new knowledge source of a new typeEffect in ontology paradigm: a new knowledge productrepresenting the dynamic ontology fused with the set of alternativedecisionsPost-states: initial KS target KSStructure: changed newAutonomy: non-autonomous non-autonomousPhase of DSS functioning: problem solving
  34. 34. SPIIRASSelection of an efficientplanEmergency responder1Emergency responder2Emergency respondernAn efficient planProducing of a set offeasible plansorA set of feasible plansIs any planadjustmentpossible?YesNoandApproval RefusalConfirmedplan for actionsKnowledge FusionEmergency responsecommunityDecision implementation
  35. 35. SPIIRASKnowledge FusionDecision implementationc1c3c4c2Decisionc11c31c41c32d1p2p3p1Profilemissing knowledgeKnowledge fusion effect• New capabilities / competencies of knowledge object
  36. 36. SPIIRASAdaptationName: adaptationProblem: adaptation of decision implementation to the currentcircumstancesSolution: actions redistributionInitial knowledge sources: knowledge source representing thedecision, actors’ profilesTarget knowledge sources: knowledge source representing thedecision, actors’ profilesAutonomy pre-states: initial KS target KSnon-autonomous non-autonomousEffect in DSS: new capabilities / capacities of actors responsiblefor decision implementationEffect in ontology paradigm: a new propertyPost-states: initial KS target KSStructure: changed changedAutonomy: non-autonomous non-autonomousPhase of DSS functioning: decision implementation
  37. 37. SPIIRASContext archiveKnowledge FusionArchival knowledge managementOperationalcontextAbstractcontextKnowledgesource networkDecisionOperationalcontextKnowledgesource networkKnowledgesource networkOperationalcontextDecisionDecision1111 1DecisionDecisionSet of solutions1
  38. 38. SPIIRASEmergency ResponseArchival knowledge management5
  39. 39. SPIIRASKnowledge FusionArchival knowledge managementa1a5a3a4a2Ac1Operationalcontext1c11a2a3Operational context2c1c3c31c32a2a3Operationalcontext3c4c2c41a2a3Knowledge fusion effect• New relation between originally unrelated knowledge
  40. 40. SPIIRASHistorical FusionName: historical fusionProblem: discovery of new knowledge about entitiesSolution: an analysis of the archived knowledgeInitial knowledge sources: operational contextsTarget knowledge source: application ontologyAutonomy pre-states: initial KS target KSnon-autonomous autonomousEffect in DSS: a new propertyEffect in ontology paradigm: a new propertyPost-states: initial KS target KSStructure: preserved changedAutonomy: non-autonomous autonomousPhase of DSS functioning: archival knowledge management
  41. 41. SPIIRASKnowledge Fusion Processesand their Effects(1)Synergetic effect Knowledgefusion processProcess in DSS DSS phaseNew knowledgetypeIntegration ofknowledge fromvarious knowledgesources resulting ina new type ofknowledgeCoping knowledgefragments fromvarious ontologies intothe applicationontologyApplication ontologycreationInstantiation of theabstract context withdynamic informationfrom multiple sourcesOperational contextproducingNew knowledgesourceIntegration ofknowledge frommultiple sources intoa new knowledgesourceCapturing knowledgefragments from theexisting ontology andtheir integration in anew knowledgesourceAbstract contextbuilding
  42. 42. SPIIRASKnowledge Fusion Processesand their Effects(2)SynergeticeffectKnowledge fusionprocessProcess in DSS DSS phaseNew relationsbetweenknowledgeCombining knowledge fromdifferent knowledgesources, which results indiscovery of new relationsbetween the knowledgefrom these sources and(or) between instances thisknowledge representsDeductive inference Abstract contextrefinementInductive inference ArchivalknowledgemanagementNew problem-solving method oridea hoe to solvethe problemIntegration of knowledgefrom various knowledgesources resulting in newproblem-solving methodRe-configuration ofknowledge sourcenetworkAbstract contextreuse
  43. 43. SPIIRASKnowledge Fusion Processesand their Effects (3)SynergeticeffectKnowledge fusionprocessProcess inDSSDSS phaseNew knowledgecreated from data /informationIntelligent fusion ofheterogeneous data /information from a widerange of sources into a formwhich may be used bysystems and humans as thefoundation for problemsolving and decision makingAbstractcontextinstantiationOperational contextproducingA problem solution Involving knowledge fromvarious sources in problemsolving, which results in asolution as a newknowledge.ProblemsolvingGeneration of a setof alternativesolutionsNew capabilities /competencies ofknowledge objectRe-configuration ofknowledge source networkAdaptation ofthe decision tothe currentcircumstancesDecisionimplementation
  44. 44. SPIIRASKnowledge Fusion PatternsSynergetic effect Effect in DSS Effect in ontologyparadigmPatternNew knowledgesourceOntology-based non-instantiated representation ofthe emergency situationNew ontology of anexisting typeSimple fusionNew relationbetween knowledgeRefined ontology New ontologyrepresentation itemsExtension.HistoricalfusionNew problem solvingmethodNew (alternative) knowledgesourceNew ontologyrepresentation itemsConfiguredfusionNew knowledge type.New knowledgecreated from data /informationDynamic instantiatedrepresentation of theemergency situationNew ontology of newtypeInstantiationProblem solution A set of alternative responseplans fused with theinstantiated representation ofthe emergency situationNew knowledge sourcerepresenting the fusionof ontological and not-ontological knowledgeFlat fusionNew capabilities /competenciesAdapted emergency responseplanNew ontologyrepresentation itemsAdaptation
  45. 45. SPIIRASConclusion Synergetic effects the knowledge fusion processes produce havebeen analyzed and systematized The synergetic effects have been discovered in the context awaredecision support system intended to support decisions onplanning emergency response actions Knowledge fusion patterns of context-based knowledge fusionhave been discovered and described A pattern language has been proposed. The languagegeneralizes the knowledge fusion processes in terms ofautonomies and structures of knowledge sources involved inknowledge fusion and in terms of knowledge fusion effects
  46. 46. SPIIRASThank you!Contact information:Prof. Alexander SmirnovE-mail:smir@iias.spb.suPhone:+7 812 328 8071+7 812 328 2073Fax:+7 812 328 0685