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Origin & distributions comm.2014.terrestrial

A look at succession and biomes with an Oregon slant.

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Origin & distributions comm.2014.terrestrial

  1. 1. Ecology II 1
  2. 2. Term Definition Habitat A place where organisms live Population A group of individuals of the same species in a particular location. Community All of the populations of species in a given area. Ecosystem The community, together with the physical and chemical environment of a particular area. Biosphere All the earth's ecosystems interacting with the physical environment. This includes all life as well as the earth itself and the atmosphere. Ecological Niche The role an organism plays in its community, including its habitat and its interactions with other organisms. Succession The series of changes in a community over time. Pioneer species These are the first species to occupy a new habitat, starting new communities Climax community This is the stable community that is reached, beyond which, no further succession occurs. Taiga Russian word meaning swampy moist forest, boreal forest 2
  3. 3. Two types of succession A. Primary Succession 1. starts with bare rock or there is little or no soil 2. first stage is called pioneer. a) plants that can break down rock with acids — pioneer species 3. often takes an extremely long time, as no soil and few available nutrients for plants 3
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  6. 6. B. Climax Community 1. final, stable stage plants are called the climax species. 2. when an area has these plants it is called a climax community. 3. Examples: a) New England forest: beech, sugar maple, or white birch b) Southeastern forest: oak, hickory, or pine c) Northwestern forest: Western Hemlock, Western Redcedar 6
  7. 7. D. Secondary Succession 1. When climax habitat destroyed then secondary succession takes place. 2. Causes of destruction: 7 Volcanic Activity Flood/Landslide Tsunami Wildfire
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  10. 10. 10 E. From Lake to Forest 1. sediments collect on bottom of lake filling it in 2. goes through same stages as forest 3. becomes marsh, then bog, then land
  11. 11. • Bozeman Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V49IovRSJDs • Succession Flash Presentation http://www.mrphome.net/mrp/succession.swf%20ion%20Flash%20Presentation 11
  12. 12. 12 A large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups, which are adapted to that particular environment.
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  15. 15. 1. Rainfall is 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 inches) a year 2. Temperature range is -12 to -6°C or 10 to 20°F 3. Location(s): Northern Latitudes, Artic & Antarctic 4. Special feature: layer of frozen ground year-round called permafrost. 15 Lichens reindeer mosses low shrubs grasses arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, blackflies and arctic bumble bee ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers, terns Producers Consumers
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  21. 21. 1. Rainfall is 40-100 cm a year 2. Temperature range is -40°C to 20°C, average summer temperature is 10°C 3. Location(s): 50° and 60° north latitudes , Canada, Russia 4. Special feature: fog & low evaporation creates wet, acidic rain. 21 spruce Some birch, maple fir pine hares, chipmunks, shrews bear, weasel, lynx, fox, wolf woodpeckers, hawks Moose, deer, elk Producers Consumers
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  23. 23. 23 Special feature of all forests: A. layers are called strata B. a series of layers is called vertical stratification C. layers include 1. top : canopy 2. upper middle: shade-tolerant understory 3. Lower middle: ground layer 4. bottom: forest floor D. each of these layers has their own set of enviromental conditions
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  25. 25. 25 1.Rainfall is 75 to 150 cm a year 2.Temperature range is -30°C to 30°C, yearly avg. 10°C 3.Location(s): Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan Maple, Oak Beech, Chestnut Bedstraw, rhododendron Elm, Hickory Black bears Fox Chipmunks, squirrels Raccoons Producers Consumers
  26. 26. 26 http://www.glogster.com/rhyannon/temperate-deciduous-forest/g-6mdce3v1mvv0es731ekrha0?old_view=True
  27. 27. Temperate Coniferous Forest or Temperate Rainforest 1. Rainfall is 50 to 200 cm a year 2. Temperature range is -30°C to 30°C, yearly avg. 10°C 3. Location(s): Western United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan 27 pine, cedar, fir, redwood red alder, bigleaf maple, mountain ash Douglas-fir, Sitka spruce rhododendrons, daisies, dandelions mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf, fox, and black bear deer, elk squirrels, rabbits, skunks great horned owls, woodpeckers, Producers Consumers
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  30. 30. 1. Rainfall is 125 to 660 cm a year 2. Temperature range is 34 °C to 20 °C with high humidity 3. Location(s): near the equator, Tropic of Cancer 23.5 S to Tropic of Capricorn 23.5 N 4. Special features: A. no climax species B. poor (not fertile) soil 30 Orchids, mosses, lichens 2,500 species of vines Shrubs, Epiphytes (air plants) broad-leaved evergreen trees Gorilla sloth spider monkeys Toucans, parrots, macaws Snakes, tree frogs Leopards Producers Consumers
  31. 31. 31 http://www.imageek.biz/13183-tropical-rainforest-biome-page-5
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  33. 33. Other names; prairie, steppes, savanna (tropical) 1. Rainfall is 50.8 to 88.9 cm; 50.8 to 127 cm (savanna ), 2. Temperature range -40° C to 38° C 3. Location(s): middle latitudes, in the interiors of continents: Argentina, USA, Russia, Africa 4. Special features: Rich top soil 33 Grasses Cottonwoods, oaks, and willows — along rivers Buffalo Grass, Sunflower, Asters, Goldenrods, Clover Coyotes, eagles, bobcats, wolfs, turkeys, Geese, crickets, beetle, bison, meadowlarks Giraffes, zebras, buffaloes,. snakes, worms, termites, beetles, lions, leopards, hyenas, and elephants Kangaroos, dingo, emu Producers Consumers
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  36. 36. Desert Types: hot & dry, semiarid (Oregon), coastal, cold 1. Rainfall is 2-4 cm a year 2. Temperature range is 38°C (day), -3.9°C (night) avg. 3. Location(s): 15° and 35° lat. N. & S. equator ; Mojave, Sonoran, Chihuahua, and Great Basin 4. Special features: a) little plant vegetation b) wide spacing of plants c) Organisms are highly adapted to water shortage i. cacti have spines & succulent stem(s) ii. kangaroo rat excretes highly concentrated urine iii. most animals are small in size 36
  37. 37. 5 Desert 37 Cacti, mesquite, creosote bush Juniper, pines, Joshua Trees Rabbit Brush, Sagebrush Grasses, paintbrush, lupine Jackrabbit, kangaroo rats, ground squirrels Snakes, lizards Hawks, Turkey Vultures, Roadrunners Wolves, coyotes Producers Consumers
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  39. 39. 39 Biome Precipitation Temperature Soil Plants Animals Tundra Taiga / Boreal Temperate Deciduous Forest Coniferous Deciduous Forest Tropical Rain Forest Desert Grassland
  40. 40. Color the map according to the clues listed below. You may need to look at a map of North America if you get stuck. Place a check mark in the box once you have completed that step. 1. The dotted lines represent the border between the U.S. and Mexico and Canada. All other lines show biome borders. Color the U.S. borders (dotted line) red. 2. Northern Canada and Alaska are tundra –color the tundra light blue 3. Most of Canada is boreal forest. Color the boreal forest dark green. 4. The west coast of the U.S. is mainly Temperate forest where California is. The east coast, all the way to the center of the countryis also Temperate forest. Color the Temperate forest light green. 5. The Midwest (middle of the country) is temperate grassland. Color the grassland yellow. 6. The eastern edge of Mexico and Central America, Hawaii, and the Caribbean Islands are all tropical rain forests. Color those purple. 7. There is a northwest coniferous forest located in the far corner of the U.S (northwest). Color the northwest coniferous forest brown. 8. The great lakes and the lakes in Canada are freshwater. Find each freshwater lake and color it pink. 9. The bodies of water surrounding the continent are salt water. Color the coastal areas dark blue. 10. The western region of the U.S. as well as Northern Mexico is desert. Color the desert orange. 11. The western edge of Mexico is temperate forest. Color it the same color as you did the other temperate forests. 12. Color code the squares at the bottom to match your biome colors. 13. Label the countries: U.S.A., Canada, Mexico 40
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A look at succession and biomes with an Oregon slant.

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