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Origin and Distributions of Aquatic Biomes and Communities

Origin and Distributions of Aquatic Biomes and Communities with emphasis on Oregon

Unless otherwise stated all photographs Copyright © Lorraine L. Stratton

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Origin and Distributions of Aquatic Biomes and Communities

  1. 1. Ecology II 1
  2. 2. Term Definition Limiting factors A condition limiting the growth, abundance, or distribution of an organism or population in an ecosystem. Pelagic Greek for open sea, surface of the sea almost to the bottom. Littoral Part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore. Neritic The relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately 200m in depth generally corresponding to the continental shelf. Abyssal Portion of the ocean t 2,000 m (6,600 feet) to 6,000 m (20,000 feet) stays in total darkness. Benthic The ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Sessile An organism anchored to a substrate, thus cannot move about freely. Motile An organism which is free swimming. 2
  3. 3. Term Definition Euphotic zone ”Sunlight," zone — 0 to 200 m deep. “Photic” means particle of light, “eu” means pleasant, well, good — good light. Dysphotic zone “Twilight” zone — 200 to 1,00 m deep, light looks like twilight. “Photic” means particle of light, “dys” means difficult — difficult light. Aphotic zone “Midnight,” zone — below 1,000 meters, total darkness. Photic means particle of light, “a” means away — away from light or darkness. Atmospher es A unit of pressure based on the average atmospheric pressure at sea level. The weight of air experts pressure on your body — about 14.7 psi (pounds per a square inch). Estuary Where ocean’s salt water & river’s fresh water intermingle (mix). Adapted Adjusted to conditions 3
  4. 4. The limiting factors in water biomes are: • Amount of salt (salinity) • Amount of dissolved (available to use) oxygen • Sunlight
  5. 5. •Saltwater 1. Ocean (marine) 2. Seashores (intertidal areas) 3. Estuaries •Freshwater 1. Rivers and Streams 2. Lakes and Ponds
  6. 6. About 95 percent of Earth’s water has a high concentration of salt called high salinity.
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  9. 9. 1. Temperature range is avg. 4°C, with range of -2°C to 28°C in most cases 2. Location (s): world-wide 3. Light penetration is between 200m (656 ft)—1,000m (3,280 ft), but rarely any significant light beyond 200m 4. Average depth is 3,720 m (12,200 ft). • Deepest point: 11,033 m (36,198 ft) in the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific. That’s 6.8 miles. 5. Life features: A.can move freely: motile B. attached to or crawl on floor: sessile 9
  10. 10. 10 • Ocean’s floor is not flat • Has mountains, hills, valleys and gorges similar to land masses. • Terms are different: volcanic island arcs, abyss, guyot, mid-ocean ridges, continental slope, trenches.
  11. 11. We now know life fills every part of an ocean. 11
  12. 12. 12 Two kinds of zones • Distance from land 1. Pelagic • Nertic 2. Oceanic 3. Benthic (bottom) • Depth & light 1. Euphotic 2. Disphotic 3. Aphotic
  13. 13. a) Littoral zone includes: intertidal zone b) Neritic zone includes: first 200 meters (656 feet) of ocean water 13
  14. 14. 1. Where land and sea meet 2. Covered with water at high tide 3. Exposed to air at low tide 4. Can be A. Rocky B. Sandy C. Mudflats 5. Two high/low tides a day 6. Tide change every 6 hours and 12.5 minutes 7. Organisms must withstand force of waves 14
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  17. 17. 17 http://www.whsrn.org/site-profile/columbia-river-estuary
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  20. 20. 20 • Splash zone • High tide zone • Mid-tide zone • Low tide zone High Tide Mid-Tide Low Tide
  21. 21. 21 • Seaweeds • Black chiton • Goose neck barnacles • Acorn barnacles • Limpets Seaweeds Black chiton Goose neck barnacles Limpets Acorn barnacles Seaweeds • During low tidepools capture and hold seawater.
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  25. 25. a) Abyssal is the deepest part of the ocean, depths of 2,000 to 4,000 meters (6,560 to 19,680 feet) b) Stays in perpetual darkness c) High pressure: 200 atmospheres (200x normal) d)Mariana Trench is deeper than Mt. Everest is tall! It is about 10,000 meters (6.8 miles) deep. e) Special adaptations include: i. fish are small, ii. soft bodies and small bones iii.tend to have big mouths, long teeth, and stretchable stomachs 25
  26. 26. 26 The ocean is divided up into three vertical light zones. 1. Top layer: euphotic zone — area where light can penetrate. 2. Middle layer: disphotic zone where it is too deep for lots of light to reach. 3. Bottom layer: aphotic zone, or deep sea — very cold, completely dark, low nutritional content. • Largest (80 percent) habitat on earth — aphotic zone
  27. 27. 27 Phytoplankton, zooplankton Bacteria (Chemosynthesis) Seaweed Algae Sharks, rays, skates Shrimp, crabs, lobsters Whales, dolphins, seals Mussels, clams, oysters, chitons, octopi, Sunfish, tuna, rock fish, swordfish, angel fish Anemones, jellyfish, coral, sea squirts, Producers Consumers
  28. 28. 1. New communities found in ocean's abyssal zone (3,000 m) in 1977. 2. Living around deep ocean or hydrothermal vents A. Use chemicals from vents instead of sunlight for energy source B. This process of converting energy is called Chemosynthesis. C. This area high in economic value because of high mineral content. D. Temperatures range: freezing to 400 °C 3. Deep, cold water coral “forests” A. Found at depths of 60-3,050 meters 28
  29. 29. • Bill Nye Science Guy 100 Greatest Discoveries: Deep Ocean Vents —5:30 min. • Marum: Hydrothermal vents in the deep sea — 7:25 min. • Smithsonian Hydrothermal Vent Organisms • David Attenborough on Hydrothermal Vents — 2 min. • Deep Water Coral — 2 min. • Atlantic Oceans’ 'Coral Forests' NOAA sub — 7:15 min. 29
  30. 30. • Most productive on earth, creating more organic matter each year than the same sized forest or grassland. • Nutrient levels are higher than both salt and freshwater. • Many types of habitats surround or are a part of estuaries. • They act as nursery for many marine organisms. 30
  31. 31. 31 Tillamook Bay Overview 5 min.
  32. 32. 3:30 min. 32
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  34. 34. 34 Three percent of Earth’s water is fresh found in glaciers and ice, below the ground, or in rivers and lakes.
  35. 35. • The faster a stream flows the greater the amount of dissolved oxygen in it. • Faster water moves over rocks “catching” air • Faster water flows = more oxygen
  36. 36. http://www.manitoupontoonboats.com/blog/salmon-resources/ Fishes living in streams are adapted to fast moving water.
  37. 37. • Water moves slower in a river and debris settles on the bottom. • So rivers tend to have more nutrients and less dissolved oxygen. • Nutrients go up and O2 goes down Columbia River West of The Dalles 2,000 km (1,243 miles) long.
  38. 38. Salmon River East of Sandy, OR @ Wildwood Park
  39. 39. • Small, shallow bodies of water • Sunlight penetrates all the way to the bottom • Most completely filled with plant material • Very high amount of nutrients Pond in basalt crater @ Diamond Craters, in SE Oregon
  40. 40. Pond along Hwy 224 @ Caver, Oregon
  41. 41. • Larger and deeper than ponds • Plant growth is limited to the shoreline • Sunlight does not penetrate to the bottom = no plants after a certain depth. Crescent Lake, Central Oregon Cascades
  42. 42. Crescent Lake, Central Oregon Cascades
  43. 43. • Plankton are microscopic drifting organisms in aquatic environments, including marine & fresh water. • They need sunlight to survive.
  44. 44. • Phytoplankton are important producers in water biomes. • They are microscopic plants forming the base of aquatic food webs.
  45. 45. 45 • Zooplankton are small protists or metazoans (e.g. crustaceans and other animals) that feed on the phytoplankton. • Larval stages of larger animals, such as fish, crustaceans, and annelids (worms) are included here. • Zooplankton are in turn consumed by small fishes.
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  • AndreaSamardzic

    Sep. 13, 2015

Origin and Distributions of Aquatic Biomes and Communities with emphasis on Oregon Unless otherwise stated all photographs Copyright © Lorraine L. Stratton

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