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BiodiversityBiodiversity
TheVariety of LifeTheVariety of Life
1
What is meant by the term biodiversity?What is meant by the term biodiversity?
 bio =bio = lifelife
 diversity =diversit...
3Types of3Types of
BiodiversityBiodiversity
3
3Types of Diversity 13Types of Diversity 1
 GeneticGenetic Diversity — variationDiversity — variation
within a specieswit...
3Types of3Types of
Diversity 2Diversity 2
 SpeciesSpecies Diversity — varietyDiversity — variety
of species, types ofof s...
ThreeTypes of Diversity 3ThreeTypes of Diversity 3
 EcosystemEcosystem Diversity —Diversity —
different types of habitats...
TheThe
Importance ofImportance of
BiodiversityBiodiversity
7
Variation within a speciesVariation within a species
VariationVariation within awithin a
species createsspecies creates
s...
Variation 2Variation 2
Corn DiseasesCorn Diseases
Top:Top: Corn RustCorn Rust
Bottom:Bottom: Corn SmutCorn Smut
Results in...
Variation within a species 3Variation within a species 3
 IndividualIndividual species play criticalspecies play critical...
Variation within a species 4Variation within a species 4
 PollinationPollination of fruits and vegetablesof fruits and ve...
Importance of biodiversity 5Importance of biodiversity 5
””Colony Collapse Disorder"Colony Collapse Disorder"
CCDCCD
 Pes...
Loss ofLoss of
BiodiversityBiodiversity
The CausesThe Causes
13
Loss of whole ecosystemsLoss of whole ecosystems
 Loss of wholeLoss of whole ecosystemsecosystems can lead tocan lead to
...
Three Ways toViewThree Ways toView
 Three ways to viewThree ways to view
1.1. Loss ofLoss of geneticgenetic diversitydive...
Loss of BiodiversityLoss of Biodiversity
 Causes for loss of biodiversityCauses for loss of biodiversity
1.1. Hybridizati...
Loss of Biodiversity 2Loss of Biodiversity 2
 Causes for loss of biodiversityCauses for loss of biodiversity
3.3. Fragmen...
Loss of Biodiversity 3Loss of Biodiversity 3
5.5. Pollution ofPollution of
a.a. SoilSoil
b.b. WaterWater
c.c. AtmosphereAt...
Causes ofCauses of
LossLoss
19
Big Yellow TaxiBig Yellow Taxi
19701970
They paved paradiseThey paved paradise
And put up a parking lotAnd put up a parkin...
““I wrote 'BigYellowTaxi' on myI wrote 'BigYellowTaxi' on my
first trip to Hawaii. I took a taxi tofirst trip to Hawaii. I...
Root Causes LossRoot Causes Loss
PopulationPopulation growthgrowth
IncreasingIncreasing
consumptionconsumption ofof
reso...
Root causes of biodiversity loss 2Root causes of biodiversity loss 2
GovernmentGovernment
policiespolicies
 EncouragingE...
Root causes of biodiversity loss 3Root causes of biodiversity loss 3
 InequityInequity of resourceof resource distributio...
World PopulationWorld Population
Location of humans
January 2007
25
World PopulationWorld Population
Pop. Density (people per km2
) by country 2012
26
Current World
Population
#1 Leading Cause#1 Leading Cause
HabitatHabitat disruptiondisruption inin
currently the leadingcurrently the leading
caus...
Habitat DestructionHabitat Destruction
28
Habitat DestructionHabitat Destruction
29
Habitat DestructionHabitat Destruction
30
Other Reasons — OverhuntingOther Reasons — Overhunting
 When aWhen a predatorpredator populationpopulation
increasesincre...
Other Reasons — Species IntroductionOther Reasons — Species Introduction
 AnAn exotic speciesexotic species isis
introduc...
Invasive Species 1Invasive Species 1
 InvasiveInvasive species are organismsspecies are organisms
introduced into aintrod...
Invasive Species 2 — PlantsInvasive Species 2 — Plants
Exotic plants will:Exotic plants will:
 Crowd out sunlight andCrow...
Invasive Species 3 — AnimalsInvasive Species 3 — Animals
Exotic animals tend to:Exotic animals tend to:
 Consume food sou...
Invasive Species 4Invasive Species 4
 Pathways that contribute to the spread of invasive species.Pathways that contribute...
Invasive Species 5Invasive Species 5
 More than 1,500 exotic insectMore than 1,500 exotic insect
species.species.
 More ...
Invasive Species 6Invasive Species 6
 The majority ofThe majority of accidentalaccidental
introductionsintroductions may ...
Invasive Species 7Invasive Species 7
 Carp http://www.youtube.com/my_playlistsCarp http://www.youtube.com/my_playlists
 ...
ResultsResults
40
ExtinctionExtinction
 PermanentPermanent loss of a speciesloss of a species
 The end of a type of organismThe end of a t...
Secondary Extinction 1Secondary Extinction 1
 The death of one species orThe death of one species or
population canpopula...
Secondary Extinction 2Secondary Extinction 2
 Destruction of bambooDestruction of bamboo
forests in China, theforests in ...
How We CanHow We Can
Prevent LossPrevent Loss
44
How can we preventHow can we prevent
biodiversity loss 1biodiversity loss 1
 Save itSave it
 Enact political legislation...
These are
the number
of species
currently
protected by
the U.S.
government
46
How can we preventHow can we prevent
biodiversity loss 3biodiversity loss 3
Study itStudy it
 The more known aboutThe mo...
How can we preventHow can we prevent
biodiversity loss 4biodiversity loss 4
 Use itUse it sustainablysustainably andand
e...
Reclaiming Lost HabitatReclaiming Lost Habitat
49
Restoring wetlands to the Klamath Basin
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G...
Why ShouldWhy Should
We CareWe Care
50
5 Reasons We Should Care5 Reasons We Should Care
1.1. EconomicEconomic
2.2. RecreationalRecreational
3.3. Human healthHuma...
1. Economic1. Economic
Biodiversity canBiodiversity can
help people makehelp people make
money or keepmoney or keep
peopl...
2. Recreational2. Recreational
People lovePeople love
outdoor activitiesoutdoor activities
like fishing andlike fishing a...
3. Human Health3. Human Health
Biodiversity canBiodiversity can
help people findhelp people find
better cures forbetter c...
4. Human Rights4. Human Rights
If biodiversity isIf biodiversity is
protected,protected,
indigenous peopleindigenous peop...
5. Spiritual / IntrinsicValue5. Spiritual / IntrinsicValue
Biodiversity shouldBiodiversity should
be preserved for itsbe ...
A Few Last WordsA Few Last Words
 Perhaps even more important,Perhaps even more important,
intactintact ecosystemsecosyst...
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Biodiversity lecture 2014

Lecture on biiodiversity

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Biodiversity lecture 2014

  1. 1. BiodiversityBiodiversity TheVariety of LifeTheVariety of Life 1
  2. 2. What is meant by the term biodiversity?What is meant by the term biodiversity?  bio =bio = lifelife  diversity =diversity = varietyvariety  biodiversity = variety of life onbiodiversity = variety of life on this planetthis planet 2
  3. 3. 3Types of3Types of BiodiversityBiodiversity 3
  4. 4. 3Types of Diversity 13Types of Diversity 1  GeneticGenetic Diversity — variationDiversity — variation within a specieswithin a species  Different races of peopleDifferent races of people  Different tolerance levels ofDifferent tolerance levels of Douglas Firs for sunlightDouglas Firs for sunlight  Different resistance to diseaseDifferent resistance to disease of miceof mice  Different types of house catsDifferent types of house cats 4
  5. 5. 3Types of3Types of Diversity 2Diversity 2  SpeciesSpecies Diversity — varietyDiversity — variety of species, types ofof species, types of organisms on the planet,organisms on the planet, the sum total of allthe sum total of all different forms of lifedifferent forms of life  Mammals vs. reptilesMammals vs. reptiles  Birds vs. fishBirds vs. fish  All the different types ofAll the different types of fishfish  BirdBird  Different types of plantsDifferent types of plants 5
  6. 6. ThreeTypes of Diversity 3ThreeTypes of Diversity 3  EcosystemEcosystem Diversity —Diversity — different types of habitats,different types of habitats, biotic communities,biotic communities, ecological processes andecological processes and the tremendous diversitythe tremendous diversity within an ecosystem inwithin an ecosystem in terms of habitat differencesterms of habitat differences and variety of ecologicaland variety of ecological  ForestsForests  GrasslandsGrasslands  DesertsDeserts  RiversRivers  OceansOceans  Etc.Etc. 6
  7. 7. TheThe Importance ofImportance of BiodiversityBiodiversity 7
  8. 8. Variation within a speciesVariation within a species VariationVariation within awithin a species createsspecies creates stabilitystability and increasesand increases likelihood species canlikelihood species can adapt and surviveadapt and survive environmentalenvironmental pressurespressures  Disease hits cornDisease hits corn  Genetic reserveGenetic reserve  Beneficial insectsBeneficial insects resistance to pesticidesresistance to pesticides 8
  9. 9. Variation 2Variation 2 Corn DiseasesCorn Diseases Top:Top: Corn RustCorn Rust Bottom:Bottom: Corn SmutCorn Smut Results in lower foodResults in lower food productionproduction 9
  10. 10. Variation within a species 3Variation within a species 3  IndividualIndividual species play criticalspecies play critical roles in our environmentroles in our environment  Pollination of fruits andPollination of fruits and vegetables by insectsvegetables by insects  Interdependence of organismsInterdependence of organisms on each other = stabilityon each other = stability  Twenty-five percent of allTwenty-five percent of all prescription medicines areprescription medicines are derived from plantsderived from plants 10
  11. 11. Variation within a species 4Variation within a species 4  PollinationPollination of fruits and vegetablesof fruits and vegetables by insectsby insects  Example: Honey BeesExample: Honey Bees  Introduced from Europe in the 1600sIntroduced from Europe in the 1600s  Have become widespread acrossHave become widespread across North AmericaNorth America  Bred commercially for their abilities toBred commercially for their abilities to produce honey and pollinate cropsproduce honey and pollinate crops  New problem — "colony collapseNew problem — "colony collapse disorder" (or CCD)disorder" (or CCD)  It is believed many 1,00os of beeIt is believed many 1,00os of bee colonies in the U.S. have diedcolonies in the U.S. have died expressing symptoms of CCD sinceexpressing symptoms of CCD since the fall of 2006.the fall of 2006. States (in red) where beekeepers are reporting significant honey bee losses to CCD. 11
  12. 12. Importance of biodiversity 5Importance of biodiversity 5 ””Colony Collapse Disorder"Colony Collapse Disorder" CCDCCD  Pesticides may be having unexpected negativePesticides may be having unexpected negative effects on honey bees.effects on honey bees.  A new parasite orA new parasite or pathogenpathogen may be attackingmay be attacking honey bees.honey bees.  A perfect storm of existing stresses may haveA perfect storm of existing stresses may have unexpectedly weakened colonies leading tounexpectedly weakened colonies leading to collapsecollapse  These stresses could include high levels ofThese stresses could include high levels of infection by the varroa mite (a parasite that feedsinfection by the varroa mite (a parasite that feeds on bee blood and transmits bee viruses)on bee blood and transmits bee viruses)  Poor nutrition due to apiary overcrowding,Poor nutrition due to apiary overcrowding,  Pollination of crops with low nutritional value, orPollination of crops with low nutritional value, or pollen or nectar scarcitypollen or nectar scarcity  Exposure to limited or contaminated waterExposure to limited or contaminated water supplies.supplies.  Migratory stress brought about by increasedMigratory stress brought about by increased needs for pollination might also be a contributingneeds for pollination might also be a contributing factor.factor. Healthy colonies of bees contain thousands of worker bees. Colonies suffering from CCD have few or no bees remaining in the hive. 12
  13. 13. Loss ofLoss of BiodiversityBiodiversity The CausesThe Causes 13
  14. 14. Loss of whole ecosystemsLoss of whole ecosystems  Loss of wholeLoss of whole ecosystemsecosystems can lead tocan lead to the major global environmentalthe major global environmental problemsproblems  DeforestationDeforestation as a cause of global warmingas a cause of global warming  DestructionDestruction of oceans = loss or food sourceof oceans = loss or food source for peoplefor people  Loss ofLoss of wetlandswetlands = loss of clean water for= loss of clean water for peoplepeople  Ecosystem loss =Ecosystem loss = extinctionextinction of plants andof plants and animalsanimals  AestheticAesthetic value — different species enrichvalue — different species enrich our livesour lives  EthicalEthical issues — uniqueness of eachissues — uniqueness of each species; right to existspecies; right to exist 14
  15. 15. Three Ways toViewThree Ways toView  Three ways to viewThree ways to view 1.1. Loss ofLoss of geneticgenetic diversitydiversity = no variation within a= no variation within a speciesspecies 2.2. Loss ofLoss of speciesspecies diversitydiversity = extinction of= extinction of individual speciesindividual species 3.3. Loss ofLoss of ecosystemecosystem diversity = habitatdiversity = habitat destructiondestruction Ivory Billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis The species is listed as critically endangered and possibly extinct. 15
  16. 16. Loss of BiodiversityLoss of Biodiversity  Causes for loss of biodiversityCauses for loss of biodiversity 1.1. Hybridization ofHybridization of domesticdomestic plants and animals — variety inplants and animals — variety in the supermarketthe supermarket 2.2. Habitat destructionHabitat destruction causingcausing extinction = 100 species perextinction = 100 species per dayday  Filling/ drainingFilling/ draining wetlandswetlands  DeforestationDeforestation  Desertification (Desertification (the processthe process by which fertile landby which fertile land becomes desert)becomes desert) 16
  17. 17. Loss of Biodiversity 2Loss of Biodiversity 2  Causes for loss of biodiversityCauses for loss of biodiversity 3.3. FragmentationFragmentation of habitat —of habitat — breaking up a forest meansbreaking up a forest means that Grizzly bears can nothat Grizzly bears can no longer survive, not enoughlonger survive, not enough spacespace 4.4. OverexploitationOverexploitation of plants andof plants and animalsanimals  Over-fishing the oceansOver-fishing the oceans  Ivory tradeIvory trade 17
  18. 18. Loss of Biodiversity 3Loss of Biodiversity 3 5.5. Pollution ofPollution of a.a. SoilSoil b.b. WaterWater c.c. AtmosphereAtmosphere  Peregrine Falcon andPeregrine Falcon and DDTDDT 5.5. Introduction ofIntroduction of non-nativenon-native species — bullfrog eatingspecies — bullfrog eating western tree frogwestern tree frog 6.6. GlobalGlobal climateclimate change — aschange — as temperature increase, manytemperature increase, many species will go extinctspecies will go extinct 18
  19. 19. Causes ofCauses of LossLoss 19
  20. 20. Big Yellow TaxiBig Yellow Taxi 19701970 They paved paradiseThey paved paradise And put up a parking lotAnd put up a parking lot With a pink hotel *, a boutiqueWith a pink hotel *, a boutique And a swinging hot spotAnd a swinging hot spot Don't it always seem to goDon't it always seem to go That you don't know what you've gotThat you don't know what you've got Till it's goneTill it's gone They paved paradiseThey paved paradise And put up a parking lotAnd put up a parking lot They took all the treesThey took all the trees Put 'em in a tree museum *Put 'em in a tree museum * And they charged the peopleAnd they charged the people A dollar and a half just to see 'emA dollar and a half just to see 'em Don't it always seem to goDon't it always seem to go That you don't know what you've gotThat you don't know what you've got Till it's goneTill it's gone They paved paradiseThey paved paradise And put up a parking lotAnd put up a parking lot Hey farmer farmerHey farmer farmer Put away that DDT * nowPut away that DDT * now Give me spots on my applesGive me spots on my apples But leave me the birds and the beesBut leave me the birds and the bees Please!Please! Don't it always seem to goDon't it always seem to go That you don't know what you've gotThat you don't know what you've got Till it's goneTill it's gone They paved paradiseThey paved paradise And put up a parking lotAnd put up a parking lot Late last nightLate last night I heard the screen door slamI heard the screen door slam And a big yellow taxiAnd a big yellow taxi Took away my old manTook away my old man Don't it always seem to goDon't it always seem to go That you don't know what you've gotThat you don't know what you've got Till it's goneTill it's gone They paved paradiseThey paved paradise And put up a parking lotAnd put up a parking lot They paved paradiseThey paved paradise And put up a parking lotAnd put up a parking lot 20
  21. 21. ““I wrote 'BigYellowTaxi' on myI wrote 'BigYellowTaxi' on my first trip to Hawaii. I took a taxi tofirst trip to Hawaii. I took a taxi to the hotel and when I woke up thethe hotel and when I woke up the next morning, I threw back thenext morning, I threw back the curtains and saw these beautifulcurtains and saw these beautiful green mountains in the distance.green mountains in the distance. Then, I looked down and thereThen, I looked down and there was a parking lot as far as the eyewas a parking lot as far as the eye could see, and it broke my heart...could see, and it broke my heart... this blight on paradise.That'sthis blight on paradise.That's when I sat down and wrote thewhen I sat down and wrote the song.song.”” —— Joni MitchellJoni Mitchell 21
  22. 22. Root Causes LossRoot Causes Loss PopulationPopulation growthgrowth IncreasingIncreasing consumptionconsumption ofof resourcesresources IgnoranceIgnorance aboutabout species andspecies and ecosystemsecosystems U.S. 307,844,492 World 6,794,518,700 22:40 UTC (EST+5) Nov 02, 200922
  23. 23. Root causes of biodiversity loss 2Root causes of biodiversity loss 2 GovernmentGovernment policiespolicies  EncouragingEncouraging agriculture oragriculture or forestryforestry Effects of globalEffects of global trading systemstrading systems  Trend towardTrend toward specializationspecialization 23
  24. 24. Root causes of biodiversity loss 3Root causes of biodiversity loss 3  InequityInequity of resourceof resource distributiondistribution  Richer countries vs. poorer countriesRicher countries vs. poorer countries  Value of biodiversity is ignoredValue of biodiversity is ignored  Value of non-timber goods the forest providesValue of non-timber goods the forest provides  FoodFood  MedicineMedicine  Etc.Etc. 24
  25. 25. World PopulationWorld Population Location of humans January 2007 25
  26. 26. World PopulationWorld Population Pop. Density (people per km2 ) by country 2012 26 Current World Population
  27. 27. #1 Leading Cause#1 Leading Cause HabitatHabitat disruptiondisruption inin currently the leadingcurrently the leading cause of extinction.cause of extinction. It is aIt is a disturbancedisturbance ofof the physicalthe physical environment in whichenvironment in which a population lives.a population lives. 27
  28. 28. Habitat DestructionHabitat Destruction 28
  29. 29. Habitat DestructionHabitat Destruction 29
  30. 30. Habitat DestructionHabitat Destruction 30
  31. 31. Other Reasons — OverhuntingOther Reasons — Overhunting  When aWhen a predatorpredator populationpopulation increasesincreases or becomes moreor becomes more efficient at killing the prey, theefficient at killing the prey, the prey population mayprey population may declinedecline oror go extinct.go extinct.  ExamplesExamples  Big game hunting, which has inBig game hunting, which has in many places reduced themany places reduced the predator (or in this case prey)predator (or in this case prey) population.population.  In human prehistory we mayIn human prehistory we may have caused the extinction ofhave caused the extinction of the mammoths and mastodonsthe mammoths and mastodons due to increased human huntingdue to increased human hunting skill.skill. 31
  32. 32. Other Reasons — Species IntroductionOther Reasons — Species Introduction  AnAn exotic speciesexotic species isis introduced into an areaintroduced into an area where it may havewhere it may have nono predatorspredators to control itsto control its population size, or where itpopulation size, or where it can greatlycan greatly out competeout compete native organisms.native organisms.  Known asKnown as invasive speciesinvasive species  ExamplesExamples  Zebra mussels introducedZebra mussels introduced into Lake Erieinto Lake Erie  Lake trout released intoLake trout released into Yellowstone Lake whereYellowstone Lake where they are threatening thethey are threatening the native cutthroat troutnative cutthroat trout populations.populations. 32
  33. 33. Invasive Species 1Invasive Species 1  InvasiveInvasive species are organismsspecies are organisms introduced into aintroduced into a non-nativenon-native ecosystemecosystem  They cause or are likely toThey cause or are likely to cause, harm tocause, harm to  thethe economyeconomy  environmentenvironment  humanhuman healthhealth  They are perhaps theThey are perhaps the greatestgreatest single factor to affect naturalsingle factor to affect natural populations.populations. 33 English Ivy native to Europe and Asia is a a vigorous growing vine impacting all levels of disturbed and undisturbed forested areas across the US.
  34. 34. Invasive Species 2 — PlantsInvasive Species 2 — Plants Exotic plants will:Exotic plants will:  Crowd out sunlight andCrowd out sunlight and nutrients from other plantsnutrients from other plants  Crowd out other plants,Crowd out other plants, jeopardizing animals dependentjeopardizing animals dependent on native vegetationon native vegetation  Overgrow, leading to excessiveOvergrow, leading to excessive plant growth, which in turnplant growth, which in turn leads to decay and excessleads to decay and excess oxygen depletion, which resultsoxygen depletion, which results in fish losses.in fish losses.  Crowd out navigation channelsCrowd out navigation channels  Clog machinery.Clog machinery. 34 Iris pseudacorus Common Name: Yellow Iris Native to Eurasia — growing to the complete exclusion of other native marsh plants throughout US.
  35. 35. Invasive Species 3 — AnimalsInvasive Species 3 — Animals Exotic animals tend to:Exotic animals tend to:  Consume food sources thatConsume food sources that native species would eat,native species would eat, leaving insufficient food.leaving insufficient food.  Occupy safe or supportiveOccupy safe or supportive habitat, leaving a reducedhabitat, leaving a reduced amount of habitat for natives.amount of habitat for natives.  Serve as food for nativeServe as food for native species but lack certainspecies but lack certain essential nutrients, leading toessential nutrients, leading to death of native offspring.death of native offspring.  Consume eggs, young, andConsume eggs, young, and adults of native species .adults of native species . 35 Myocastor coypus Common Name: Nutria Native to southern South America — causes over-grazing of wetland habitats. Introduced in to Louisiana for fur-farming.
  36. 36. Invasive Species 4Invasive Species 4  Pathways that contribute to the spread of invasive species.Pathways that contribute to the spread of invasive species.  What you see in the video above represents a 24-hour observation of aircraft travelWhat you see in the video above represents a 24-hour observation of aircraft travel on the earth's surface.on the earth's surface.  Every dot of moving light represents an aircraft carrying people and goods.Every dot of moving light represents an aircraft carrying people and goods.  And, every dot represents potential for the intentional or unintentional movementAnd, every dot represents potential for the intentional or unintentional movement of plant or animal species that may be travelling with those people and theirof plant or animal species that may be travelling with those people and their goods, species that could become invasive once they establish in a newgoods, species that could become invasive once they establish in a new environment..environment.. 36
  37. 37. Invasive Species 5Invasive Species 5  More than 1,500 exotic insectMore than 1,500 exotic insect species.species.  More than 25 families of alienMore than 25 families of alien fish have been introduced intofish have been introduced into North America.North America.  In excess of 3,000 plant speciesIn excess of 3,000 plant species have also been introduced.have also been introduced. Zebra mussels are prolific breeders and can live for several days out of water. Credit: USGS 37
  38. 38. Invasive Species 6Invasive Species 6  The majority ofThe majority of accidentalaccidental introductionsintroductions may fail,may fail, however, once an introducedhowever, once an introduced species becomes established,species becomes established, its population growth isits population growth is explosive.explosive.  Kudzu, a plant introduced toKudzu, a plant introduced to the American south fromthe American south from Japan, has taken over largeJapan, has taken over large areas of the countryside.areas of the countryside. 38
  39. 39. Invasive Species 7Invasive Species 7  Carp http://www.youtube.com/my_playlistsCarp http://www.youtube.com/my_playlists  Mussels https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=abImqGDzXBoMussels https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=abImqGDzXBo Grant’s Getaways https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jnMOZIWldc Start 3:35Grant’s Getaways https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jnMOZIWldc Start 3:35  Dock https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vt0XwFS8YPgDock https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vt0XwFS8YPg Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) Fish Exotic to United States 39 Dreissena polymorpha (Zebra Mussel) Japanese Tsunami Dock Various Species
  40. 40. ResultsResults 40
  41. 41. ExtinctionExtinction  PermanentPermanent loss of a speciesloss of a species  The end of a type of organismThe end of a type of organism  Species become extinct whenSpecies become extinct when they arethey are no longerno longer able toable to survivesurvive in changing conditionsin changing conditions or against superioror against superior competition.competition. 41 Dodo reconstruction (Dodo reconstruction (Raphus cucullatusRaphus cucullatus)) reflecting new research at Oxford University Museum of Natural Historyreflecting new research at Oxford University Museum of Natural History Last confirmed sighting in 1662.Last confirmed sighting in 1662.
  42. 42. Secondary Extinction 1Secondary Extinction 1  The death of one species orThe death of one species or population canpopulation can causecause thethe decline or elimination ofdecline or elimination of others, a process known asothers, a process known as secondary extinction.secondary extinction.  Loss ofLoss of foodfood species can causespecies can cause migrationmigration or extinction of anyor extinction of any species depending largely orspecies depending largely or solely on that species as a foodsolely on that species as a food source.source. 42 Every year 15 million children die of hunger world wide. There are currently thousands of children with severe acute malnutrition in the Kasai provinces of southern Democratic Republic of Congo.
  43. 43. Secondary Extinction 2Secondary Extinction 2  Destruction of bambooDestruction of bamboo forests in China, theforests in China, the food for the giantfood for the giant panda, may cause thepanda, may cause the extinction of the panda.extinction of the panda.  The extinction of theThe extinction of the dodo bird has causeddodo bird has caused the CalvariaTree tothe CalvariaTree to become unable tobecome unable to reproduce since thereproduce since the dodo ate the fruit anddodo ate the fruit and processed the seeds ofprocessed the seeds of that tree.that tree. 43
  44. 44. How We CanHow We Can Prevent LossPrevent Loss 44
  45. 45. How can we preventHow can we prevent biodiversity loss 1biodiversity loss 1  Save itSave it  Enact political legislationEnact political legislation ensuring preservation of speciesensuring preservation of species  ____________________________________ __________ ______________________ ____________  19731973  Amended through theAmended through the 108th U.S. Congress108th U.S. Congress  Responsible agency:Responsible agency:  Department of the InteriorDepartment of the Interior U.S. Fish andWildlifeU.S. Fish andWildlife ServiceService 45
  46. 46. These are the number of species currently protected by the U.S. government 46
  47. 47. How can we preventHow can we prevent biodiversity loss 3biodiversity loss 3 Study itStudy it  The more known aboutThe more known about something, the moresomething, the more its value can beits value can be understood and then itunderstood and then it is more likely to beis more likely to be savedsaved 47
  48. 48. How can we preventHow can we prevent biodiversity loss 4biodiversity loss 4  Use itUse it sustainablysustainably andand equitableequitable  Do notDo not extractextract resourcesresources at a faster rate than theyat a faster rate than they can be renewedcan be renewed  Cut downCut down consumptionconsumption levels in general so therelevels in general so there is not such a disparityis not such a disparity between the U.S. andbetween the U.S. and developing nationsdeveloping nations 48
  49. 49. Reclaiming Lost HabitatReclaiming Lost Habitat 49 Restoring wetlands to the Klamath Basin http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpD9mHLedJE Removing the Marmot Dam, Sandy River Oregon
  50. 50. Why ShouldWhy Should We CareWe Care 50
  51. 51. 5 Reasons We Should Care5 Reasons We Should Care 1.1. EconomicEconomic 2.2. RecreationalRecreational 3.3. Human healthHuman health 4.4. Human rightsHuman rights 5.5. Spiritual / IntrinsicSpiritual / Intrinsic valuevalue
  52. 52. 1. Economic1. Economic Biodiversity canBiodiversity can help people makehelp people make money or keepmoney or keep people from losingpeople from losing money.money.
  53. 53. 2. Recreational2. Recreational People lovePeople love outdoor activitiesoutdoor activities like fishing andlike fishing and backpacking,backpacking, which would notwhich would not be possible ifbe possible if ecosystems wereecosystems were destroyed.destroyed.
  54. 54. 3. Human Health3. Human Health Biodiversity canBiodiversity can help people findhelp people find better cures forbetter cures for illnesses.illnesses.
  55. 55. 4. Human Rights4. Human Rights If biodiversity isIf biodiversity is protected,protected, indigenous peopleindigenous people can continue to livecan continue to live in their nativein their native lands.lands.
  56. 56. 5. Spiritual / IntrinsicValue5. Spiritual / IntrinsicValue Biodiversity shouldBiodiversity should be preserved for itsbe preserved for its own sake.own sake.  Animals and plantsAnimals and plants have a right to live.have a right to live. People rely on wildPeople rely on wild places and creaturesplaces and creatures for spiritualfor spiritual fulfillment.fulfillment.
  57. 57. A Few Last WordsA Few Last Words  Perhaps even more important,Perhaps even more important, intactintact ecosystemsecosystems perform manyperform many vital functions:vital functions:  purifying the airpurifying the air  filtering harmful substances outfiltering harmful substances out of waterof water  turning decayed matter intoturning decayed matter into nutrientsnutrients  preventing erosion and flooding,preventing erosion and flooding,  moderating climatemoderating climate  It is not known how many speciesIt is not known how many species can be eliminated from ancan be eliminated from an ecosystem without its functioningecosystem without its functioning being impaired.being impaired. 57

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Lecture on biiodiversity

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