10 typeface basics.fi_xed


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Typography basics

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10 typeface basics.fi_xed

  1. 1. 10 Typeface Basics
  2. 2. Glossary 1 Ascenders:Ascenders: Strokes of letters that rise above the mean line of type (b, d, f, h, k, l, t). Descenders:Descenders: Strokes of letters that fall below the baseline (g, j, p, q, y) x-height:x-height: The height of the main body of the lowercase letters. Most sans serifs have large x-heights. 2
  3. 3. Glossary 2 Type families (sometimes referred to as font):Type families (sometimes referred to as font): Versatile faces such as Garamond, Franklin Gothic, Futura, etc. offer several variations of weight and posture in the same typeface. Display type:Display type: Point sizes 14 point and above. Width rule:Width rule: When copy gets too wide, readability drops off. The rule is that copy should be no wider than an alphabet and a half or 39 characters. 3
  4. 4. Measuring Type 1. Type is measured in points. 2. 72 points = 1 inch, 3. 72-pt. type is 1 inch tall, measured from the top of the ascenderascender to the bottom of the descenderdescender. 4. ½-inch = 36-pt. 5. ¼-inch = 18-pt. 6. No letter has both an ascender and a descender; however in any given typeface and size, the length of the ascender and descender are the same. 4
  5. 5. Type Anatomy 5
  6. 6. Tip # 1. Pair personality to purpose. • Keep in mind the message you are trying to communicate with your type.   • Sports, even women's sports, do not lend themselves to feminine script, for example. Getting down, dirty girls rugby gaining popularity Or Getting down, dirty girls rugby gaining popularity
  7. 7. Tip # 2. When working with type, more type families are not better. • Limiting type to no more than three font family for the entire book is a growing trend.  • When combining type for headlines, remember two’s company, three’s a crowd.  • Limit spread designs to one distinct type supported by something simple. A family of fonts is composted of different stylesstyles.
  8. 8. Font # 1: Reading pull-down information Format of font 1. TrueType 2. Postscript 3. Open Type (best) Format of font 1. TrueType 2. Postscript 3. Open Type (best) Styles of font in family 1. Light 2. Condensed Styles of font in family 1. Light 2. Condensed Font Family   Myriad Pro Font Family   Myriad Pro
  9. 9. Font # 2: Classifications of font families 6 basic font classes 1.1. SerifSerif A. Old Style B. Transitional C. Modern D. Slab Serif 2.2. Sans SerifSans Serif (sans = without) 3. Script A. Blackletter 3. Display 4. Monospaced 5. Dingbat
  10. 10. Font # 3: SerifsSerifs • SerifsSerifs are easier toeasier to readread than sans serifs. • Use a serif fontserif font for body copybody copy (text), as a general rule.  SerifsSerifs are in red Baskerville Bernhard Modern Courier Standard Garamond Georgia Minion Pro Palatino Times New Roman Examples Of Serif Fonts:Examples Of Serif Fonts:
  11. 11. Font # 4: Sans serifsSans serifs  These are lessThese are less legible thanlegible than serifs.serifs.  UseUse sans serifsans serif fonts forfonts for primaryprimary headlines orheadlines or captions as acaptions as a general rule.general rule. Examples of Sans Serif Font Families Arial Arial Rounded MT Comic Sans MS Futura Helvetica Letter Gothic Std Lucia San Myriad Pro News Gothic MT Stone Sans ITC TT Verdana
  12. 12. Font # 5: ScriptScript ScriptScript fonts are • harderharder to read. • used as largelarge text only. • for special casesspecial cases only. Bickham Script Pro Brush Script Std. Caflisch Script Pro Dickens Script SSK Edwardian Script ITC Handwriting — Dakota Lucida Blackletter Lucida Handwriting Medici Script Old English Text School House Cursive Snell Roundhand Examples Of Script Font Families:Examples Of Script Font Families:
  13. 13. • harderharder to read • used as largelarge text only • for special casesspecial cases only Examples Of Display Families:Examples Of Display Families: DisplayDisplay fonts are:
  14. 14. Font # 6: Display FontsDisplay Fonts • harderharder to read • used as largelarge text only • for special casesspecial cases only Abite Air Conditioner Bionic Comic Bold BowlORama Big Apple Doris Day Lucifer’s Pension Jellyka Castle’s Queen JI Toy Train Raconteur NF Sand
  15. 15. Font # 7: Monospace FontsMonospace Fonts MonospaceMonospace fonts Are also called "fixed pitch" fonts Have characters that all have the same character width Originally were designed for typewriters Used with computer source code Andale Mono Courier New Letter Gothic Std Lucinda Console Lucinda Sans Typewriter Monaco ORC A Prestige Elite Std Examples Of Monospace Families:Examples Of Monospace Families:
  16. 16. Font # 8: Dingbat FontsDingbat Fonts DingbatDingbat fonts are: Also known as a "printer's ornament" or "printer's character.” Describe fonts with symbols and shapes in the positions designated for alphabetical or numeric characters.
  17. 17. Font # 9: Dingbat FontsDingbat Fonts GlyphsGlyphs are: An ornament, a character or spacer used in typesetting.
  18. 18. Font # 10: Dingbat FontsDingbat Fonts MT Extra abc fde g MS Reference Specialty ABCDE Symbol αβχδεφγ Type Embellishments One LET abcdefg Webdings  Wingdings  Wingdings3  Zapf Dingbats Typical Examples Of Display Families:Typical Examples Of Display Families:
  19. 19. Font # 11: Dingbat FontsDingbat Fonts AbecedarianZoo abcdefg AmphibiPrint abcdefg Carta abcdefg Face it! Abcdefg Face Off!Abcdefg RoadSign abcdefg RoadWarningSign abcdefg Fun Examples Of Display Families:Fun Examples Of Display Families:
  20. 20. Font # 12: RememberRemember The more unusual the type, the lower the readability. Pick your fonts carefully.
  21. 21. Tip # 3. Avoid using all capitals. •  That doesn’t mean you can never use all caps.    •  Just realize all capital letters reduces readability.    •  Use all caps only when you have a specific design  purpose in mind.   •  Especially avoid using all capitals in a script face.    •  Your readability drops to about zero.
  22. 22. Tip # 4. Pay attention to relationships when combining type. • If elements are not the same, they should be very different. • Remember, like the perfect marriage, types need to either be very similar or fairly opposite. • Contrast type in size, weight, form and structure. • The combinations you form should communicate, not confuse the reader. Examples: Verdana bold for heads Georgia for text = good contrast Verdana bold for heads Trebuchet for text   = not enough contrast
  23. 23. Tip # 5. Some types just don’t mix. • Don't use two scripts or a script and an italic together. • They usually have the same form and so theythey conflictconflict with each other rather than contrast. • Never use two types from the same category (for example: Script, Decorative) together. Don'tDo Don'tDo
  24. 24. Tip # 6. Don’t abuse type through manipulation • Purpose is to communicate type helps do that.    • Don’t manipulate type to fit your design by adjusting leading and width.     • Instead, edit the copy or find a word that fits the headline space.   • Once established within a section, type size, leading and width should remain consistent.
  25. 25. Tip # 7. Complement your knowledge of fonts with your knowledge of design. • Use of effectively planned white space and color can enhance your use of type. • Place type on the page to create entry points for your reader.
  26. 26. Tip # 8. Learn more from the experts. • Magazines like Before & After and Dynamic Graphics have information and advice. • Check out books like The Non- Designers Design Book by design experts like Robin Williams. • Many of these tips come from her. • For more technical information, check out her Non-Designers Type Book. • Browse the bookstores and stock up on magazines that use type effectively so you can build a library of ideas.