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survival skill suburban


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survival skill suburban

  1. 1. Arlington County ACS-RACES Operator Type III Annual Recertification Unit 1 Disaster Survival Skills for the Urban Environment
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Why teach “survival” in the city? </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophes vs. disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is about your SURVIVAL , not volunteering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Priorities for human survival </li></ul><ul><li>Break-out sessions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equipment and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Social implications of disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal security concerns </li></ul></ul>2
  3. 3. “ Disaster ” versus “Catastrophe” <ul><li>Disasters are short term </li></ul><ul><li>“ Make do for 3-4 days until help arrives…” </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic events are long term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Katrina-scale hurricane, tsunami, earthquake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major terror attack, nuclear detonation, dirty bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No help is coming soon, “you are on your own” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete loss of civil infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal or no police, fire or EMS response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No electricity, municipal water, communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport of fuel / food is severely impaired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public safety agencies will be overwhelmed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery is long term (over 30 days) </li></ul></ul>3
  4. 4. What the military survival schools teach: Seven Priorities For Survival: “Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst” <ul><li>Positive mental attitude </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid / Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling </li></ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul>4
  5. 5. Positive Mental Attitude Situational awareness, basic knowledge and a “survivor’s mindset” enable you to cope effectively <ul><li>STOP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calm down, and size up your situation… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THINK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate which hazards are most likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take stock of materials and resources around you </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OBSERVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orient yourself to your surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select equipment and supplies appropriately </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACT! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Execute the plan, evaluate progress, adjust, go on. </li></ul></ul>5
  6. 6. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS <ul><li>Have an evacuation kit ready at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Don't presume that a disaster will be short-term </li></ul><ul><li>Pack essentials first, then consider comfort items </li></ul><ul><li>In real emergences, forget last-minute purchases </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for more supplies than you “think” you may need </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect / renew your supplies each spring and fall </li></ul><ul><li>Provide entertainment for young children. </li></ul>6
  7. 7. WHEN “IT” HITS THE FAN” Use these six steps in problem solving <ul><li>Size Up ...your Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Determine ... Objectives (stay or evacuate?) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ... Resources (either stored supplies or salvaged materials from your surroundings) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate … Options (use the safest way) </li></ul><ul><li>Build action Plan (use your head) </li></ul><ul><li>Take ... Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>re-evaluate your action plan, adapt, improvise and overcome! </li></ul></ul>7
  8. 8. FIRST AID AND SANITATION <ul><li>Maintain personal and family health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt treatment reduces infection risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation reduces risk of disease vectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water borne illnesses, diarrhea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major cause of dehydration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Increases your survivability! </li></ul>8
  9. 9. Disaster Injury Risk Factors <ul><li>Tool / equipment hazards , risk of hand, eye, head injuries, electric shock, chemical burns </li></ul><ul><li>Human factors , stress / fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Structural instability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma risk, falls, building collapse potential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terrain , loose rock, fallen limbs, wet or insecure footing, risk of falls, puncture wounds and lacerations from debris. </li></ul>9
  10. 10. Disaster Contamination <ul><li>Stagnant surface water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosquito breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contaminated flood waters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage treatment system overflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum, industrial, agricultural chemical contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Airborne contaminant plumes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, dust, toxic gases, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or radioactive fallout. </li></ul></ul>10
  11. 11. SHELTER 11 <ul><li>Protection from the elements </li></ul><ul><li>Wind and rain resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation from cold </li></ul>
  12. 12. The “Stay or Evacuate” Decision If evacuation is not mandatory, the same safety rules for entering a structure apply to using your home as shelter 12 <ul><li>DO NOT OCCUPY IF : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is structural damage (6 sides of the “box” are not plumb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities cannot be controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure was damaged in a fire </li></ul></ul>DO NOT occupy a floor that has been flooded, mold grows fast !
  13. 13. EVACUATION PLANNING <ul><li>It’s usually best to relocate with friends or relatives who live outside of the affected area </li></ul><ul><li>Don't rely on government-run shelters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are an “option of last resort” for those unable to evacuate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evacuation route selection is important </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your vehicle can carry essentials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A huge “bug-out” vehicle is a handicap on crowded roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It uses more fuel, which may be expensive / scarce in an emergency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don't plan on fuel being available en route </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In normal times always keep your gas tank at least half full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon warning an event is imminent, conserve fuel, keep tank ¾ full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry extra fuel containers outside the vehicle </li></ul></ul>13
  14. 14. FROM NATIONAL THREAT SCENARIO Nuclear Detonation – 10-Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device <ul><li>An attack may: </li></ul><ul><li>be single or up to a dozen detonations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- on specific or random targets. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>be an act of a non-state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-, i.e. a terrorist group such as Al Qaeda. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>be threatened to trigger a political result, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- bend will of the people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>involve either a detonation (fission/fusion) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- or release via a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>occur all in one attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– or recur over a period of weeks, months, years. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. LOW YIELD WEAPON EFECTS <ul><li>Contamination from a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) would cover up to a few hundred acres with low-level radioactive material; </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>A nuclear detonation would affect large areas (10-100 sq. miles) damaged by direct effects and 100s to 1,000s of sq. miles with radioactive fallout . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) – a terrorist attack would most likely be a small device <10 kilotons yield, EMP effect of a ground burst would be mostly within the Moderate Damage Radius, but also propagated by conductors such as power and telephone lines, railroad tracks, pipelines, etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. EMP Precautions <ul><li>Disconnect electronics from conductors ( AC mains and antennas ) </li></ul><ul><li>Store small solid-state electronics having Field Effect Transistors (FET) or other integrated circuits (IC) in a Faraday Cage ( an unplugged microwave oven ) </li></ul><ul><li>Construct EMP-resistant containers constructed with a continuously sealed metal barrier (foil covered cardboard boxes) </li></ul><ul><li>Most susceptible to EMP damage are automobiles with onboard &quot;computers&quot; which control essential functions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. EVACUATION <ul><li>Feasible only if all personnel can evacuate before fallout contamination arrives and; </li></ul><ul><li>Essential functions for Continuity of Operations are transferred to an alternate facility </li></ul><ul><li>Affected area would have to be small and warning time adequate to execute the evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Detonation effects (blast/thermal/EMP) will likely impede evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuees may be exposed and/or contaminated. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Evacuate or Stay Decision? Conclusion from FEMA Urban-Rural Evacuation State Planners Workshop Sept. 2006 <ul><li>Given </li></ul><ul><li>● Population of the DC Metro area </li></ul><ul><li>● Propensity to self-evacuate, overwhelmingly </li></ul><ul><li>by automobile </li></ul><ul><li>● Wide distribution of evacuation destinations, </li></ul><ul><li>● Perceived vulnerability to terror attack, </li></ul><ul><li>and anticipation of multiple attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Result : </li></ul><ul><li>● A large-scale, chaotic mass self-evacuation should be anticipated. </li></ul>
  19. 19. SHELTER IN PLACE <ul><li>Critical facilities that cannot evacuate (hospitals, EOCs) must continue to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary if fallout/contamination would arrive before evacuation can be completed </li></ul><ul><li>Fallout Shelters will be needed to protect against high level radiation/detonation </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter-in-place ( not necessarily Fallout Shelter ) near RDD/very low level </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter stay may range from a few days to 2 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities outside affected area can organize rescue/evacuation effort </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter occupants may be exposed and/or contaminated. </li></ul>
  20. 20. SHELTER IN PLACE <ul><li>Necessary if operations can not be transferred or if staff, patients or clients cannot evacuate </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary if needed to support operations of other response agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Must have Radiological Monitoring & Exposure Control capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Facilities may be used to shelter families of the staff </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Facilities will not be used to shelter the general public. </li></ul>
  21. 21. DECONTAMINATION after a flood or attack S tart immediately, even if you don’t know what the agent is . <ul><li>Sandia decontamination foam (US Patent 6,566,574 B1) sold </li></ul><ul><li>as Scott's Liquid Gold Mold Control 500 in hardware stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Is effective against most chemical and </li></ul><ul><li>biological agents, including nerve, blister, </li></ul><ul><li>anthrax, SARS, Norwalk, avian and common flu. </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used for hospital /hotel sanitization </li></ul><ul><li>mold remediation in commercial buildings, </li></ul><ul><li>cleaning / neutralizing agricultural sprayers. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate cost, about $30 at Home Depot. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  22. 22. EXPEDIENT FIELD DECONTAMINATION if you are contaminated: <ul><li>Remove everything, including jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Cut off clothing normally removed over the head </li></ul><ul><li>Place contaminated clothing in plastic bag, tie closed </li></ul><ul><li>Wash your hands before using them to shower </li></ul><ul><li>Flush entire body with cool water </li></ul><ul><li>Blot dry with absorbent cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Put on clean clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid use of affected areas, to prevent re-exposure </li></ul><ul><li>If professional help arrives, report to responders for thorough decontamination and medical assessment. </li></ul>
  23. 23. NUCLEAR ATTACK ISSUES <ul><li>Structural damage to shelter from nearby detonation </li></ul><ul><li>Fire in the shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerously high radiation levels </li></ul><ul><li>Severely high temperatures and humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide imbalance in the shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Depletion of essential supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and injury </li></ul><ul><li>Unrest, anxiety, crime or defiance of order or authority </li></ul>
  24. 24. Substantial barriers offer best protection Time - Fallout radiation intensity decays rapidly; 90% in just the first 7 hours . The less time you spend in a radiation field, the less dose received. Distance - T he farther you are from a source, the less dose you receive. Shielding - Denser (heavier, massive) materials absorb more radiation. Greater thickness of any given material absorbs more radiation.
  25. 25. Protection Factors & Mass of Materials How Much Protection? PF* Lead Steel Concrete Earth Water Wood 2 .3&quot;&quot; .7&quot; 2.0&quot; 3.3&quot; 5&quot; 9&quot; 4 .5&quot; 1.5&quot; 5.0&quot; 7.0&quot; 10&quot; 15&quot; 8 1.0&quot; 2.0&quot; 6.5&quot; 10.0&quot; 15&quot; 27&quot; 16 1.2&quot; 3.0&quot; 9.0&quot; 14.0&quot; 20&quot; 3 ft 32 1.5&quot; 4.0&quot; 12.0&quot; 15.0&quot; 2 ft 4 ft 64 2.0&quot; 4.2&quot; 13.2&quot; 19.8&quot; 2.5ft 4.5 ft 128 2.1&quot; 5.0&quot; 15.0&quot; 2 ft 3 ft 5 ft 1000 3.0&quot; 7.0&quot; 22.0&quot; 33.0&quot; 4 ft - 2000 3.3&quot; 7.7&quot; 2 ft 3 ft 4.5 ft - Outside radiation, divided by the Protection Factor, is reduced in proportion. For example, if the outside radiation rate is 1,000 R/hr, a person shielded by 3 ft. of earth would receive a dose rate of .5 R/hr. but a person shielded by 1 ft of earth would receive about 10 R/hr. *PF = “Protection Factor” refers to the ratio between the radiation dose rate of the OUTSIDE to that INSIDE the shelter, for instance a PF = 10 means that the inside dose rate is 1/10th the outside rate.
  26. 26. IMPROVE HOME FALLOUT PROTECTION Increase shielding by: <ul><li>1) Plan / improvise vents, ventilation & 2 entrances. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Add wooden shoring supports below each story. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Add up to 12” maximum dirt on upper floors/roof. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Cover window opening with plywood sheeting. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Pile dirt to ceiling height along outside walls & windows. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sheltering at Home During an Emergency For using a building without working utilities as shelter <ul><li>Exhaust – candles, camp stoves, lanterns, generators, heaters, charcoal grills, all generate carbon monoxide and must not be used indoors! </li></ul><ul><li>Open flame – above ignition sources must never be left unattended! </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel – most of the above require flammable fuels to operate, which must be stored outdoors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Fire Marshal approved fuel containers </li></ul></ul>14
  28. 28. Generator Safety Tips From the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission <ul><li>Carbon monoxide hazard! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never use indoors or in attached garages! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up OUTDOORS in well ventilated, dry area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Away from open windows or HVAC air intakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under a canopy, open shed or carport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrocution Hazard! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground both the generator and equipment! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug only individual devices into generator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT connect into household AC! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL-rated cords of gage adequate for load </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explosion / fire hazard ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel vapors traveling along the ground can be ignited by switching equipment or appliance pilot lights! </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Improvised Emergency Shelters As in all real estate, most important is location: <ul><li>Avoid low spots with poor drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Seek a gently sloped area so that surface water drains away </li></ul><ul><li>Sheltered from prevailing winds </li></ul><ul><li>Away from bodies of water ( attracts insects and animals ) </li></ul><ul><li>Insulated from direct contact with ground, rock, or concrete, which conducts away body heat. </li></ul>15
  30. 30. Avoid as shelter <ul><li>Areas around downed utility lines </li></ul><ul><li>In or near culverts </li></ul><ul><li>Within the “collapse zone” of a damaged building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(maintain 2:1 ratio of distance away to building height) </li></ul></ul>16
  31. 31. Improvised Shelters <ul><li>Sheds </li></ul><ul><li>Tents </li></ul><ul><li>Tarps </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles </li></ul>17
  32. 32. Don’t disable a good car! <ul><li>Remove car batteries to power communications and shelter lighting only from cars that do not start </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a car starts reserve it for emergency evacuation, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use it as a “battery charger” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvage lighting, remove dome lights, tail lights, trunk lights, etc. & with at least 36” of wires. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position batteries in shelter; attach wires & lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As batteries discharge, replace with new batteries or recharge batteries. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Emergency Shelter Materials Salvage building materials from debris or from damaged structures only when it can be done safely <ul><li>TYVEK building wrap </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic sheeting </li></ul><ul><li>Roofing paper and shingles </li></ul><ul><li>Siding, plywood </li></ul><ul><li>Chain link fence </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber </li></ul><ul><li>Carpeting </li></ul><ul><li>Wire, rope, and fasteners </li></ul>18
  34. 34. Build Your Shelter In Layers <ul><li>Structural framing , lumber, plywood, fencing, metal </li></ul><ul><li>Fasteners , reinforce structural connections with nails, wire or rope ties, wooden spikes </li></ul><ul><li>Water and wind proofing , TYVEK, plastic sheeting, tarp, shingles, roofing paper </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation , drywall, leaves, tree branches, carpeting, (may also be used as ballast to hold water/wind proofing layer in place) </li></ul>19
  35. 35. SIGNALLING <ul><li>Day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirror flashes – best daylight signal device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brightly colored cloth flag / panel (VS-17) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICAO surface-to-air signals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Night </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flashing strobe light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal flares </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whistle, vehicle horn </li></ul></ul>V Require assistance X Need medical assistance Y Yes - affirmative N No - negative -> I am proceeding in this direction  20 
  36. 36. Signal Mirror <ul><li>Simple, inexpensive, effective </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t rely on batteries or pyrotechnics </li></ul><ul><li>Visible from 5 to 10 miles in daylight </li></ul>21
  37. 37. FIRE <ul><li>Maintains body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Great morale booster </li></ul><ul><li>Deters wild animals and insects </li></ul><ul><li>Boils water </li></ul><ul><li>Cooks food </li></ul><ul><li>Used as day (smoke) </li></ul><ul><li>or night (light) signal </li></ul>22
  38. 38. Fire making methods <ul><li>Matches or lighter </li></ul><ul><li>Flint and steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use cotton ball and petroleum jelly as tinder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Battery and steel wool </li></ul><ul><li>Burning lens </li></ul>23
  39. 39. WATER <ul><li>Minimum for drinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 gallon per person, per day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More water is needed for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooking and food preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal hygiene, sanitation and decontamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Store a two week supply as minimum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food grade containers with screw caps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Away from direct sunlight </li></ul></ul>24
  40. 40. Emergency Water Sources <ul><li>Captive water in household hot water tank and interior plumbing is OK </li></ul><ul><li>Filter cloudy water to remove particulates, using an EPA-rated filter with a pore size ≤ 1 micron, then: </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect with Clorox (6% sodium hypochlorite) add 8 drops of bleach per gallon if clear, 16 drops if cloudy, let water stand 15 minutes before use </li></ul><ul><li>Or boil vigorously for 15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Store potable water in clean containers. </li></ul>25
  41. 41. All surface water is contaminated! <ul><li>All natural sources (from springs, ponds, rivers or streams) must be boiled or chemically disinfected. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical disinfection or boiling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kills bacteria and viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t remove particulates or chemical pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee filters, etc. remove gross particulates only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA-rated filters (pore size is smaller than 1 micron) are needed to remove bacteria, viruses and Giardia cysts, but don’t remove chemical pollutants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distillation is the most effective method. </li></ul>26
  42. 42. FOOD <ul><li>Lowest of the seven survival priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Need is mostly mental, because we are used to eating regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy people will do OK without food for a week or more, if they are well hydrated </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced nutrition is a more important health factor for elderly and infants. </li></ul>27
  43. 43. Shelf life of foods stored in the home <ul><li>Food in a refrigerator is safe for a day after the power goes off, either use it in 24 hours or throw it away </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen food is safe if there are still ice crystals, once thawed, cook and consume it within 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Next use non-perishables and dry staples </li></ul><ul><li>Canned foods are best for long term storage (up to 4 years) but are heavy to transport and bulky to store </li></ul><ul><li>Dry packaged foods are easiest to transport </li></ul><ul><li>Choose foods requiring minimal preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Eat at least one balanced meal daily </li></ul><ul><li>Include nutritional supplements in supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Drink enough water. </li></ul>28
  44. 44. Emergency Food supplies <ul><li>MREs, or Heater Meals ® </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared survival rations </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive survival methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foraging </li></ul></ul>29
  45. 45. TOOLS and EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Folding utility knife or multi-tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scout type, Leatherman®, Swiss Army or Mil-K-818 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual can opener </li></ul><ul><li>Sturdy fixed blade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For chopping, digging, or as pry bar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shovel </li></ul><ul><li>Hand saw </li></ul><ul><li>Axe </li></ul>30 ↓
  46. 46. OTHER SUPPLIES Each person should have their own backpack of personal essentials <ul><li>Flashlight </li></ul><ul><li>Portable radio </li></ul><ul><li>Extra batteries </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid Kit, (containing a first aid manual) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal medications and sanitation supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking and eating utensils </li></ul><ul><li>Wool blanket or sleeping bag for each person </li></ul><ul><li>Sturdy shoes and extra socks </li></ul><ul><li>Rain gear </li></ul><ul><li>Change of warm clothing and underwear </li></ul><ul><li>Items for special needs, care of infants </li></ul>31
  47. 47. DISASTER FINANCIAL PLANNING <ul><li>Electronic transactions, account verifications may be impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuate with enough cash for at least two weeks of essentials </li></ul><ul><li>Carry account numbers, contact addresses and telephone numbers for all important persons and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Helping one's unprepared friends and neighbors may prove expensive! </li></ul>32
  48. 48. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF DISASTERS Cumulative psychological effects upon survivors <ul><li>Evacuate or Stay? – Do you have a plan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where will you go? Is it safe to travel? Can you REALLY get there? Do you have enough resources to make it work? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warn friends not to invite others to come and evacuate with them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They’ll overwhelm your limited resources! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never allow family members to be separated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if it means waiting for later rescue and/or evacuation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The well prepared may be threatened by those who weren't – get to know your neighbors NOW for a safer community later in case of a disaster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make plans to ensure neighborhood security/family protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post a guard in rotating shifts, to deter roving criminals or looters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep firearms and ammunition safely secured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a home firearms safety-protection course </li></ul></ul>33
  49. 49. Lessons from Hurricane Katrina When help arrives, you may get it “…….whether you want it or not.” <ul><li>Don't believe that all rescuers will respect your property </li></ul><ul><li>Relief workers from other States often don't know local laws </li></ul><ul><li>Relief organizations have their own bureaucratic requirements that may conflict with your needs </li></ul><ul><li>Expect frustration over lack of communication and empathy by rescuers and local/State government. </li></ul>
  50. 50. IN CONCLUSION: <ul><li>Positive attitude – S top T hink O bserve P lan </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid / Sanitation – Maintain proper hygiene, preserve family health, and prevent illness or injury </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter – Protection from environmental hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling / Communication- be heard / seen </li></ul><ul><li>Fire – Warmth, light, food prep, water sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Water – Prevent water-borne illnesses through f iltration, chemical sterilization, boiling or distillation </li></ul><ul><li>Food – E at at least one balanced meal daily, drink enough water, include nutritional supplements </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment- Flashlight, knife, saw, axe, shovel </li></ul><ul><li>Planning – Prepare a Kit, Make A Plan! </li></ul>
  51. 51. Sources for further information <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  52. 52. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Fairfax County Fire & Rescue Department </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Huntsville-Madison County, Alabama, EMA </li></ul><ul><li>Doug Ritter </li></ul><ul><li>Derek Rowan </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Willey </li></ul><ul><li>University of Florida IFAS Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Cooperative Extension Service </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Department of Emergency Management </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Department of Health </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia RACES, Incorporated </li></ul>