teacher teacher + paper resources teacher + paper & digital resources The key is to integrate all kinds of interaction that facilitate learning.
What is ICT ? I nformation and C ommunication T echnology The Internet MM : M ulti m edia Multimedia on the WWW, CD Roms CMC : C omputer M ediated C ommunication Communication skills using multimedia resources CALL : C omputer A ssisted L anguage L earning
ICT and pedagogy … Stage 1970s – 1980s: Structural CALL 1980s – 1990s: Communicative CALL 21st century: Integrative CALL Technology (ICT) mainframe PCs Multimedia and the Internet View of language structural (a formal structural system) cognitive (a mentally-constructed system) socio-cognitive (developed in social interaction) Principal use of computers Principal objective drill and practice accuracy communicative activities + fluency authentic discourse, publishing + agency
Agency is ... “ ... the satisfying power to take meaningful action and see the results of our decisions and choices ... ” (Murray, 1997) “ ... the power to construct a representation of reality, a writing of history, and to impose reception of it by others...” (Kramsch, A’Ness & Lamb, in press)
Publishing on the WWW Publishing on the Web has become quite popular. Free space and publishing tools are offered. Hypertext has become the new writing format. This format offers students a non linear path to access to information. Taking decisions about how to go through it according to their learning characteristics, students turn this information into knowledge.
What is CMC ? CMC is a research area concerned with “... Communication that takes place between beings via the instrumentality of computers” (Herring, 1996) “It includes e-mail, text, voice and video conferencing and other forms of CMC. (Harrington & Levi, 2001) <ul><li>Communications between human beings via a computer network. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism which allows one computer to exchange information with another, whatever the type of computer or its physical location. </li></ul><ul><li>A communication network, similar to the international telephone network, which people use to exchange data or simply speak to each other. </li></ul>
Main CMC Features Feature Examples What you can do Asynchronous CMC E-mail Web bulletin board Discussion Forum Write a message for others to read later. Synchronous CMC Chat rooms Instant messaging Videoconferencing Communicate in real time with others who are on-line at the same time.
ICT = Additional value Being able to communicate with users outside one’s immediate physical environment , being able to receive not just words but sounds and pictures, being able to produce and deliver content, rather than passively receive it.