Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Stormwater Maintenance, LLC Stormwater Consulting, Inc. 128 Cockeysville Road, ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Existing Conditions 1.75 acre lot B Soils
Proposed Conditions 3 Lots 25% Impervious Target P E  = 1.6 inches
Proposed Conditions 3 Lots 25% Impervious Target P E  = 1.6 inches
PERMEABLE PAVING Alternative Surfaces 8600 sf PERMEABLE PAVING Target P E  = 1.6 inches Proposed P E  = 0.17 inches
ESD Practices at or Near Sources DISCONNECTIONS SWALE Target P E  = 1.6 inches Proposed P E  = 0.30 inches RAIN BARRELS
Integrated Small-Scale Practices RAIN GARDENS
SWALE RAIN GARDENS DISCONNECTIONS PERMEABLE PAVING All Practices Target P E  = 1.6 inches Proposed P E  = 0.99 inches
Computational Resources www.MdESD.org
Computational Resources www.MdESD.org
Traditional Design Approach SAND FILTER U/G CMP Cpv
GI Design Approach #1 MICRO-BIORETENTION REVERSED GRADES
GI Design Approach #2 CISTERN PERMABLE PAVING SWALE GREENROOF
GI Design Approach #3 MICRO-BIORETENTION PERMABLE PAVING SWALE
GI Design Approach #4 SUBMERGED WETLANDS RAIN GARDEN PLANTER BOXES MICRO-BIORETENTION
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Green Infrastructure Presentation to EPA staff 12/1/11

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  • Thank you for the opportunity to be here today. As mentioned, I am a professional engineer and co-owner of two small businesses: A civil engineering and landscape architecture firm and a niche construction and maintenance company. Both companies specialize in stormwater related infrastructure. Our professions create spaces that communities use to live, work, shop, and play. A critical part of our work is designing to minimize the impacts on the environment. Being involved in this field for 25 years, I have been a part of the paradigm shift in the way development protects and restores the environment. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • This photo best describes the problem. Urbanization creates a wide variety of pollution. And every time it rains, stormwater runoff flushes pollutants from rooftops, sidewalks, and streets sending them downstream. Shown here are the visible forms of stormwater pollution. But stormwater also carries unseen pollutants such as oil and grease from vehicles, and chemicals from a wide variety of sources. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • Ever since people began converting land for their use, the changes to the physical characteristics of land and resulting stormwater runoff have impacted the environment. Traditionally, engineers have designed storm drain systems that are efficient and quickly put runoff out of sight into pipe systems. These methods reduce water filtering into the ground, increase flows and downstream flooding, and efficiently send pollutants downstream. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • This efficient conveyance of water results in physical impacts to streams, the bays and estuaries they drain to, and ultimately the oceans. The increased flows result in unstable stream systems that cause erosion. Pollutants with sediment from this erosion travel to larger rivers and bays, unbalancing marine environments. With these natural filters impacted, many pollutants are now ending up in our oceans. By now, all of us here have heard of the emerging ocean garbage patches. First was the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • And last year, a similar phenomenon was observed in the Atlantic. The styrofoam coffee cup or plastic water bottle dropped outside on First Street will likely end up in the Atlantic Garbage Patch. The reality is that society’s lack of action regarding stormwater is quickly becoming a statistic that affects everyone. Miniscule pieces of plastic, once thought to be too small to matter, are becoming great floating masses in our oceans. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • A primary reason for this is stormwater runoff. This is a public health issue that affects everyone. Many have known this for decades. This is why stormwater runoff is an important part of the original Clean Water Act. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • So what have we been doing about it? About 30 years ago, some areas of the country, including my home state of Maryland, began efforts to regulate the treatment of stormwater. The first methods utilized were larger basins and ponds that collected drainage and treated it in centralized areas. Several decades of research indicated these practices do not allow enough water to filter into the ground, radically change drainage patterns, and convey a significant amount of pollutants downstream. The results were continued impacts to streams, estuaries, and our oceans. Since the 1990s, alternative ways to treat stormwater have been researched to resolve these continuing issues. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • Referred to as green infrastructure, low impact development, environmental site design, among other terms; these practices are a different way of planning communities and urban areas. Alternative materials such as green roofs and permeable pavement are used for surfaces that absorb pollutants and allow stormwater to filter directly into the ground. Landscaped practices use natural processes to slow flows, absorb water, and remove pollutants. These practices are very small and are distributed throughout site areas. Instead of one or two very large ponds, we may have 20 or 30 small practices throughout the site. In lieu of mounded landscaping, we design strategically located stormwater treatment areas. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • Land planning is different. Instead of using all available land area for communities, as we have done for decades to create tract housing, land use is intensified in smaller areas leaving natural or restored areas interspersed throughout. This planning preserves sensitive forest and wetland resources while facilitating restoration of features degraded by past development. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • By converting parking lot islands into small stormwater practices, natural runoff processes are preserved, allowing water to seep into the ground throughout the site. The runoff reduction realized with these practices assists municipalities who are challenged with the significant expense of converting out-of-date Combined Sewer Overflow systems, or CSOs, into separate storm and sewer systems. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • With careful planning, engineering, and landscape design, stormwater practices become an integral part of the community and are considered amenities instead of being hidden out of site. Invisible pollutants are treated by the vegetation or absorbed into the ground. Trash, debris, and sediments are easily removed by homeowners or landscape maintenance crews. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • Micro-habitats emerge within the spaces created for people, establishing flora and fauna in between rows of parking. As these practices represent a change in the way land is developed, adoption has taken some time. In Maryland, new regulations suggested the use of these practices starting in year 2000. Even though there are numerous advantages, sometimes including cost savings, many developers and engineers resisted the change. In 2009, the Maryland legislature revised our regulations regarding stormwater, which mandated these practices on every project. While those developers and engineers who are steeped in tradition are challenged by this change, they are clearly working through it and these practices are becoming the status quo for stormwater in Maryland. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • Until it was mandated in Maryland, traditionalists claimed that Green Infrastructure is prohibitively expensive and cumbersome. Much of the reason is because it requires a completely different approach to site design. Using traditional engineering processes and methods without applying design templates and automating calculations results in poor – and expensive - results. Considering stormwater at the end of the design process consistently results in forced, overly expensive designs and “we-can’t-do-it” attitudes. Also, the notion that numerous facilities are required instead of one or two simply does not seem “efficient”. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • We’ll step through a simple small site design. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Three lots are allowed by zoning. Traditional design work require a “hole-in-the-ground” on the western lot which may have made that lot unfeasible. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • One of the most critical aspects of laying out the site is to locate green spaces down-slope of impervious area. If this is not done, chances of applying Green Infrastructure are significantly reduced. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Step One is selecting surfaces that minimize runoff. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Step Two is establishing primary conveyance over green spaces, known as disconnections, and micro-storage locations. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Lastly, locating micro-facilities that capture and treat the flows after conveyance. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Using the combination of approaches, runoff is addressed as close to the source as possible. This plan includes 24 separate treatment practices instead of one. A face value, it is no surprise that traditionalists don’t think this is reasonable. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • The way to effectively design these practices is to use computational tools specifically intended to allow evaluation of iterations. We have developed several Excel spreadsheet tools. This is a workbook we developed for Maryland’s ESD methodology. We also have versions for the original Prince George’s County methodology. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Tom Schueler’s Chesapeake Stormwater Network has developed other spreadsheets for Maryland and Virginia’s methodologies. To maximize acceptance, it is very important to not just require Green Infrastructure, but to offer a well defined methodology that can be applied in a production design environment. While mandates are the most effective way to make things happen, communication with training and accepted tools is the way to bridge to success. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • As mentioned, iterations are important. The ability to quickly evaluate numerous alternatives is the best way to determine if costs can be reduced. We will look at several different options for a single site. This is a traditional design that incorporates underground structures to maximize development. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Here, we have re-configured the site to allow surface treatment using numerous facilities. A designer must think creatively which may mean sacrificing traditional thought, such as reversing slopes to direct flows toward green spaces. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Another approach is to focus on surfaces to avoid treatment facilities. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Permeable pavement can be used in several different ways which impacts costs. Here, it is the entire parking lot, which increases pavement costs, but reduces base gravel. A misconception exists regarding permeable pavement – many believe it is only an infiltration device that can not be used in fill conditions and clay. We believe the use of an underdrain system with a large pavement footprint, such as this, is a feasible approach. When regulations are too conservative and preclude these types of approaches, Green Infrastructure implementation becomes much more difficult. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • In this approach we are connecting the land use more to the street and community by changing the layout significantly. This works better for the natural grade of the site. Importantly, the green spaces must be sized for the impervious area draining to them – which again, can force changes to how the pavement is graded. Successful designs combine stormwater treatment with the site layout and careful grading design. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective
  • Looking beyond design, these practices differ in many ways from the traditional large engineered ponds. One important way is in how they are constructed and maintained. Because they are smaller and integrated throughout sites, they require more hand labor and less heavy equipment. With many more of them on a given site, maintenance changes dramatically, requiring teams of laborers instead of large equipment with a few operators. This generates jobs. As they are also amenities, there is more motivation for re-occurring maintenance. Therefore, many of the jobs created are permanent – not one-time construction employment assignments. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • Because the skill set and equipment requirements are less with green infrastructure, a wide range of alternatives to traditional construction are available. We have been engaged in numerous projects at school sites. These projects introduce green infrastructure hands-on and involve a wide range of students. The design, construction, and monitoring of these practices involves practically every subject – from art and math to geography and biology. Known as retrofits, these projects right previous wrongs with green infrastructure treating areas that never before had treatment. In many cases, existing infrastructure is upgraded at that same time. Learning outdoors, the kids love it. The driver for these projects is usually grant funding with volunteer participation. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • These programs are easily extrapolated into larger community events. Grass roots NGOs such as Blue Water Baltimore have initiated numerous community projects involving green infrastructure. Through efforts like these, clean water is becoming a meaningful vehicle to bring urban communities together. This photo is a Blue Water Baltimore school greening project last summer that involved several hundred volunteers. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • So – we know what the problems and solutions are. The challenge is implementing the solutions with the least impact on economics. As I mentioned, in Maryland we have had several iterations of regulations moving toward green infrastructure. In the end, we found that the most effective way to make it happen is with a regulatory mandate. All along the way, there have been naysayers that simply did not want to deal with change. True, these practices present new challenges to design and construct. It takes creativity. The most creative designers consistently realize cost savings with these practices. Those who prefer to do cookie cutter work are the ones who have struggled the most. In the end, we have found that creative developers and designers can incorporate green stormwater practices into new projects with minimal economic impact. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • Some may suggest that environmental regulations are bad for business. My personal experience is the opposite. As demonstrated from the success of the LEED driven green building industry over the past five years, businesses that rely on regulatory insight and market savvy can capitalize on environmental initiatives. Many business owners, like myself, have identified how regulations change the business environment and met the changing market needs, resulting in success. As you can see from these values, over the course of the worst economic environment since World War II for design and construction firms, we have quadrupled the size of our firm. Regulations and green infrastructure are the primary drivers for this growth. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • In the midst of these challenging economic times, our company’s greatest challenge is determining the best way to maximize benefits from the opportunities ahead. Along the way, we look forward to continuing to do our part to improve and restore the impacts of urbanization, one stormwater facility at a time. I hope this information has been helpful. Again, thank you for the opportunity to speak with you today. Reducing Costs and Spurring Job Growth with Green Infrastructure Practices: A Small Business Owner’s Perspective Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP
  • Green Infrastructure Presentation to EPA staff 12/1/11

    1. 1. Theodore E. Scott, PE, CPESC, MSP, LEED AP Stormwater Maintenance, LLC Stormwater Consulting, Inc. 128 Cockeysville Road, Suite 200 Hunt Valley, Maryland 21030 [email_address] 410.785.0875 www.SWMaintenance.com www.MdSWM.com
    2. 14. Existing Conditions 1.75 acre lot B Soils
    3. 15. Proposed Conditions 3 Lots 25% Impervious Target P E = 1.6 inches
    4. 16. Proposed Conditions 3 Lots 25% Impervious Target P E = 1.6 inches
    5. 17. PERMEABLE PAVING Alternative Surfaces 8600 sf PERMEABLE PAVING Target P E = 1.6 inches Proposed P E = 0.17 inches
    6. 18. ESD Practices at or Near Sources DISCONNECTIONS SWALE Target P E = 1.6 inches Proposed P E = 0.30 inches RAIN BARRELS
    7. 19. Integrated Small-Scale Practices RAIN GARDENS
    8. 20. SWALE RAIN GARDENS DISCONNECTIONS PERMEABLE PAVING All Practices Target P E = 1.6 inches Proposed P E = 0.99 inches
    9. 21. Computational Resources www.MdESD.org
    10. 22. Computational Resources www.MdESD.org
    11. 23. Traditional Design Approach SAND FILTER U/G CMP Cpv
    12. 24. GI Design Approach #1 MICRO-BIORETENTION REVERSED GRADES
    13. 25. GI Design Approach #2 CISTERN PERMABLE PAVING SWALE GREENROOF
    14. 26. GI Design Approach #3 MICRO-BIORETENTION PERMABLE PAVING SWALE
    15. 27. GI Design Approach #4 SUBMERGED WETLANDS RAIN GARDEN PLANTER BOXES MICRO-BIORETENTION

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