Motivation For the Coach In a sport setting. By Chris McPhail. For Sports Coaching Pedagogy, 8914 12/4/2013
What is Motivation? Motivation is defined by,• Effort• Perseverance• Choice These three attributes are representative Burton, D. Raedeke,T.(2008) of motivation they do not necessarily describe it fully. Roberts, G. (1992) Motivation incorporates these three things and more. These are the symptoms of the disease.
• Motivation has been looked at in psychology since its inception.• Need Achievement Theory – Success-Seeking, Failure Avoidance. – McClelland 1961, Atkinson 1957/58 Roberts, G. (1992) Motivation: A History• Behaviorism (Skinner)• Extrinsic Motivation
Focus began with success seeking and failure avoiding, i.e. Mechanistic drives. Research was based on behaviorist theories. Reasons for participation. Shift towards cognitive theories of motivation.“humans are active and initiate action through subjectiveinterpretation of the achievement context.”(Roberts, G. 2001) Research in Motivation
Cognitive Theory Cognition allows for the theory that we as people interact with and make conscious decisions regarding our environment. Roberts, G. (2001)Reasoning,the Mental Process • Self-Efficacy “High efficacious athletes are not • Achievement afraid to pursue challenging goals; they cope with pain; and they • Goal setting persevere through setbacks…” Feltz, D. Short, S. Sullivan, P. (2008) Roberts, G. (1992)
Functional significanceDeci,E. Koestner, R. Ryan, R. (1999.) Rewards Intrinsic Rewards. Burton, D. Raedeke, T. (2008)
Why Motivation?Because motivation is a As a coach one wisheskey ingredient to success in a to encouragesporting context. lifelong participation. For creating a way to To help get the best have athletes learn and out of our athletes. improve in sport and life.
Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Self-Determined Non Self-DeterminedWhat Motivation? Amotivation
Mastery-Oriented people!Derivation of Joy and Satisfaction Vallerand, R. (2001) Intrinsic MotivationSelf-Determined vs Non Self-determined Extrinsic MotivationPeople work longer with intrinsic motivation as demonstrated by manydifferent experiments, least of all Deci’s work from 1972.Internalising of Goals Mageau, G. Vallerand, R. (2003)
Basic Needs1. Fun 2. Acceptance & Belonging 3. Control & Autonomy 4. Competence Burton, D. Raedeke, T. (2008)
How to? Motivation Across many of the most recent articles pertaining to motivation in sport we see that the idea is to create an atmosphere where intrinsic motivation can flourish, alongside self-determined extrinsic motivation.Three basic psychological needs have to be met for strongmotivation, the role of the coach is to nurture these needs. • Social belonging • Competence • Task • Autonomy • Authority • Recognition • Grouping • Evaluation • Time. Mageau, G. Vallerand, R. (2003) Epstein (1988,1989) in Ames, C. (1992)
Process “Preparation is where success is truly found…” John Wooden In Burton and Raedeke (2008)
ReferencesAmes, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes. In Roberts, G (Eds), Motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 161-176). Champaign, IL:Human KineticsBurton, D. Raedeke, T. (2008). Sport psychology for coaches. Champaign, IL. Human KineticsDeci, E. (1972). Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic reinforcement and inequity. Journal of personality and social psychology, 22(1), 113-120. Retrieved from http:// ww.selfdeterminationtheory.org/SDT/documents/1972_Deci_JPSP.pdfDeci, E. Koestner, R. Ryan, R. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin, 125(6), 627-668.Feltz, D. Short, S. Sullivan, P. (2008). Self-efficacy in sport. Champaign, IL. Human Kinetics.Mageau, G. Vallerand, R. (2003). The coach-athlete relationship: a motivational model. Journal of sport sciences, 21, 883-904. doi: 10.1080/0264041031000140374
References cont.Roberts, G. (1992). Motivation in sport and exercise: conceptual constraints and convergence.In Roberts, G (Eds), Motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 3-30). Champaign, IL: Human KineticsRoberts, G. (2001). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in physical activity: The influence of achievement goals on motivational processes. In Roberts, G (Eds), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 1-50). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Vallerand, R. (2001). A hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise. In Roberts, G (Eds), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 261-320). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.