Introduction to malaria in pregnancy


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Powerpoint presentation from Dr. Mary Hamel's session on Malaria in Pregnancy during Stomping Out Malaria in Africa's Boot Camp III.

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  • 2 nd trim - There is also accumulating evidence to suggest that adolescent girls are at greater risk of acquiring parasitemia during pregnancy and having a LBW outcome than adolescent secundigravidae or adult primigravidae. - HIV infection reduces a pregnant woman’s ability to control malaria infection and contributes to more frequent and higher level of malaria parasitemia. More importantly, it eliminates the gravidity-specific pattern of malaria risk that I just described earlier. In other words, all HIV+ gravidae are at risk of malaria. - Pregnant women living in areas with poor access to healthcare, such as those in rural areas, are also considered to be more vulnerable to MiP.
  • In the absence of an effective vaccine, the main tools available for control of malaria in pregnancy are drugs and ITNs. Hematinic supplementation is also recommended for control of anemia. WHO recommends a package of the 3 highlighted interventions: IPT, ITNs and case management.
  • So instead, efforts are being focused around intermittent preventive treatment or IPT
  • IPT involves presumptive treatment doses of an efficacious antimalarial drug, which should be started in the 2nd trimester or after quickening. Doses should be at least 4 weeks apart. There is a lot of experience with IPT using SP. It’s advantages include: It is administered as a single dose, it is cheap, and given under supervision in the ANC. It is given at least twice following quickening, however, 3 or more doses may be required in HIV+ women. The biggest disadvantage of IPT with SP at this time is development of increasing resistance to SP.
  • IPT involves presumptive treatment doses of an efficacious antimalarial drug, which should be started in the 2nd trimester or after quickening. Doses should be at least 4 weeks apart. There is a lot of experience with IPT using SP. It’s advantages include: It is administered as a single dose, it is cheap, and given under supervision in the ANC. It is given at least twice following quickening, however, 3 or more doses may be required in HIV+ women. The biggest disadvantage of IPT with SP at this time is development of increasing resistance to SP.
  • The third strategy promoted for control of malaria in pregnancy is effective case management of malaria illness and anemia. This includes iron supplementation for anemia as part of routine antenatal care, as well as screening for anemia and managing severe to moderate anemia according to national reproductive health guidelines.
  • And then these are antimalarials that are contraindicated in pregnancy: …
  • And then these are antimalarials that are contraindicated in pregnancy: …
  • Introduction to malaria in pregnancy

    1. 1. Epidemiology and control ofmalaria during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa Mary Hamel, M.D. Malaria Branch, CDC
    2. 2. Objectives Discuss the epidemiology of malaria during pregnancy (MIP) in sub-Saharan Africa Describe intervention strategies, challenges and successes Discuss MIP and HIV interactions and strategies
    3. 3. Epidemiology
    4. 4. Malaria during pregnancy 50 million women in malaria endemic areas become pregnant each year MIP estimated to account for: • 400,000 cases of severe anemia in pregnant women  Post-partum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal mortality • ~ 35% of preventable low birth weight (LBW)  LBW is risk for infant mortality • 3-8% of infant mortality • 75,000 - 200,000 infant deaths annually
    5. 5. Risks for MIP Primi- or secundi- gravida • 1st or 2nd pregnancy, have not developed pregnancy-specific acquired immunity HIV-positive women • Eliminates gravidity-specific pattern Young maternal age (ex. adolescents)
    6. 6. Current strategies, challenges and successes
    7. 7. Major strategies for malaria control during pregnancy  Drugs • Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) • Febrile case management  Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs)
    8. 8. Intermittent PreventiveTreatment for pregnancy (IPTp)
    9. 9. IPTp to prevent MIP Rationale for IPTp  Prevents placental malaria (or clears established placental infection), during period of rapid fetal growth Most commonly used regimen:• Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)• At least 2 treatment doses (3 tablets) but best to have 3 or more doses starting after quickening (~16 weeks gestation), provided at least 4 weeks apart  Can be given monthly  Can be given until end of pregnancy• HIV infected need at least 3 doses for benefit  None if taking daily septrin
    10. 10. IPTp to prevent MIP SP works for IPTp despite high SP resistance and malaria treatment failures in young children • Acquired immunity • prevention vs. treatment • Confusing for policy makers and health workers (HWs) Easily deliverable (single dose) Can be provided under directly observed therapy (DOT) at clinic Well-tolerated, inexpensive • Very few side effects • Rarely Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) if allergy  If mucosal lesions, rash, stop SP and see doctor
    11. 11. Why is IPTp implementable? In most African countries women attend antenatal clinic (ANC) Typically begin ANC in 2nd trimester On average make 3-4 ANC visits during pregnancy Ample time to provide at least 2 doses WHO recommendation to provide IPTp ~ 1999
    12. 12. IPTp implementation In most countries, less than 20% of pregnant women living at risk for malaria receive at least 2 doses of SP IPTp
    13. 13. Challenges in implementation: IPTp Malawi IPTp adopted into policy ~ 1999 2002: 21% recently pregnant women presenting to deliver at the major hospital in the capital city had received 2 doses IPTp
    14. 14. IPTp Malawi– Exploring poor uptake Health worker survey Health workers (HW) reported: • Women arrive at ANC late in pregnancy • Women do not come to ANC • Women refuse IPTp • Women afraid to take IPTp on an empty stomach • SP out of stock or reserved for treatment  Women told to cut grass around compound • No water in the clinic for IPTp DOT
    15. 15. IPTp Malawi– Exploring poor uptake Household survey 90% of women visited ANC Women come to ANC beginning in 2nd trimester Average number of visits = 4 Women reported they go to ANC to get SP and iron
    16. 16. IPTp Malawi– Exploring poor uptake Health facility survey SP in stock Nonetheless, women at clinic on day of survey who were due for IPTp did not receive IPTp
    17. 17. IPTp Malawi– Exploring poor uptake Health worker observation HWs confused about when IPTp should be provided • Old WHO recommendations confusing  Administer treatment dose of SP in 2nd and 3rd trimester, not last 4 weeks of pregnancy • HWs could not accurately estimate trimesters • HWs could not determine last 4 weeks of pregnancy  Not necessary, theoretical risk of kinicterus not founded
    18. 18. Current WHO recommendations for IPTp Beginning after quickening, provide at least 2 doses of SP as IPTp no less than 4 weeks apart
    19. 19. New IPTp policy in Malawi Memo circulated from MOH with new guidelines, instructing HWs to follow them No change in SP supply, water supply, community mobilization or information for pregnant women 6 months after new guidelines, HF survey showed 71% of pregnant women had received SP IPTp
    20. 20. IPTp in Kenya IPTp adopted 1998, and new guidelines adopted in 2006 Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) 2007 • 13% of women received 2 doses of SP IPTp Similar results in western Kenya despite HW re-training and community mobilization Similar memo circulated to health facilities Household survey: 41% of recently pregnant women received 2 doses IPTp
    21. 21. MI NSTRY OF HEALTHRefXX/YY/ZZ 10, December, 2010To: District Medical Officer of Health-X District-Y District-Z DistrictMedical Superintendant- X District Hospital-Y District Hospital-Z District HospitalRe: Scale up of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp)The Malaria Indicator Survey of 2007 showed that despite good antenatal clinic attendance, only 21% ofwomen received the second dose of SP for IPTp. This is a commendable achievement from as low as 7%,but needs to be increased to achieve internationally set targets of 80%.Numerous studies now show that it is beneficial to receive more than 2 doses of SP IPTp. All facilities inyour district should now follow the current national guidelines on IPTp, which are: 1. All pregnant women should receive a treatment dose of IPTp at every antenatal clinic visit unless they have received SP in the prior four weeks. 2. Women who visit monthly for antenatal clinic should receive SP. 3. SP can be given in the last four weeks of pregnancy without risk to the mother or the baby. 4. Additional doses of SP IPTp, above two doses, reduces malaria in pregnancy and is beneficial to the baby.After this memo, there will be a national survey which will measure among other things, the number ofwomen who receive 2 or more doses of IPTp. At that time, we hope to find over 85% of recentlypregnant women received at least 2-3 doses of SP for IPTp.
    22. 22. Scaling up proven interventions is challenging We may know what works, but finding out how to implement/scale-up is a different issue Barriers perceived by HWs, policy makers, NGOs, not always true barriers “Obvious” solutions don’t always work • Re-training, community mobilization/education Measuring whether efforts are effective is essential
    23. 23. Insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs)
    24. 24. ITNs to prevent malaria in pregnancy 40% reduction in malaria parasitemia 50% reduction in severe malaria anemia 35% reduction in placental malaria 30% reduction in LBW ITNs are life-saving
    25. 25. ITN scale up for MIP WHO recommended ITNS for prevention of MIP ~ 1996 Initially promoted through “social marketing” • Radio spots, billboards, drama • Subsidized, ~8USD per ITN initially, later $0.70/ net in ANC By 2005, after nearly a decade of ITN promotion, <20% of pregnant women slept under ITN in most countries Cost was major barrier
    26. 26. ITN scale up for MIP Beginning 2005, national ITN distribution campaigns in many countries • Often paired with measles campaigns • Highly successful In Kenya, resulted in increase from 4% of pregnant women sleeping under an ITN in 2003, to 40% in 2007 In many places, ITNs now provided free to pregnant women in ANC
    27. 27. Strategy for ITN scale up for MIP Best approach combines strategies • Social marketing to build demand • Mass distribution campaigns every 3 years • Continuous supply through ANC for newly pregnant mothers  An ITN for mother, is an ITN for infant • Others?
    28. 28. Case management of malaria
    29. 29. Case management of malaria in pregnancy If fever, test for malaria and treat However, due to acquired immunity, in areas of high malaria transmission, mother may not be sick • Reason behind IPTp Some hospitals offer screening blood smears and treatment at ANC • Typically only first visit
    30. 30. Drugs used for malaria treatment during pregnancy in sub-Saharan AfricaUsed frequently Used with caution Quinine  Artemether lumefantrine SP (AL or coartem)  Any artemisinin combination
    31. 31. Antimalarials contra-indicated in pregnancy Tetracycline Doxycycline Halofantrine Primaquine Tafenoquine
    32. 32. Malaria in Pregnancy and HIV
    33. 33. Malaria in Pregnancy and HIV In sub-Saharan Africa, 55% of HIV infected adults are women of reproductive age Malaria and HIV interact in ways that are bad for both the mother and the neonate
    34. 34. MIP and HIV Interaction HIV infected pregnant women have increased • Peripheral and placental parasitemia • Malaria parasite densities • Febrile illnesses • Severe anemia • Adverse birth outcomes  Low birth weight, preterm birth, IUGR Acquired immunity resulting in partial protection to multigravidae lost
    35. 35. MIP and HIV Interaction Conflicting results regarding MIP and HIV transmission to baby
    36. 36. HIV and Malaria Preventive Strategies Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV strategies Daily septrin for prevention of opportunistic infections protects against malaria in pregnancy • IPTp with SP not required and contraindicated – two sulfa drugs If unknown status in area of high HIV prevalence, test, or provide at least 3 doses SP IPTp
    37. 37. Malaria in Pregnancy Conclusions Although preventable, a serious public health problem, associated with anemia, low birth weight, and infant deaths A limited number of effective interventions exist • ITNs, IPTp, case management, daily septrin for HIV infected women Implementation and scale up is challenging • Evaluation of efforts is essential to ensure gains are made