CASE STUDY PROJECT 1 David C. Adams Jr. University of Southern California EDUC 501 March 8, 2013 Dr. Michael Genzuk
Case Study 2 Abstract This paper is an analysis of observations generated from high school field observationsincluding interviews of an ELL student (Level 3), his teacher and principal. Information wasaccumulated representing background, demographics, methodology, limitations, relevantlanguage proficiency, and recommendations followed by a summary and conclusion to theanalysis.
Case Study 3 Introduction The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the personal road of my observation student’sjourney through his academic development from L1 to L2 English proficiency. The student’sobstacles, struggles and achievements will also be documented by noting the academic strategiesafforded to him both good and bad. The student whom will be identified as “Juan Carlos” waschosen as he was identified as a 12th grade student of Hispanic origin from Mexico who enteredthe United States as a first grader and has been identified as “Level 3” language proficiency.With the California curriculum ELL students are ranked in language proficiency from 1 to 5 withLevel (1) representing: Beginning, Level (2) representing: Early Intermediate, Level (3)representing: intermediate, Level (4) representing: proficient, and Level (5) representing: aboveproficient (Appendix “A”). Interesting to note, Juan was an example of submersion in which hewas simply allowed to “sink or swim” from first grade through third grade receiving zerotranslation assistance (Leyba, 2005). Background of Student: Juan Carlos entered the United States from Mexico and enteredthe first grade in 2001. Juan was born in Sacatecas Mexico and his family immigrated to findwork. His father Jose Carlos entered the United States three years earlier with $20.00 in hispocket and would buy one hamburger to eat once every twenty-four hours. Jose was eventuallyable to find work as a grocery stocker in a supermarket, save money and later send for his family.Juan has two younger sisters, Alma 12 years of age and Merva 8 years of age. By the third gradeJuan had elevated his English language proficiency to Level (3). His most difficult subject wasmath, not due to comprehension but due to learning sequential steps in Spanish schools prior toentering the United States. It should be noted that his mathematical solutions to the equations
Case Study 4resulted .in the correct answer however his American teachers were not satisfied with his“transformation” process. Juan was quite frustrated with this situation but eventually acceptedthe curriculum status quo. Demographics: Demographics of the high school, Moreno Valley High are as follows.Total students enrolled (2471), .002% American Indian, .047% Asian/Pacific Islander, 15.5%Black, 73.2% Hispanic, .055% of two or more races, 1279 males, and 1192 female (seeAppendix “B”). 1901 students of the total 2471 receive free lunch and 248 receive reducedlunch. Average class size is 26.8 English classes, 27.2 Math classes, 29.1 Social Science classes,and 29.6 Science class. School technology consists of the following: 288 computers, 8.5 studentsper computer and 99 classrooms with internet capability. Annual Measurable Objectives(AMO’s) are the measured proficiency levels using the California Standards Tests and theCalifornia high school Exit Exams are as follows: English/Language Arts: MVHS District Hispanic/Latino 33.2% 39.8% English Learner 32.7% 37.6% Socio-Economically 31.2% 36.1% Disadvantaged (see Appendix “C”) STAR: percent of students scoring at proficient or advanced levels. (See Appendix “D”) MVHS District English Language Arts 33% 46% Mathematics 15% 39% Science 32% 45% History 30% 35%
Case Study 5 SAT Scores: Grade 12 SAT scores were as follows for 2010-2011 school year: 511seniors, number tested 136, 26.61%, reading average 421, math average 433, and writing average424. ELL’s California Standards Test (CST) English language arts results (percent proficientand above) 2010-2011: 32% MVHS, 42% district. (See Appendix “E”) The City of Moreno Valley’s demographics: Population: 197,838, persons under 5 years old: 8.4%, persons under 18 years old:32.3%, person 65 years or older: 6.3%, White: 41.9%, Black: 18.0%, American Indian: .9%,Asian: 6.1%, Native Hawaiian: .6%, persons of 2 or more races: 5.7%, Hispanic: 54.4%, Whitepersons not Hispanic: 18.9%. (See Appendix “F”) Demographics of classroom: 26 students: 2 Asian (7.6%), 4 Black (15.4%), 20Hispanics (76.9%), 12 male students (46%) 14 female students (54%). The teacher SergioCalderon is Hispanic and bilingual with 16 years of experience. Mr. Calderon teachesEconomics and History in English and in Spanish speaking only courses for ELL students. Brief Methodology: As the need for ELL effective teaching techniques have become anecessity and debates amongst the appropriate pedagogy have encountered “basicdisagreements” (Leyba, 2005), the methodology will focus on interviews of the student, teacherand principal geared towards effective ELL instruction. More specifically, numerous interviewswere conducted on the observation student, teacher/classroom and one interview with theprincipal to identify effective ELL instruction or adequate ELL assistance. In addition to theinterviews, the demographics of the school, city and classroom were examined via theDepartment of Education and other data producing websites. A series of ELL themed questionswere also developed to present to the observation student, teacher and principal to identify
Case Study 6similar themes (from the teacher and principal) in what was observed in contrast to the student.The final step was an analysis of the series of interviews with a summarization of Juan’sacknowledgement and confirmation of his educational journey to check for accuracy. (SeeAppendix “H”). Limitations: Limitations of the study were as follows: - 50 minute interview limitations within the high school library. - Unavailable parents for interviews due to both of Juan’s parents work schedule. - Rushed interview by principal and frequently missed appointments. - Limited time allocated by observation teacher who doesn’t believe in emails or telephonic communication.
Case Study 7 Analysis: Juan’s greatest motivation comes from reflecting on the sacrifices his parent’s made tomove to this country and how poor their family was while living in Mexico. Juan is determinedto make them proud! Juan has received numerous certificates that he presented to me. He hasfive perfect attendance awards from first grade to the tenth grade, honor role fourth gradethrough sixth grade and two language achievement awards. It should be noted that Juan’sfavorite class is finance and had numerous questions about the securities industry. Relevant information about the student’s language proficiency and academicachievement based on interviews from teachers and the principal are as follows. Juan’s teacherSergio Calderon stated that he is an enthusiastic, Level (3) proficient student that helps lowerproficiency students as an interpreter. Mr. Calderon also stated that Juan is a “B” student thatscored high in mechanics based on standard aptitude exams. Mr. Calderon picked Juan for myobservation study. It should be noted that in addition to Mr. Calderon conducting courses in bothEnglish and Spanish, the school provides in-class tutors for non-bilingual instructors. In theinterview conducted with the principal Mr. Brough would not discuss Juan’s languageproficiency directly as he presently has only been with the school for eight weeks. However, hedid respond to the question regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the high schools ELLcurriculum. Mr. Brough pointed out that the schools current demographics show a 74% Hispanicschool population and that only 33% have scored as “highly proficient” but that is an increase of1% from last year’s results (see Appendix “E”.) In addition, he noted that the present classroomcomputers are antiquated and would like to upgrade each classroom to smart-boards whichprovide English to Spanish translations of content information.
Case Study 8 Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations: In Juan’s early years of exposure to the United States educational system, he was in aprogram of submersion and first grade through the third grade were particularly difficult for himwhen acquiring English language. Sociocultural exposure found him humiliated and rejecteddue to his manner of speech and inexpensive clothing. Juan stated that on many occasionstudents would “punk” him due to his outward appearance. Therefore the negative influences ofsocial and cultural factors caused Juan to want to skip classes and a disregard for homework. AsJuan began to fade from course work he devolved in his cognitive development and academicachievement (Ormrod, 2011). However, as Juan developed English proficiency his self-efficacyincreased, leading markers such as “perfect attendance awards” along with certificates ofachievement in Jr. high school and high school began to emerge. Juan also developedcompassion and empathy for fellow ELL students requiring assistance in which he currentlyhelps on a regular basis. In Juan’s high school his teacher Mr. Calderon uses socicultural theoryapplications. Text books never leave the classroom and Mr. Calderon provides a structuredpractice when introducing the topic and then has students read sections of the text in open forumwith discussion. Afterwards, students break into small groups to create their own projects tocoincide with the present topic. Next the group has presentations to check for understanding(guided practice.) The overall effect has been a positive experience for Juan as he has developedinto a socially conscious and academically proficient student. Based on conclusions, recommendations that would support Juan’s academicachievement and language development are as follows.
Case Study 9 1) Implementation of smart-boards that have bilingual presentation capabilities. As the principal Mr. Brough pointed out with a Hispanic population of 74% within the high school, this device would assist Juan and many other lower proficiency ELL students. Additionally, this would help elevate ELL student English (STAR) proficiency scores currently at 33% (see Appendix “D”). 2) A second recommendation would be for the high school to make their home website interactive by implementing current course subject matter so that students and their parents can log on for family comprehension promoting student learning for Juan and other participants. The most important element to assisting Juan and fellow students is that he feels encouraged when teachers simply demonstrate that they care about their students.
Case Study 10 Reflection I truly enjoyed the observation experience conducting interviews with both Juan’s teacher and principal. However, the numerous interviews with Juan provided me with tremendous insight. We discussed ELL development in theory then Juan would elaborate on his own personal views and perceptions that were in contrast to the textual knowledge that I presented. It was a tremendous opportunity for me to compare and contrast theoretical applications and witness them in action. I believe that Juan having experienced submersion, discrimination and an experience of being left behind has only made him a stronger person. I am not in any way advocating submersion only pleased to see that Juan survived the process. I am tremendously concerned with the huge influx of immigrants in this country, the urgent need for adequate ELL programs within our school systems and the current teacher skill set required to fill the ELL needs. English proficiency level scores need to be addressed carefully and systematically so that schools can produce academically skilled students leading to a more educated class of citizens.
Case Study 11 References City of Moreno Valley Demographics. Retrieved 3/9/2013http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/0649270.html Department of Education. Moreno Valley High School Data. Retrieved 3/9/2013http://www.ed-data.k12.ca.us/App_Resx/EdDataClassic/fsTwoPanel.aspx?#!bottom=/_layouts/EdDataClassic//profile.asp?Level=07&County=33&district=67124&school=3333770&reportnumber=16 Department of Education. Moreno Valley High School. Retrieved 3/9/2013http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/schoolsearch/school_detail.asp?Search=1&InstName=moreno+valley+high+school&City=moreno+valley&State=06&SchoolType=1&SchoolType=2&SchoolType=3&SchoolType=4&SpecificSchlTypes=all&IncGrade=-1&LoGrade=-1&HiGrade=-1&ID=062580003869 Department of Education SAT Scores. Retrieved 3/9/2013http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/SAT/SAT-I4.asp?cSelect=MORENO%5EVALLEY%5EHIGH--MORENO%5EVALLEY%5EU--3367124-3333770&cChoice=SAT4&cYear=2010-11&cLevel=School&submit1=Submit Department of Education STAR Reports. Retrieved 3/9/2013 http://www.ed-data.k12.ca.us/App_Resx/EdDataClassic/fsTwoPanel.aspx?#!bottom=/_layouts/EdDataClassic/Accountability/PerformanceReports.asp?reportNumber=1&fyr=1112&county=33&district=67124&school=3333770&level=07&tab=3
Case Study 12 ELL California Standards Test (CST) English Language Arts Results. Retrieved3/9/2013 http://www6.cde.ca.gov/schoolqualitysnapshot/textreport.aspx?id=6C272B20-74C7-44DB-A581-C3DC80FAFB5C ESL/Bilingual Education Programs. Retrieved 3/9/2013.http://www.danbury.k12.ct.us/eslweb/ESL/Assessment.html Leyba, C. (Ed.) (2005). Schooling and Language Minority Students: A TheoreticalFramework (3rd edition). Los Angeles: LBD Publishers Ormrod, J. E. (2011). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Case Study 13 APPENDEX A ESL/Bilingual Education Programs1. Danbury Public Schools2. Augusto Gomes, District Coordinator WELCOME ESL PROGRAMS BILINGUAL REGISTRATION ELL IDENTIFICATION RECEPTION CENTERS ELIGIBILITY TEACHERS STAFF ESL STRATEGIES AND OBJECTIVES English Proficiency Assessment Linking Social, Academic, and Testing Environments •Grade K-12 teachers of English language learners face the challenge of preparing their students for success in three areas: social situations, the classroom, and the testing environment. Social situations usually offer the most support and context for language learning, as well as opportunities to rely on both cognitive and social processes. In the language and academic classroom, learners are provided with language experience opportunities with grade-level peers, activation of background knowledge and experience during lesson learning, and enhanced visuals. By contrast, the testing environment is usually less contextualized, requiring learners to rely only on individual cognitive skills, test-taking strategies, and limited visuals.
Case Study 14 •As we place children whose home language is not English into school programs and later determine that they are ready for mainstream or all-English instruction, it is imperative that we take into account, not only their ability to understand and speak English, but their ability to read and write. If a child can understand instruction in English, but cannot read the text or meet written assignments, the child will not succeed. LAS Links The LAS Links English Language Proficiency Assessment is an NCLB – compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of determining language proficiency. The test results provide important information for screening and placing English Language Learners (ELL) and subsequently for monitoring in acquiring English. The assessment measures the competencies necessary for successful academic and social language usage in mainstream classrooms: Speaking, Listening, Reading, Writing, and Comprehension. Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAOs) The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) federal law requires the Connecticut State Department of Education (CSDE) to annually review the performance of each school district that receives funds under Title III for language instruction. NCLB also requires states to set specific student achievement goals for children learning to speak English. the Language Assessment Scales (LAS Links) are used in Connecticut to measure the development of their skills. Annual Assessment of English Proficiency - LAS Links Second language learners progress through certain developmental stages when acquiring a second language. The time period for each stage varies depending on the individual learner. English language proficiency is necessary for academic success. Five English language proficiency levels are linked to specifically expected performance, and they describe what English language learners can do within each Doman (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) of the standards. Framework for Assessing English Proficiency - Communicative Competence LAS Links assesses competence that is specific to the school setting. LAS Links is based on the concept that proficiency in a second language is multidimensional and comprised of a variety of skills. English Language Development While LAS Links designates five proficiency levels, this does not imply a linear view of language acquisition. Language acquisition is cumulative and multidimensional. Progress from one level of proficiency to the next is not even. The skills required to move from Beginning to Early Intermediate
Case Study 15 levels are much more limited than the skills required to move from Intermediate to Advanced. Students who score at the same level may exhibit varying levels of ability in different sub skills. Figure 1 depicts the levels of English language proficiency as steppingstones along the pathway to academic success. The progression is continued in Figure 2 where English language learners cross the bridge from English language proficiency to meet state academic content standards. LAS Links Proficiency Levels and Descriptors The LAS Links Assessments measure language proficiency within five grade spans: K-1, 2-3, 4-5, 60-8, and 9-12. Within each grade span, a student can be assigned to one of five proficiency levels: Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Proficient, or Above Proficient. The following table provides the description of learners at each level of proficiency: Proficiency Level 1 BEGINNING A Level 1 student is beginning to develop receptive and productive uses of English in the school context, although comprehension may be demonstrated nonverbally or through the native language, rather than in English. Proficiency Level 2
Case Study 16 EARLY INTERMEDIATE A Level 2 student is developing the ability to communicate in English within the school context. Errors impede basic communication and comprehension. Lexical, syntactic, phonological, and discourse features of English are emerging. Proficiency Level 3 INTERMEDIATE A Level 3 student is developing the ability to communicate effectively in English across a range of grade-level-appropriate language demands in the school context. Errors interfere with communication and comprehension. Repetition and negotiation are often needed. The student exhibits a limited range of lexical, syntactic, phonological, and discourse features when addressing new and familiar topics. Proficiency Level 4 PROFICIENT A Level 4 student communicates effectively in English across a range of grade-level-appropriate language demands in the school context, even though errors occur. The student exhibits productive and receptive control of lexical, syntactic, phonological, and discourse features when addressing new and familiar topics. Proficiency Level 5 ABOVE PROFICIENT A Level 5 student communicates effectively in English, with few if any errors. Across a wide range of grade-level-appropriate language demands in the school context. The student commands a high degree of productive and receptive control of lexical, syntactic, phonological, and discourse features when addressing new and familiar topics.Beginning to Early IntermediateWord/Phrase LevelEarly Intermediate to IntermediateSentence LevelAbove IntermediateMulti-sentence Discourse
Case Study 17 APPENDEX BStudent Subgroup Performance Student # 2012 API 2011 API Growth Subgroups Pupils Growth BaseBlack or African 217 619 618 1AmericanAmerican Indian or 2 -- -- --Alaska NativeAsian 32 834 768 --Filipino 28 776 759 --Hispanic or Latino 1,241 674 675 -1Native Hawaiian or 22 689 655 --Pacific IslanderWhite 78 708 683 --Two or More Races 10 -- -- --Other SubgroupsSocioeconomically 1,438 657 666 -9DisadvantagedEnglish Learners 740 634 623 11Students with 165 461 440 21DisabilitiesTotalAll Students Included in 1,631 674 670 4Growth APINote: Beginning with the release of the 2010 Base API, API scores are reported for all
Case Study 18 APPENDEX C Performance - Annual Measurable Objectives (AMOs) 2012 Schoolwide Proficiency levels are measured using the California Standards English/Language Arts Tests for elementary and middle schools and the California High Percent Proficient or School Exit Exam for high schools. Target percentages are Above 34.2% known as "annual measurable objectives" (AMOs). The AMOs for high schools increased substantially in 2012, to 77.8% in English/language arts and 77.4% Pop-trends in mathematics. Schools with fewer than 100 valid scores have adjusted AMOs and must meet adjusted All subgroups met percent proficient targets. AMOs in Each numerically significant subgroup of students must meet English/Language No the AMOs in both subjects for the school to make Adequate Arts? Yearly Progress. The subgroups are based on ethnicity, disability, socioeconomically disadvantaged (free/reduced price 2012 Schoolwide Math meal program and/or parents without high school diplomas), Percent Proficient or and English language status. Above 39.4% A school can make AYP if the percent of students (whole school or subgroups) who are below proficient in ELA or math Pop-trends decreased by 10% from the previous year; in this "safe harbor" provision the school must have a 95% participation rate and an All subgroups met API Growth score of 680 or one point above the previous year. AMOs in Math? No Click here for performance data by subgroup. Participation Rates 2012 Schoolwide The school as a whole and each numerically significant English/Language Arts 100.0% subgroup of students must have a 95% participation rate in Participation Rate both English/language arts and math in order to make Adequate Yearly Progress. The subgroups are based on All subgroups met ethnicity, disability, socioeconomically disadvantaged Participation Rate in (free/reduced price meal program and/or parents without high Yes English/Language school diplomas), and English language status. Arts? Click here for participation data by subgroup. 2012 Schoolwide Math 98.0% Participation Rate All subgroups met Participation Rate in Yes Math? Additional Indicator(s)
Case Study 19 APPENDEX D STAR-Percent of Students Scoring at Proficient or Advanced Moreno Valley High School, 2011-12 Subject School District English-Language Arts 33% 46% Mathematics 15% 39% Science 32% 45% History - Social Science 30% 35% N/A: Data not available (e.g. the number of students is less than 11, or the test was not administered) Source: California Department of Education: Evaluation, Research, and Analysis Office (2011-12 SARC Research Files)
Case Study 20 APPENDEX E California Standards Test (CST) English-Language Arts Results(percent proficient and above) Year School District State2007-08 22% 33% 46%2008-09 29% 38% 49%2009-10 26% 39% 52%2010-11 32% 42% 54%2011-12 33% 46% 56%
Case Study 21 APPENDEX FMoreno Valley (city), California Want more? Browse data sets for Moreno Valley (city) Moreno People QuickFacts Valley California Population, 2011 estimate 197,838 37,683,933 Population, 2010 (April 1) estimates base 193,365 37,253,956 Population, percent change, April 1, 2010 to July 2.3% 1.2% 1, 2011 Population, 2010 193,365 37,253,956 Persons under 5 years, percent, 2010 8.4% 6.8% Persons under 18 years, percent, 2010 32.3% 25.0% Persons 65 years and over, percent, 2010 6.3% 11.4% Female persons, percent, 2010 51.2% 50.3% White persons, percent, 2010 (a) 41.9% 57.6% Black persons, percent, 2010 (a) 18.0% 6.2% American Indian and Alaska Native persons, 0.9% 1.0% percent, 2010 (a) Asian persons, percent, 2010 (a) 6.1% 13.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.6% 0.4% percent, 2010 (a) Persons reporting two or more races, percent, 5.7% 4.9% 2010 Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, percent, 2010 54.4% 37.6% (b) White persons not Hispanic, percent, 2010 18.9% 40.1%
Case Study 22 APPENDEX G Report SAT Scores Year 2010-11 School Moreno Valley High -- Moreno Valley U -- 3367124-3333770 Critical Total >= Total > Grade 12 Number Percent Reading Math Writing 1,500 1,500 School Enrollment Tested Tested Average Average Average Number Percen Moreno Valley High 511 136 26.61 421 433 424 18 13.2District: (Moreno Valley) 3,009 732 24.33 450 457 447 200 27.32 County: (Riverside) 33,681 10,825 32.14 474 484 470 4,112 37.99 Statewide: 486,549 184,627 37.95 495 513 494 89,075 48.25SAT Report DefinitionsTo protect privacy, asterisks appear in place of test data when the number of exam takers results are for 10 or fewerstudents.Note: A code “E” recorded in the “Percent Tested” column signifies that the school’s number of grade 12 studentsreported to have taken the SAT test exceeds the school’s reported number of students enrolled in grade 12. For moreinformation, please see the SAT Report Definitions.
Case Study 23 APPENDEX HList of Questions: 1) Do you consider yourself a proficient English Language Learner? (student) 2) Do you feel you are prepared for continued education at the collegiate level? (student) 3) Do your parents desire for you to attend college? (student) 4) Do you feel you have provided your student’s with the skill set for collegiate level learning? (teacher) 5) What additional support, materials, hardware do you think would benefit your students in advancing their educational development? (teacher) 6) What do you consider the greatest obstruction to assisting your ELD students? (teacher) 7) What would you consider your greatest tool in assisting ELD students? (teacher) 8) What do you require to assist the educational advancement of your students? (principal) 9) What do you consider the most effective way to advance your ELD students? (principal) 10) What would you consider an overall achievement for your son upon graduation from MVHS? (parent) 11) What do you feel are the strengths and weaknesses of the high school’s ELL program? (principal/teacher) 12) What do you consider some of your greatest achievements in school? (student) 13) What do you consider some of your greatest achievements outside of school? (student) 14) What have been some of your most significantly bad experiences in school? (student) 15) What are your greatest disappointments in school? (student) 16) How do you feel about your journey from transitioning to English proficiency in a United States school? (student)
Case Study 24 17) Who gave you the most support in your high school experience? (student) 18) What is your favorite course? (student) 19) Who has inspired your academic development the most? (student) 20) What needs to be improved to assist ELL students? (student, teacher, principal) 21) What is your assessment of Juan’s academic achievement as an ELL student? (teacher) 22) Why did you choose Juan for my student of observation? (teacher) 23) How would you describe Juan’s academic skill set? (teacher) 24) What qualities does Juan exemplify within the classroom environment? (teacher) 25) Does Juan assist with lower ELL students within the classroom? (teacher) 26) Would you consider your siblings proficient English Language Learners? (student) 27) Do you feel your sisters that were born in this country the beneficiaries of learning English in this country simultaneously while speaking Spanish in your household in a better position as opposed to your experience? (student)