Patrick Goodman, Dublin Technical University, Ireland

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Patrick Goodman, Dublin Technical University, Ireland

  1. 1. Newgrange
  2. 2. Lessons from reducing airpollution, it can be done and itworks!Prof.Pat GoodmanEurope day 13thJune 2013Helsinkipat.goodman@dit.ie
  3. 3. Talk structure Sources of air pollution Air pollution and health Examples of reducing air pollution andhealth benefits WHO work Conclusions
  4. 4. Where does air pollution comefrom? Most of the harmful pollution, the veryfine particles come from combustionprocess; Namely burning such as coal, oil wood And engine emissions, especially diesel Can also have industrial sources
  5. 5. Modern understanding of airpollutionLondon 1952
  6. 6. Dublin SMOG 1982Dublin 1982 Case Fatality RatesKelly and Clancy, Irish Medical Journal; 77:10: 322-324. 1984CFR2345678910Jan 80 Jan 81 Jan 82 Jan 83Date
  7. 7. Daytime in Dublin Jan. 1982
  8. 8. Dublin space heating 1980s The main source of particulate pollutionwas the burning of coal in open grates Space heating for homes was 100% solid fuel for social housing 80% for private housing (partially supported by Government grantsto reduce the dependence on imported oil)
  9. 9. Dublin Coal ban 30thSept 1990 Banned the marketing, sale anddistribution of smoky coal in greaterDublin
  10. 10. Dublin Black Smoke020406080100120140F1984F1985F1986F1987F1988F1989F1990F1991F1992F1993F1994F1995F1996µg/m3Ban on Coal Sales
  11. 11. Effect of Air Pollution Control onMortality in DublinClancy et al, Lancet• Effect of ban on sale ofcoal on air pollution inDublin– 36 µg/m3 BS (-71%)– 11 µg/m3 SO2 (-34%)• Effect on mortality– 7% Total Mortality– 13% Cardiovascular– 16% Respiratory– 3% Other
  12. 12. JAWMA 2009 extensions ofthe Irish coal ban1998 Ban Cities0102030405060708090100wwwwwwwwwwvsawwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006BlackSmoke(µg/m3)Arklow Drogheda Dundalk Limerick Wexford1998 Ban
  13. 13. Utah Valley, 1980s• Winter inversions trap local pollution• Natural test chamber• Local Steel mill contributed ~50% PM2.5• Shut down July 1986-August 1987• Natural Experiment
  14. 14. Large difference in air qualitywhen inversions trap air pollution in valleyUtah Valley: Clean dayUtah Valley: Dirty day(PM10 = 220 µg/m3)
  15. 15. When the steel mill was open, total children’s hospitaladmissions for respiratory conditions approx.doubled.MillOpenMillClosed
  16. 16. Event Authors OutcomesGermanReunificationPeters et al 2009Suguri et al 2006Frye et al 2003Improved air quality andhealth benefitsImproved Lung function inChildrenImproved FVC, drop inbronchitis etcBejing OlympicGames Summer2008Li et al 2010Huang et al 2009Drop in Asthma admissionsImproved heart rate criteriaResidential WoodBurning SJ ValleyCA.Lightall et al 2009 Improved air quality.Mortality and morbidity costsavingsStockholmCongestion ChargingZoneJohanson et al 2009 Improved life expectancyWorkplace Smoking Goodman et al 2009 Reduced MI, improved
  17. 17. REVIHAAP: Process and progress
  18. 18. Harvard 6 cities study
  19. 19. Other evidence APHEA in Europe NMMAPS in the US Air pollution harmful even at low levels
  20. 20. The challenges! Cooking on open fires indoors (veryhigh exposures in developing countries) Industrial development in developingcountries Developed countries, nee dto reducefuel consumption, and thus emissions!
  21. 21. Conclusions Interventions can improve airquality Interventions can improve thehealth of the general population
  22. 22. Thank YouAny Questions?

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